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Zhukova, V., Ipatov, M., Corte-Leon, P., Gonzalez, A., Garcia-Gómez, A., Vallejo, F. J., . . . Zhukov, A. (2024). Free Space Microwave Sensing of Carbon Fiber Composites with Ferromagnetic Microwire Inclusions. IEEE Sensors Letters, 8(1), Article ID 2500104.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free Space Microwave Sensing of Carbon Fiber Composites with Ferromagnetic Microwire Inclusions
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2024 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Letters, ISSN 2475-1472, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 2500104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We provide new experimental results on studies of composites with glass-coated ferromagnetic microwires aligned with the requirements of carbon composites. This work focuses on the free space microwave measurements of composites made from carbon fibers and ferromagnetic microwires inclusion focusing on the electromagnetic properties. We prepared several glass-coated microwires and selected Co-based microwires with optimum soft magnetic properties and high magnetoimpedance effect for composite fabrication. We observed that by using a low frequency modulating AC magnetic field parallel oriented to the ferromagnetic microwires allows us to distinguish the microwave signals originated from the ferromagnetic microwires inclusions from the response generated by the carbon fibers. The location of carbon fibers near magnetic microwires has a critical effect on the response signals (parameters S amplitude) obtained from such composites.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68472 (URN)10.1109/LSENS.2023.3337071 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved
Martin, R. G., Johansson, C., Tavares, J. R. & Dubé, M. (2024). Manufacturing of thermoplastic composite sandwich panels using induction welding under vacuum. Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, 182, Article ID 108211.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing of thermoplastic composite sandwich panels using induction welding under vacuum
2024 (English)In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 182, article id 108211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new method to manufacture thermoplastic composite sandwich panels is presented, making use of the induction welding process in which a magnetic susceptor generates the heat at the core/facesheet interface. This technique proposes a fast way to assemble thermoplastic sandwich structures without risking the deconsolidation of the composites skin. The welding pressure is obtained by applying vacuum over the sandwich panel. This vacuum induction welding method (Vac-IW) allows joining thermoplastic composite facesheets to a thermoplastic polymer core in a clean and non-contact manner. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by preparing sandwich samples made of glass fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) skins and a 3D-printed polyetherimide (PEI) honeycomb core. A susceptor made of PEI and µm-sized nickel (Ni) particles is used to generate heat by magnetic hysteresis losses. The strength of the sandwich samples assembled by the Vac-IW method is evaluated by flatwise tensile (FWT) tests. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
3D printing; Honeycomb structures; Mechanical testing; Polymer matrix composites; Reinforced plastics; Thermoplastics; Vacuum applications; Welding; 3-D printing; A material: honeycomb; Composite sandwich panels; D testing: mechanical testing; E manufacturing / processing: 3-D printing; Induction welding; Joints/joining; Polymer-matrix composite; Susceptors; Thermoplastic composite; Sandwich structures
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-73328 (URN)10.1016/j.compositesa.2024.108211 (DOI)2-s2.0-85190743904 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors acknowledge financial support from CREPEC (Research Center for High Performance Polymer and Composite Systems), NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada) (grant number ALLRP 556497-20), PRIMA Qu\u00E9bec (P\u00F4le de Recherche et d'Innovation en Mat\u00E9riaux Avanc\u00E9s) (grant number R20-13-004), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Ariane Group, NanoXplore inc, Mekanik and Dyze Design.

Available from: 2024-05-28 Created: 2024-05-28 Last updated: 2024-05-28Bibliographically approved
Martin, R. G., Figueiredo, M., Johansson, C., Tavares, J. R. & Dubé, M. (2023). HYSTERESIS LOSSES MAGNETIC SUSCEPTOR HEATING RATE CHARACTERIZATION. In: : . Paper presented at International SAMPE Technical ConferenceVolume 2023-April 2023 SAMPE 2023 Conference and Exhibition Seattle. 17 April 2023 through 20 April 2023. Soc. for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, April
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HYSTERESIS LOSSES MAGNETIC SUSCEPTOR HEATING RATE CHARACTERIZATION
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Welding techniques are emerging as a new method to join thermoplastic composite parts. They present a fast and efficient alternative to adhesives and mechanical fasteners. Induction welding is a welding technique that relies on the application of an oscillating magnetic field on the joining interface, where a material called a magnetic susceptor generates heat by interacting with the applied magnetic field. In this work, susceptors relying on magnetic hysteresis losses made of polyetherimide (PEI) and nickel (Ni) particles are investigated with varying Ni concentration. The materials are mixed using an internal mixer and pressed to form films approximately 500μm thick. To characterize the heating rates of the susceptor materials, samples are placed on an induction coil – a water-cooled copper tube in which AC current (frequency 388kHz), generates an alternating magnetic field – and the temperature evolution is measured using a thermal camera. An increasing concentration of Ni particles results in increased heating rate and maximum temperature reached by the samples. The temperature-time experimental curves are compared with theoretical heating curves to verify if the model can be used to predict the temperature evolution at the joining interface during a welding process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Soc. for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, 2023
Keywords
Adhesives; Films; Heating rate; Hysteresis; Joining; Magnetic fields; Reinforced plastics; Thermoplastics; Composite parts; Heating rate characterization; Hysteresis loss; Hysteresis loss susceptor; Joining interface; Nickel particles; Susceptors; Temperature evolution; Thermoplastic composite; Thermoplastic welding; Welding
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67448 (URN)10.33599/nasampe/s.23.0174 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171469079 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International SAMPE Technical ConferenceVolume 2023-April 2023 SAMPE 2023 Conference and Exhibition Seattle. 17 April 2023 through 20 April 2023
Available from: 2023-10-06 Created: 2023-10-06 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Sepehri, S., Trey, S., Lake, K., Cumming, C. & Johansson, C. (2023). Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Aging in EPDM Rubber Using Electromagnetic Techniques. Materials, 16(15), 5471-5471
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Aging in EPDM Rubber Using Electromagnetic Techniques
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2023 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 15, p. 5471-5471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the use of eddy-current technology and impedance spectroscopy in sensing the change in rubber properties after it is exposed to accelerated thermal aging. The thermal aging process, by application of temperature and pressure over time, of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubbers containing both carbon black (CB) and graphene are investigated. Both eddy-current sensing and electrical impedance measurement techniques were used for electromagnetic analysis. Both methods measure the in- and out-of-phase responses as a function of excitation frequency at room temperature. The measurements were performed before and after the aging process. The electrical percolation threshold was detected in the rubber samples by varying the CB content from 0 to 40 wt%. In the rubber sample containing 30 wt% CB, 0–5 wt% of the CB was replaced with graphene flakes. The substitution of graphene for CB in the EPDM rubber formulation provided an enhanced eddy-current and electrical impedance response. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of employing electromagnetic analysis techniques to investigate the extent of aging.

Keywords
EPDM; eddy-current sensing; electrical impedance measurements; non-destructive testing; sealants; hardness; graphene
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66064 (URN)10.3390/ma16155471 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova, 2021-02058
Note

Funding: Vinnova 2021-02058

Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Sepehri, S., Andersson, J., Schaller, V., Grüttner, C., Stading, M. & Johansson, C. (2023). Remote Sensing of the Nano-Rheological Properties of Soft Materials Using Magnetic Nanoparticles and Magnetic AC Susceptometry. Nanomaterials, 13(1), Article ID 67.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Sensing of the Nano-Rheological Properties of Soft Materials Using Magnetic Nanoparticles and Magnetic AC Susceptometry
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2023 (English)In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have developed a nano-rheological characterization tool to extract the frequency- and scale-dependent rheological properties of soft materials during oral processing. Taking advantage of AC susceptometry, the dynamic magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles blended in the matrix material is measured. The magnetic AC susceptibility spectra of the particles are affected by the viscosity and mechanical modulus of the matrix material and provide the rheological properties of the matrix. Commercially available iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles with 80 and 100 nm particle sizes are used as tracers in the frequency range of 1 Hz–10 kHz. The AC susceptibility is measured using two differentially connected coils, and the effects of the sample temperature and distance with respect to the detection coils are investigated. The developed measurement setup shows the feasibility of remote nano-rheological measurements up to 2 cm from the coil system, which can be used to, e.g., monitor the texture of matrix materials during oral processing.

Keywords
magnetic nanoparticles, AC susceptibility, viscoelastic properties, nano-rheology, soft materials
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62053 (URN)10.3390/nano13010067 (DOI)
Note

This research was funded by the Swedish Research Council Formas, grant number 2016-00253.

Available from: 2022-12-30 Created: 2022-12-30 Last updated: 2024-05-13Bibliographically approved
Burger, P., Singh, G., Johansson, C., Moya, C., Bruylants, G., Jakob, G. & Kalaboukhov, A. (2022). Atomic Force Manipulation of Single Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spin-Based Electronics. ACS Nano, 16(11), 19253-19260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atomic Force Manipulation of Single Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spin-Based Electronics
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2022 (English)In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 19253-19260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are instrumental for fabrication of tailored nanomagnetic structures, especially where top-down lithographic patterning is not feasible. Here, we demonstrate precise and controllable manipulation of individual magnetite MNPs using the tip of an atomic force microscope. We verify our approach by placing a single MNP with a diameter of 50 nm on top of a 100 nm Hall bar fabricated in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q2DEG) at the oxide interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (LAO/STO). A hysteresis loop due to the magnetic hysteresis properties of the magnetite MNPs was observed in the Hall resistance. Further, the effective coercivity of the Hall resistance hysteresis loop could be changed upon field cooling at different angles of the cooling field with respect to the measuring field. The effect is associated with the alignment of the MNP magnetic moment along the easy axis closest to the external field direction across the Verwey transition in magnetite. Our results can facilitate experimental realization of magnetic proximity devices using single MNPs and two-dimensional materials for spin-based nanoelectronics. © 2022 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2022
Keywords
atomic force microscopy, Hall magnetometry, LAO-STO interface, magnetic nanoparticles, nanomanipulation, oxide heterointerfaces, Aluminum compounds, Hysteresis, Hysteresis loops, Lanthanum compounds, Magnetic moments, Magnetic storage, Magnetite, Magnetization, Magnetometry, Nanomagnetics, Nanoparticles, Phase interfaces, Strontium titanates, Two dimensional electron gas, Atomic force, Atomic-force-microscopy, Hall resistance, Hetero-interfaces, Nanomanipulations, Oxide heterointerface, Spin-based electronics, Topdown, Titanium compounds
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61186 (URN)10.1021/acsnano.2c08622 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141632910 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Generalitat de Catalunya, 2019 BP 00207; Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR, 2016-05256; Funding details: Innoviris; Funding text 1: The authors gratefully acknowledge Prof. Tord Claeson for helpful discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. This work was funded by ERA-NET QUANTERA European Union’s Horizon H2020 project “QUANTOX” under Grant Agreement No. 731473 and Swedish Research Council (VR) Grant Number 2016-05256. We also acknowledge support from the Swedish infrastructure for micro- and nanofabrication: MyFab. C.M. and G.B. thank INNOVIRIS (Brussels region) for its financial support (Bridge 2019-RPF-2, SUBLIMUS). G.S. acknowledges financial support from the Beatriu de Pinós Programme and the Ministry of Research and Universities of the Government of Catalonia, with research Grant No. 2019 BP 00207.

Available from: 2022-11-23 Created: 2022-11-23 Last updated: 2022-11-23Bibliographically approved
Staaf, H., Sawatdee, A., Rusu, C., Nilsson, D., Schäffner, P. & Johansson, C. (2022). High magnetoelectric coupling of Metglas and P(VDF-TrFE) laminates. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article ID 5233.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High magnetoelectric coupling of Metglas and P(VDF-TrFE) laminates
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2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 5233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magnetoelectric (magnetic/piezoelectric) heterostructures bring new functionalities to develop novel transducer devices such as (wireless) sensors or energy harvesters and thus have been attracting research interest in the last years. We have studied the magnetoelectric coupling between Metglas films (2826 MB) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) in a laminate structure. The metallic Metglas film itself served as bottom electrode and as top electrode we used an electrically conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Besides a direct electrical wiring via a graphite ink, a novel contactless readout method is presented using a capacitive coupling between the PEDOT:PSS layer and an electrode not in contact with the PEDOT:PSS layer. From the experimental result we determined a magnetoelectric coupling of 1445 V/(cm·Oe) at the magnetoelastic resonance of the structure, which is among the highest reported values for laminate structures of a magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric polymer layer. With the noncontact readout method, a magnetoelectric coupling of about 950 V/(cm·Oe) could be achieved, which surpasses previously reported values for the case of direct sample contacting. 2D laser Doppler vibrometer measurements in combination with FE simulations were applied to reveal the complex vibration pattern resulting in the strong resonant response.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58961 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-09171-3 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved
Andersson Ersman, P., Eriksson, J., Jakonis, D., Pantzare, S., Åhlin, J., Strandberg, J., . . . Johansson, C. (2022). Integration of Screen Printed Piezoelectric Sensors for Force Impact Sensing in Smart Multifunctional Glass Applications. Advanced Engineering Materials, 24(11), Article ID 2200399.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Screen Printed Piezoelectric Sensors for Force Impact Sensing in Smart Multifunctional Glass Applications
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 24, no 11, article id 2200399Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Screen printed piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride?trifluoro ethylene (PVDF?TrFE)-based sensors laminated between glass panes in the temperature range 80?110?°C are presented. No degradation of the piezoelectric signals is observed for the sensors laminated at 110?°C, despite approaching the Curie temperature of the piezoelectric material. The piezoelectric sensors, here monitoring force impact in smart glass applications, are characterized by using a calibrated impact hammer system and standardized impact situations. Stand-alone piezoelectric sensors and piezoelectric sensors integrated on poly(methyl methacrylate) are also evaluated. The piezoelectric constants obtained from the measurements of the nonintegrated piezoelectric sensors are in good agreement with the literature. The piezoelectric sensor response is measured by using either physical electrical contacts between the piezoelectric sensors and the readout electronics, or wirelessly via both noncontact capacitive coupling and Bluetooth low-energy radio link. The developed sensor concept is finally demonstrated in smart window prototypes, in which integrated piezoelectric sensors are used to detect break-in attempts. Additionally, each prototype includes an electrochromic film to control the light transmittance of the window, a screen printed electrochromic display for status indications and wireless communication with an external server, and a holistic approach of hybrid printed electronic systems targeting smart multifunctional glass applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2022
Keywords
PEDOT:PSS, piezoelectric sensors, printed electronics, screen printing, smart windows
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60135 (URN)10.1002/adem.202200399 (DOI)2-s2.0-85138159351 (Scopus ID)
Note

This project was financially supported by VINNOVA, grant number 2018-01558.

Available from: 2022-09-22 Created: 2022-09-22 Last updated: 2024-03-22Bibliographically approved
Martin, R. G., Johansson, C., Tavares, J. R. & Dubé, M. (2022). Material Selection Methodology for an Induction Welding Magnetic Susceptor Based on Hysteresis Losses. Advanced Engineering Materials, 24(3), Article ID 2100877.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material Selection Methodology for an Induction Welding Magnetic Susceptor Based on Hysteresis Losses
2022 (English)In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 24, no 3, article id 2100877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Induction welding is a fusion bonding process relying on the application of an alternating magnetic field to generate heat at the joining interface. Herein, magnetic hysteresis losses heating elements, called susceptors, which are made of magnetic particles dispersed in a thermoplastic polymer, are investigated. A methodology to identify the parameters influencing the heating rate of the susceptors and to select suitable magnetic particles for their fabrication is proposed. The applied magnetic field amplitude is modeled based on the induction coil geometry and the alternating electrical current introduced to it. Then, properties of the evaluated susceptor particles are obtained through measurements of their magnetic hysteresis. A case study is presented to validate the suitability of the proposed methodology. Particles of iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), and magnetite (Fe3O4) are evaluated as susceptor materials in polypropylene (PP) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrices. Heating rates are predicted using the proposed method, and samples are produced and heated by induction to experimentally verify the results. Good agreement with the predictions is obtained. Ni is the most suitable susceptor material for a PP matrix, while Fe3O4 is preferable for PEEK.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2022
Keywords
hysteresis losses, induction welding, magnetic susceptor
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56812 (URN)10.1002/adem.202100877 (DOI)2-s2.0-85117729118 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-11-08 Created: 2021-11-08 Last updated: 2023-02-15Bibliographically approved
Stading, M., Sepehri, S., Andersson, J. & Johansson, C. (2022). Nano-rheometry for non-invasive monitoring of texture during food oral processing. Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, 30, 53-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nano-rheometry for non-invasive monitoring of texture during food oral processing
2022 (English)In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 30, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food oral processing is the first step in the digestive process which prepares food forswallowing and digestion. The process only lasts a few seconds, yet it determines our complete perception of texture, taste and aroma of the product we are eating. This oral processing is an intricate combination ofvoluntary and involuntary actions, and it involves complex flow geometry, mass transport offluids and gases and signal processing and feedback from the brain. Any attempt of inserting measuring devices in the mouth will fail because the complete oral processing will be influenced. We have developed a remote, non-invasive determination technique using magnetic sensing of magnetic nanoparticles iron oxide particles. A small amount of these particles senses their surrounding texture through their rotation and the nano-viscoelasticity can therefore be picked up without disturbing the oral processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Rheology Society, 2022
Keywords
nano rheometryfor iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63649 (URN)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6662-8023

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