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Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Malmsten Lundgren, V., Klingegård, M., Englund, C. & Larsson, S. (2019). External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?. In: Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker (Ed.), Meyer, Gereon; Beiker, Sven (Ed.), Road Vehicle Automation 5: . Paper presented at Road Vehicle Automation 5 (pp. 91-102). Paper presented at Road Vehicle Automation 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?
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2019 (English)In: Road Vehicle Automation 5 / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, 2019, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

How to ensure trust and societal acceptance of automated vehicles (AVs) is a widely-discussed topic today. While trust and acceptance could be influenced by a range of factors, one thing is sure: the ability of AVs to safely and smoothly interact with other road users will play a key role. Based on our experiences from a series of studies, this paper elaborates on issues that AVs may face in interactions with other road users and whether external vehicle interfaces could support these interactions. Our overall conclusion is that such interfaces may be beneficial in situations where negotiation is needed. However, these benefits, and potential drawbacks, need to be further explored to create a common language, or standard, for how AVs should communicate with other road users.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37616 (URN)
Conference
Road Vehicle Automation 5
Note

The Automated Vehicles Symposium 2017

Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)

Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A., Malmsten Lundgren, V., Andersson, J., Klingegård, M., Lagström, T., Sirkka, A., . . . Larsson, P. (2018). Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1336.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions.

Keywords
automated vehicle, communication, external interface, intent, interaction, negotiation, pedestrian
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35144 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01336 (DOI)30131737 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Thill, S., Riveiro, M., Lagerstedt, E., Lebram, M., Hemeren, P., Habibovic, A. & Klingegård, M. (2018). Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 56, 420-435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study
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2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a large-scale simulator study on driver adherence to recommendations given by driver support systems, specifically eco-driving support and navigation support. 123 participants took part in this study, and drove a vehicle simulator through a pre-defined environment for a duration of approximately 10 min. Depending on the experimental condition, participants were either given no eco-driving recommendations, or a system whose provided support was either basic (recommendations were given in the form of an icon displayed in a manner that simulates a heads-up display) or informative (the system additionally displayed a line of text justifying its recommendations). A navigation system that likewise provided either basic or informative support, depending on the condition, was also provided. Effects are measured in terms of estimated simulated fuel savings as well as engine braking/coasting behaviour and gear change efficiency. Results indicate improvements in all variables. In particular, participants who had the support of an eco-driving system spent a significantly higher proportion of the time coasting. Participants also changed gears at lower engine RPM when using an eco-driving support system, and significantly more so when the system provided justifications. Overall, the results support the notion that providing reasons why a support system puts forward a certain recommendation improves adherence to it over mere presentation of the recommendation. Finally, results indicate that participants’ driving style was less eco-friendly if the navigation system provided justifications but the eco-system did not. This may be due to participants considering the two systems as one whole rather than separate entities with individual merits. This has implications for how to design and evaluate a given driver support system since its effectiveness may depend on the performance of other systems in the vehicle.

Keywords
Driver behaviour, Driver recommendation systems, Eco-friendly behaviour, System awareness, Advanced driver assistance systems, Automobile drivers, Engines, Environmental protection, Fuel economy, Navigation systems, Eco-friendly, Experimental conditions, Heads-up display, Navigation support, Simulated fuels, Vehicle simulators, Simulators
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34096 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2018.05.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048505654 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten;

Available from: 2018-07-09 Created: 2018-07-09 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Dey, D., Habibovic, A., Klingegård, M., Lundgren, V. M., Andersson, J. & Schieben, A. (2018). Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications: . Paper presented at AutomotiveUI '18 Adjunct Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications Toronto, ON, Canada — September 23 - 25, 2018 (pp. 17-22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, 2018, p. 17-22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Methods and metrics for studying interactions between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity, such as pedestrians, cyclists and non-automated vehicles, are not established yet. This workshop focuses on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies that could potentially be used to study such interactions. The objective lies in determining the proper experimental design, sensitivity of metrics for measuring user behavior, ecological validity, generalizability of findings, extraction of insights regarding how findings can be translated into actionable requirements, and the alternatives for conducting longitudinal field studies. It will be of an interactive nature and involve hands-on activities. The workshop will consolidate existing knowledge, identify recurring issues, and explore the path towards resolving these issues. The outcome will be compiled into a paper to share this valuable knowledge with a broader research community.

Keywords
Automated driving, eHMI, external communication, interaction, metrics, research methodology
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36454 (URN)10.1145/3239092.3239095 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063127328 (Scopus ID)9781450359474 (ISBN)
Conference
AutomotiveUI '18 Adjunct Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications Toronto, ON, Canada — September 23 - 25, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Bout, M., Pernestål Brenden, A., Klingegård, M., Habibovic, A. & Böckle, M. P. (2017). A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles. In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings: . Paper presented at 9th ACM International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2017, 24 September 2017 through 27 September 2017 (pp. 62-66). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles
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2017 (English)In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 62-66Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automated driving systems will be severely challenged in the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is especially true for Shared Automated Vehicles (SAVs), as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver on-board. When an SAV will encounter a scenario it cannot handle, a remote human operator will need to intervene and help the vehicle and its passengers. In this study a user-centred design approach is used to study whether a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) interface can support such operators and provide them with additional spatial awareness. Two prototypes (an HMD and a computer display) are developed and evaluated using pre-recorded real-world scenarios. Twelve participants assessed three possible scenarios a remote operator may encounter. Among participants, the study found evidence of strong implicit spatial awareness when using an HMD interface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2017
Keywords
Automated Driving, HCI, HMD, Remote Operator, SAV, Spatial Awareness, Teleoperation, User Interface, Automation, Data visualization, Human computer interaction, Remote control, User interfaces, Vehicles, Automated driving systems, Automated vehicles, Computer display, Head mounted displays, Real-world scenario, Helmet mounted displays
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38058 (URN)10.1145/3131726.3131758 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034842564 (Scopus ID)9781450351515 (ISBN)
Conference
9th ACM International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2017, 24 September 2017 through 27 September 2017
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Charisi, V., Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Li, J. & Evers, V. (2017). Children's views on identification and intention communication of self-driving vehicles. In: IDC 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children: . Paper presented at 16th International ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, IDC 2017, 27 June 2017 through 30 June 2017 (pp. 399-404).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's views on identification and intention communication of self-driving vehicles
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2017 (English)In: IDC 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2017, p. 399-404Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One of the major reasons behind traffic accidents is misinterpretation among road users. Self-driving vehicles are expected to reduce these accidents, given that they are designed with all road users in mind. Recently, research on the design of vehicle-pedestrian communication has emerged, but to our knowledge, there is no research published that investigates the design of interfaces for intent communication towards child pedestrians. This paper reports the initial steps towards the examination of children's views and understandings about the appearance and intention communication of self-driving vehicles. It adopts a design inclusive methodological approach for the development of a prototype for the communication of two basic intentions: "I am going to stop" and "I am going to proceed". The initial results indicate children's need to be aware about the autonomy of the vehicle and the use of their previous experience with traffic signs for the interpretation of communicative signs of the vehicle.

Keywords
Child pedestrians, Inclusive design research, Intention communication, Interface design, Self-driving vehicles, Accidents, Pedestrian safety, Roads and streets, Traffic signs, Vehicles, Inclusive design, Interface designs, Methodological approach, Road users, Self drivings, Vehicle PEdestrian Communications, Vehicle to vehicle communications
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30867 (URN)10.1145/3078072.3084300 (DOI)2-s2.0-85026321906 (Scopus ID)9781450349215 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, IDC 2017, 27 June 2017 through 30 June 2017
Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Nilsson, J., Nilsson, M. & Edgren, C. (2017). Command-based driving for tactical control of highly automated vehicles. In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation: . Paper presented at 27 July 2016 through 31 July 2016 (pp. 499-510). Springer Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Command-based driving for tactical control of highly automated vehicles
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2017 (English)In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 499-510Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As vehicles become highly automated, their drivers become more passive. A concern is it may take drivers out of the control loop, causing reduced satisfaction and perceived control. The study explores whether or not drivers feel the need to control tactical decisions when operating highly automated vehicles. An experiment involving 17 drivers was carried out in a driving simulator. Each driver tested two different tactical controllers, allowing him/her to give various tactical commands to the vehicle (e.g., overtake, park). The results indicate that the drivers experienced a need to affect tactical decisions of highly automated vehicles. Several of the tactical commands were found useful, especially on rural roads and highways. It also gave them a feeling of being in control of the vehicle, suggesting that command-based driving might be a way to keep drivers in the control loop.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2017
Keywords
Command-based driving, Feeling of control, Highly automated vehicle, Satisfaction, Tactical control, User experience, Wizard of Oz, Automation, Human engineering, Automated vehicles, Vehicles
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29376 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-41682-3_42 (DOI)2-s2.0-84992650303 (Scopus ID)9783319416816 (ISBN)
Conference
27 July 2016 through 31 July 2016
Note

Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 484)

Available from: 2017-05-15 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Malmsten Lundgren, V., Klingegård, M. & Englund, C. (2017). External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users. In: : . Paper presented at AVS2017, Automated Vehicle Symposium, 11-13 July, 2017, San Francisco, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33105 (URN)
Conference
AVS2017, Automated Vehicle Symposium, 11-13 July, 2017, San Francisco, USA
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Habibovic, A., Klingegård, M., Englund, C. & Malmsten-Lundgren, V. (2017). Hello Human, can you read my mind?. ERCIM News (109), 36-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hello Human, can you read my mind?
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2017 (English)In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 109, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29618 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Klingegård, M., Malmsten-Lundgren, V. & Larsson, S. (2017). Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles
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2017 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With autonomous cars on the road, not only will occupants need to communicate with their cars: pedestrians and autonomous vehicles will need to understand each other too. This article examines the vehicle HMI for road users other than the driver and passengers. 

Series
Special report: Advances in automotive HMI
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33084 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0885-9560

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