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Huffmeier, J. & Bram, S. (2019). Human contribution to safety of smart ships. In: Developments in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2019: . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2019, 21 October 2019 through 23 October 2019 (pp. 328-336). CRC Press/Balkema
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human contribution to safety of smart ships
2019 (English)In: Developments in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2019, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 328-336Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many studies show that humans contribute to accidents, but research rarely addresses all the accidents that are avoided thanks to human capabilities. Today there is an interest in autonomous vessels and automation within shipping, often with arguments for safety and efficiency. Research from other domains suggests that automation can have unintended side-effects. Instead of increasing safety, automation may undermine people’s ability to understand the situation and make decisions, introducing new risks to the processes. To conclude that the frequency of accidents will be reduced proportionally to the people removed from the system neglects the dynamics of the socio-technical system and the positive human impact on maritime safety. Although shipping around Åland is not free of accidents and incidents, the system has a very good safety performance. The main purpose of the analysis is to analyze human impact on safe operation and performance exemplified by the vessels in Åland’s ferry lines. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press/Balkema, 2019
Keywords
Accidents, Automation, Offshore oil well production, Offshore structures, Human capability, Human impact, Maritime safety, Safe operation, Safety and efficiencies, Safety performance, Side effect, Sociotechnical systems, Ships
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43944 (URN)2-s2.0-85079245088 (Scopus ID)9780367433130 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2019, 21 October 2019 through 23 October 2019
Note

Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge the initiation of the Swedish Shipowner Association (Tryggve Ahlman and Christina Palm?n) to perform and fund this study. The contribution of the involved ship-owners working in the region gave valuable input, both from the DP?s, the land organisation and the crews. The authors would like to thank those willing to participate in interviews.

Available from: 2020-02-25 Created: 2020-02-25 Last updated: 2020-02-25Bibliographically approved
Huffmeier, J. & Sjögren, P. (2019). Vessel Emission Control System: ett alternativtill landström?: 8P05667: Analys över de tekniska-, affärsmässiga- och miljömässiga förutsättningarnaför VECS i svenska hamnstäder. Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vessel Emission Control System: ett alternativtill landström?: 8P05667: Analys över de tekniska-, affärsmässiga- och miljömässiga förutsättningarnaför VECS i svenska hamnstäder
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

den här rapporten utvärderas alternativa tekniker till elanslutningar av fartyg vid kaj, huvudsakligen vessel emission control system (VECS). Rapporten behandlar de luftkvalitetutmaningar som uppstår i hamnar som är integrerade i stadsmiljö. Hamnverksamheten, och då främst fartygen, ger upphov till utsläpp vilka har en negativ påverkan på den lokala omgivningen. Att ansluta fartygen till elnätet är en befintlig lösning men en åtgärd som i många fall inte är tekniskt eller ekonomiskt möjlig. Ett alternativ till landströmsanslutning är VECS d.v.s. externa reningssystem för fartygsutsläpp. VECS består av mobila plattformar som är utrustade med rökgasrening vilka sedan kopplas direkt till fartygens skorstenar då de ligger vid kaj. En sådan lösning skulle kunna användas när landström inte är möjligt eller otillräcklig och på så vis förhindra utsläpp av partiklar (PM10 och PM2.5), kväveoxider (NOx) och svaveldioxid (SO2) men även koldioxid (CO2) i Svenska hamnstäder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: , 2019. p. 82
Keywords
landström, hamn; emissioner; VECS;
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39259 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-02083-18
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
Huffmeier, J. & Bram, S. (2018). Human Impact on Safety of Shipping. Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Impact on Safety of Shipping
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Humans, especially the crews have an important role in the safe operation of ships. The crews, given the right circumstances are able to safely maneuver, navigate, maintain and operate the vessel. The crews are dependent on many factors that enable this work, from the design of the vessel and work place, the procedures, processes given by the ship management and the business approach the ship owner applies to the vessel.

The traffic to and from Åland is an advanced transport system that enables safe ferry services in shipping fairways with narrow passages, meeting and crossing traffic as well as winter navigation - a shipping system combining people and technology to create safe transport.

The introduction of more automation requires a systems perspective and will not be a straight forward development. Total autonomy as proposed by some technology developers is often neglecting the functions and roles that humans have on maritime safety and the business case for increased automation neglects the full contribution of humans onboard. Total autonomy will therefore require high-end products that are built on standardized complex systems. Controlling and monitoring these systems will set new requirements on operators to uphold situated understanding in these complex systems.

Many aspects will be affected by increased automation towards smart shipping - regulations, organization, workplace, working methods, HMI, roles and skills. To cope with the foreseen changes it is important to develop further training, skills, experience, openness in the organization and familiarization giving the future crews the right pre-conditions to succeed in the future, as well as mindful design and integration of newly automated systems

In the future, the ISM code will likely have to change to improve the interaction between land organisations and crews in order to facilitate better integration of split responsibilities and split physical locations by the management system which in the long run allows for an increased land-based monitoring and control

of vessels’ systems and move certain tasks to shore to lower workload onboard, which should be one of the main drivers for automation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: , 2018. p. 32
Keywords
safety in shipping, human machine interface, automation, risk, hazid
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37067 (URN)
Projects
Foresea
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/61982
Note

TRV 2017/61982 Swedish Transport Administration

SjöV 150620 Swedish Maritime Administration

Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8389-5611

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