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Roos, S., Jönsson, C., Posner, S., Arvidsson, R. & Svanström, M. (2019). An inventory framework for inclusion of textile chemicals in life cycle assessment. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 24(5), 838-847
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An inventory framework for inclusion of textile chemicals in life cycle assessment
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2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 838-847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Toxicity impacts of chemicals have only been covered to a minor extent in LCA studies of textile products. The two main reasons for this exclusion are (1) the lack of life cycle inventory (LCI) data on use and emissions of textile-related chemicals, and (2) the lack of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data for calculating impacts based on the LCI data. This paper addresses the first of these two. Methods: In order to facilitate the LCI analysis for LCA practitioners, an inventory framework was developed. The framework builds on a nomenclature for textile-related chemicals which was used to build up a generic chemical product inventory for use in LCA of textiles. In the chemical product inventory, each chemical product and its content was modelled to fit the subsequent LCIA step. This means that the content and subsequent emission data are time-integrated, including both original content and, when relevant, transformation products as well as impurities. Another key feature of the framework is the modelling of modularised process performance in terms of emissions to air and water. Results and discussion: The inventory framework follows the traditional structure of LCI databases to allow for use together with existing LCI and LCIA data. It contains LCI data sets for common textile processes (unit processes), including use and emissions of textile-related chemicals. The data sets can be used for screening LCA studies and/or, due to their modular structure, also modified. Modified data sets can be modelled from recipes of input chemicals, where the chemical product inventory provides LCA-compatible content and emission data. The data sets and the chemical product inventory can also be used as data collection templates in more detailed LCA studies. Conclusions: A parallel development of a nomenclature for and acquisition of LCI data resulted in the creation of a modularised inventory framework. The framework advances the LCA method to provide results that can guide towards reduced environmental impact from textile production, including also the toxicity impacts from textile chemicals. Recommendations: The framework can be used for guiding stakeholders of the textile sector in macro-level decisions regarding the effectiveness of different impact reduction interventions, as well as for guiding on-site decisions in textile manufacturing.

Keywords
Chemical, LCA, Life cycle inventory, Textile, USEtox
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36058 (URN)10.1007/s11367-018-1537-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055540338 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Shahbazi, S., Kurdve, M., Zackrisson, M., Jönsson, C. & Kristinsdortter, A. R. (2019). Comparison of Four Environmental Assessment Tools in Swedish Manufacturing: A Case Study. Sustainability, 11(7), Article ID 2173.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Four Environmental Assessment Tools in Swedish Manufacturing: A Case Study
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To achieve sustainable development goals, it is essential to include the industrial system. There are sufficient numbers of tools and methods for measuring, assessing and improving the quality, productivity and efficiency of production, but the number of tools and methods for environmental initiatives on the shop floor is rather low. Incorporating environmental considerations into production and performance management systems still generally involves a top-down approach aggregated for an entire manufacturing plant. Green lean studies have been attempting to fill this gap to some extent, but the lack of detailed methodologies and practical tools for environmental manufacturing improvement on the shop floor is still evident. This paper reports on the application of four environmental assessment tools commonly used among Swedish manufacturing companies—Green Performance Map (GPM), Environmental Value Stream Mapping (EVSM), Waste Flow Mapping (WFM), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—to help practitioners and scholars to understand the different features of each tool, so in turn the right tool(s) can be selected according to particular questions and the industrial settings. Because there are some overlap and differences between the tools and a given tool may be more appropriate to a situation depending on the question posed, a combination of tools is suggested to embrace different types of data collection and analysis to include different environmental impacts for better prioritization and decision-making.

Keywords
sustainable manufacturing; environmental assessment tool; green lean
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38810 (URN)10.3390/su11072173 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Shahbazi, S., Kurdve, M., Zackrisson, M., Jönsson, C. & Kristinsdottir, A. R. (2019). Comparison of four environmental assessment tools in Swedish manufacturing: A case study. Sustainability, 11(7), Article ID 2173.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of four environmental assessment tools in Swedish manufacturing: A case study
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To achieve sustainable development goals, it is essential to include the industrial system. There are sufficient numbers of tools and methods for measuring, assessing and improving the quality, productivity and efficiency of production, but the number of tools and methods for environmental initiatives on the shop floor is rather low. Incorporating environmental considerations into production and performance management systems still generally involves a top-down approach aggregated for an entire manufacturing plant. Green lean studies have been attempting to fill this gap to some extent, but the lack of detailed methodologies and practical tools for environmental manufacturing improvement on the shop floor is still evident. This paper reports on the application of four environmental assessment tools commonly used among Swedish manufacturing companies-Green Performance Map (GPM), Environmental Value Stream Mapping (EVSM), Waste Flow Mapping (WFM), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-to help practitioners and scholars to understand the different features of each tool, so in turn the right tool(s) can be selected according to particular questions and the industrial settings. Because there are some overlap and differences between the tools and a given tool may be more appropriate to a situation depending on the question posed, a combination of tools is suggested to embrace different types of data collection and analysis to include different environmental impacts for better prioritization and decision-making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Environmental assessment tool, Green lean, Sustainable manufacturing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39675 (URN)10.3390/su10022173 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069754919 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, J., Fransson, K., Prideaux, S., Roos, S., Jönsson, C. & Wallinder, I. O. (2019). Improving the life cycle impact assessment of metal ecotoxicity: Importance of chromium speciation, water chemistry, and metal release. Sustainability, 11(6), Article ID 1655.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the life cycle impact assessment of metal ecotoxicity: Importance of chromium speciation, water chemistry, and metal release
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Investigations of metal ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) are becoming important tools for evaluating the environmental impact of a product or process. There is, however, improvement needed for LCIA of metal ecotoxicity in order to make this assessment more relevant and robust. In this work, three issues within the LCIA of metal ecotoxicity are investigated, mainly focusing on topics related to stainless steel manufacturing. The first issue is the importance of considering regional water chemistry when constructing the characterization factor (CF). A model freshwater of relevance for stainless steel manufacturing in a region of Sweden was created with chemistry different from available options. The second issue is related to the lack of consideration on changes in speciation of Cr(VI) in freshwater for a given emission, as Cr(VI) to some extent will be reduced to Cr(III). Two new options are suggested based on relationships between the Cr(VI)-total Cr ratio as a way to improve the relevancy of LCIA for Cr(VI) in freshwater. The last issue is how to treat metal release from slags in LCIA. Metal release from slags was shown to vary significantly between different ways of modelling slag emissions (differences in total metal content, slag leaching tests, estimated emissions to groundwater). © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Chromium, Chromium(VI), Ecotoxicity, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle impact assessment, Metal release, Nickel, Slag, Stainless steel, USEtox
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38466 (URN)10.3390/su11061655 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063495702 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Kurdve, M., Hildenbrand, J. & Jönsson, C. (2018). Design for green lean building module production - Case study. Procedia Manufacturing, 25, 594-601
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design for green lean building module production - Case study
2018 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 594-601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With an increasing societal need for temporary buildings, while construction industry faces resource and time efficiency challenges, factory assembly of modular buildings can be a solution. This case study at a start-up company uses experiences from assembly system design and eco-design literature to propose green lean design principles to be used in the design and development of building modules and their assembly stations. The eco-design strategy wheel is used as a basis and adapted for the assessment of green and lean building manufacturing.

Keywords
modular building production, green lean, eco-design
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35399 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2018.06.096 (DOI)
Note

Proceedings of the 8th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2018)

Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Kurdve, M., Jönsson, C. & Granzell, A.-S. (2018). Development of the urban and industrial symbiosis in western Mälardalen. Procedia CIRP, 73, 96-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of the urban and industrial symbiosis in western Mälardalen
2018 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

From a product service systems business model development perspective, this paper presents a case study of Västra Mälardalens industrial symbiosis, its maturity level and potentials for further development. The status and potentials of the symbiosis network, based on a survey, interviews and workshops, together with background statistics, is used to evaluate the potential improvement areas and suggest future research. The study contributes with application of evaluation models and confirms earlier research and in addition suggests future research in the field. The Symbiosis network has potential to be acting as innovation catalyst supporting companies to go beyond core business development.

Keywords
Industrial symbiosis, Product service systems, Sustainable industrial development, Regional innovation networks
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35400 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2018.03.321 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054470134 (Scopus ID)
Note

10th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, IPS2 2018, 29-31 May 2018, Linköping, Sweden

Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Shahbazi, S., Jönsson, C., Wiktorsson, M., Kurdve, M. & Bjelkemyr, M. (2018). Material efficiency measurements in manufacturing: Swedish case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 181, 17-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material efficiency measurements in manufacturing: Swedish case studies
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, p. 17-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major factor in the continued deterioration of the global environment is unsustainable management of resources that includes the type and quantity of resources consumed and manufactured as well as the subsequent generation and treatment of wasted materials. Improved material efficiency (ME) in manufacturing is key to reducing resource consumption levels and improving waste management initiatives. However, ME must be measured, and related goals must be broken down into performance indicators for manufacturing companies. This paper aims to improve ME in manufacturing using a structured model for ME performance measurements. We present a set of ME key performance indicators (ME-KPIs) at the individual company and lower operational levels based on empirical studies and a structured literature review. Our empirical findings are based on data collected on the performance indicators and material and waste flows of nine manufacturing companies located in Sweden. The proposed model categorizes ME-KPIs into the following categories: productive input materials, auxiliary input materials, output products, and residual output materials. These categories must be measured equally to facilitate the measurement, assessment, improvement and reporting of material consumption and waste generation in a manufacturing context. Required qualities for ME-KPI suggested in literature are also discussed, and missing indicators are identified. Most of the identified ME-KPIs measure quality- and cost-related factors, while end-of-life scenarios, waste segregation and the environmental effects of waste generation and material consumption are not equally measured. Additionally, ME-KPIs must also be connected to pre-determined goals and that defining or revising ME-KPIs requires communication with various external and internal actors to increase employees’ awareness and engagement.

Keywords
Key performance indicators, Material efficiency, Sustainable production, Benchmarking, Efficiency, Manufacture, Sustainable development, Manufacturing companies, Material consumption, Performance indicators, Performance measurements, Resource consumption, Waste management
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33400 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.215 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042354105 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Knowledge Foundation; Funding text: The studies are connected to projects Innofacture, CiMMRec and SuRE BPMS. The authors acknowledge the funding received for these projects from the Swedish Knowledge Foundation, Mistra Closing the loop II and Vinnova. The research was conducted within the contexts of the XPRES initiative involving MDH and Swerea, as well as Chalmers Advanced Area of Production.

Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, C., Arturin, O. L., Hanning, A.-C., Landin, R., Holmström, E. & Roos, S. (2018). Microplastics shedding from textiles-developing analytical method for measurement of shed material representing release during domestic washing. Sustainability, 10(7), Article ID 2457.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microplastics shedding from textiles-developing analytical method for measurement of shed material representing release during domestic washing
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2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2457Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The topic of shedding of micro-sized polymeric particles, so called microplastics, from textiles has been covered by an increasing number of studies over the past years. However, the methods with which the shedding of microplastics from textiles has been measured so far has shown a large variation. Consequently, the results regarding the amount of shed particles also vary, from 120 to 728,289 particles from similar garments in recent studies. This article presents research enabling for identification of whether the shedding of microplastics from different types of fabric was dependent on construction parameters. As none of the methods in the existing literature could be used for evaluating shedding of microplastics from textiles, a method was developed for this purpose. The resulting final method is described in this paper as well as the work with minimizing the error sources and consequently the standard deviation of the results through selection of material samples, equipment and procedure for sample preparation, washing, filtering the washing water and analyzing the shed microplastics. Comparing the environmental load of different garments, or identifying improvement possibilities in garment construction are two examples of how the method can be utilized.

Keywords
Fibre, Gyrowash, Microplastic, Polyester, Shed, Test method, Textile, Validation, Washing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34292 (URN)10.3390/su10072457 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049996732 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Wedin, H., Niit, E., Mansoor, Z. A., Kristinsdottir, A. R., de la Motte, H., Jönsson, C., . . . Lindgren, C. (2018). Preparation of Viscose Fibres Stripped of Reactive Dyes and Wrinkle-Free Crosslinked Cotton Textile Finish. Journal of polymers and the environment, 26(9), 3603-3612
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation of Viscose Fibres Stripped of Reactive Dyes and Wrinkle-Free Crosslinked Cotton Textile Finish
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2018 (English)In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 3603-3612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The chemical recycling of cellulosic fibres may represent a next-generation fibre–fibre recycling system for cotton textiles, though remaining challenges include how to accommodate fibre blends, dyes, wrinkle-free finishes, and other impurities from finishing. These challenges may disrupt the regeneration process steps and reduce the fibre quality. This study examines the impact on regenerated viscose fibre properties of a novel alkaline/acid bleaching sequence to strip reactive dyes and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneureas (DMDHEU) wrinkle-free finish from cotton textiles. Potentially, such a bleaching sequence could advantageously be integrated into the viscose process, reducing the costs and environmental impact of the product. The study investigates the spinning performance and mechanical properties (e.g., tenacity and elongation) of the regenerated viscose fibres. The alkaline/acid bleaching sequence was found to strip the reactive dye and DMDHEU wrinkle-free finish from the cotton fabric, so the resulting pulp could successfully be spun into viscose fibres, though the mechanical properties of these fibres were worse than those of commercial viscose fibres. This study finds that reactive dyes and DMDHEU wrinkle-free finish affect the viscose dope quality and the regeneration performance. The results might lead to progress in overcoming quality challenges in cellulosic chemical recycling. 

Keywords
Chemical textile recycling, Crosslinking agent, Decolourization, Easy-care, Reactive dye, Alkalinity, Bleaching, Cleaning, Crosslinking, Environmental impact, Mechanical properties, Recycling, Spinning (fibers), Textile fibers, Textile finishing, Textiles, Cross linking agents, Reactive dyes, Textile recycling, Cotton
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33886 (URN)10.1007/s10924-018-1239-y (DOI)2-s2.0-85046401795 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Roos, S., Holmquist, H., Jönsson, C. & Arvidsson, R. (2018). USEtox characterisation factors for textile chemicals based on a transparent data source selection strategy. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 23(4), 890-903
Open this publication in new window or tab >>USEtox characterisation factors for textile chemicals based on a transparent data source selection strategy
2018 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 890-903Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Life cycle assessments (LCAs) of textile products which do not include the use and emission of textile chemicals, such as dyes, softeners and water-repellent agents, will give non-comprehensive results for the toxicity impact potential. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide a set of characterisation factors (CFs) for some of the most common textile chemicals and (2) to propose a data source selection strategy in order to increase transparency when calculating new CFs. Methods: A set of 72 common textile-related substances was matched with the USEtox 2.01, USEtox 1.01 and the COSMEDE databases in order to investigate coverage and coherence. For the 25 chemicals that did not already have established CFs in any of these databases, new CFs were calculated. A data source selection strategy was developed and followed in order to ensure consistency and transparency, and USEtox 2.01 was used for calculations. The parameters that caused the most uncertainty were identified during the modelling and strategies for handling them were developed. Results and discussion: Of the 72 textile-related substances, 48 already had calculated recommended or indicative CFs in existing databases, which showed good coherence. The main uncertainty identified during the calculation of 25 new CFs was the selection of input data regarding toxicity and degradation in water. However, for substances such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), the acid dissociation constant (pKa) and partitioning coefficients (Kow and KOC) also require special considerations. Other input parameters had less than one order of magnitude impact on the CF result for essentially all substances. Conclusions: The paper presents a strategy for how to provide a complete set of toxicity CFs for a given list of substances. In addition, such a set of CFs for common textile-related substances is presented. The data source selection strategy provides a structured and transparent way of calculating additional CFs for textile chemicals with USEtox. Consequently, this study can help future LCA studies to provide relevant guidance towards environmentally benign chemical management in the textile industry.

Keywords
Life cycle assessment (LCA); Textile ;Chemical ;USEtox; Characterisation factor; Toxicity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30038 (URN)10.1007/s11367-017-1330-y (DOI)2-s2.0-85020083261 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-04 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3124-1723

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