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Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Aramrattana, M., Schrank, A., Andersson, J., Zhao, L., Hermann, D., Mharolkar, S., . . . Oehl, M. (2024). A Roadmap Towards Remote Assistance: Outcomes from Multidisciplinary Workshop at the 2023 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. In: : . Paper presented at HCI INTERNATIONAL 2024. 26TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION. Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington DC, USA. 29 June - 4 July 2024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Roadmap Towards Remote Assistance: Outcomes from Multidisciplinary Workshop at the 2023 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium
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2024 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Remote operation of highly automated vehicles (HAVs) may include occasional assistance from a human remote operator that is located outside the HAVs. Remote assistance typically delegates only highlevel guidance tasks to the remote operators such as authorizing a driving maneuver or specifying a new driving path. As remote assistance is fairly unexplored, there are still several research challenges. These challenges were discussed by experts from academia and industry in a multidisciplinary workshop at the 2023 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. As a result of the workshop, this paper presents a list of most pressing research questions in the following areas: human-machine interaction and human factors, design of the remote station, design of the HAVs. It also outlines a roadmap for future research on remote assistance of HAV, thereby informing interdisciplinary studies and facilitating the benefits of HAVs before full autonomy can be reached.

Keywords
Remote assistance · Human factors · Remote operation · Autonomous vehicles.
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72331 (URN)
Conference
HCI INTERNATIONAL 2024. 26TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION. Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington DC, USA. 29 June - 4 July 2024
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Fabricius, V., Habibovic, A., Rizgary, D., Andersson, J. & Wärnestål, P. (2022). Interactions Between Heavy Trucks and Vulnerable Road Users—A Systematic Review to Inform the Interactive Capabilities of Highly Automated Trucks. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 9, Article ID 818019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions Between Heavy Trucks and Vulnerable Road Users—A Systematic Review to Inform the Interactive Capabilities of Highly Automated Trucks
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 9, article id 818019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates interactive behaviors and communication cues of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists as a means of informing the interactive capabilities of highly automated HGVs. Following a general framing of road traffic interaction, we conducted a systematic literature review of empirical HGV-VRU studies found through the databases Scopus, ScienceDirect and TRID. We extracted reports of interactive road user behaviors and communication cues from 19 eligible studies and categorized these into two groups: 1) the associated communication channel/mechanism (e.g., nonverbal behavior), and 2) the type of communication cue (implicit/explicit). We found the following interactive behaviors and communication cues: 1) vehicle-centric (e.g., HGV as a larger vehicle, adapting trajectory, position relative to the VRU, timing of acceleration to pass the VRU, displaying information via human-machine interface), 2) driver-centric (e.g., professional driver, present inside/outside the cabin, eye-gaze behavior), and 3) VRU-centric (e.g., racer cyclist, adapting trajectory, position relative to the HGV, proximity to other VRUs, eye-gaze behavior). These cues are predominantly based on road user trajectories and movements (i.e., kinesics/proxemics nonverbal behavior) forming implicit communication, which indicates that this is the primary mechanism for HGV-VRU interactions. However, there are also reports of more explicit cues such as cyclists waving to say thanks, the use of turning indicators, or new types of external human-machine interfaces (eHMI). Compared to corresponding scenarios with light vehicles, HGV-VRU interaction patterns are to a high extent formed by the HGV’s size, shape and weight. For example, this can cause VRUs to feel less safe, drivers to seek to avoid unnecessary decelerations and accelerations, or lead to strategic behaviors due to larger blind-spots. Based on these findings, it is likely that road user trajectories and kinematic behaviors will form the basis for communication also for highly automated HGV-VRU interaction. However, it might also be beneficial to use additional eHMI to compensate for the loss of more social driver-centric cues or to signal other types of information. While controlled experiments can be used to gather such initial insights, deeper understanding of highly automated HGV-VRU interactions will also require naturalistic studies. Copyright © 2022 Fabricius, Habibovic, Rizgary, Andersson and Wärnestål.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
automated driving system (ADS), cyclist, heavy goods vehicle (HGV), interaction, pedestrian, truck, vulnerable road user (VRU)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59003 (URN)10.3389/frobt.2022.818019 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127146955 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 2019-05901; Funding text 1: This research was partly funded by the Swedish innovation agency VINNOVA?s Strategic vehicle research and innovation (FFI) program, project ?External interaction principles for creating trust in heavy automated vehicles? (ref 2019-05901).; Funding text 2: This research was partly funded by the Swedish innovation agency VINNOVA’s Strategic vehicle research and innovation (FFI) program, project “External interaction principles for creating trust in heavy automated vehicles” (ref 2019-05901).

Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Chen, L., Torstensson, M. & Habibovic, A. (2022). System of Systems for emergency response: the case with CAVs on highways. In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC. Volume 2022-October, 2022, Pages 839-844: . Paper presented at 25th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2022, 8 October 2022 through 12 October 2022 (pp. 839-844). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System of Systems for emergency response: the case with CAVs on highways
2022 (English)In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC. Volume 2022-October, 2022, Pages 839-844, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 839-844Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emergency response system is a complex system of systems (SoS). The introduction of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) introduces an extra dimension into the complexity. Future emergency response must be able to take into account of the autonomous vehicles with different automation levels and leverage the increasing connectivity and automation for efficient emergency response. Architecture frameworks have long been used for system engineering for large complex systems. The emerging unified architecture framework converges previous architecture frameworks for a unified one towards both military and civilian use. Based on the scenario of emergency response with CAVs on highways, this paper motivates an enterprise architecture for emergency response system of systems (ERSoS) with identification of the key challenges and opportunities in addition to a proposal of required capabilities. The work is a first iteration of an enterprise architecture for ERSoS with CAVs and forms part of the overall ERSoS architecture development process. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Autonomous vehicles, Computer architecture, Emergency services, Architecture frameworks, Automation levels, Complex system of systems, Emergency response, Emergency response systems, Enterprise Architecture, Extra dimensions, Large complex systems, System-of-systems, System of systems
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61222 (URN)10.1109/ITSC55140.2022.9922378 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141841092 (Scopus ID)9781665468800 (ISBN)
Conference
25th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2022, 8 October 2022 through 12 October 2022
Note

Funding text 1: *This work is supported by the Swedish Innovation Agency Vinnova through projects ICV-Safe: Testing safety of intelligent connected vehicles in open and mixed road environment, and SoSER: Systme of Systems for Emergency Response.

Available from: 2022-12-07 Created: 2022-12-07 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Söderman, M., Andersson, J. & Habibovic, A. (2022). Use cases and high-level requirements for safe interactions between automated delivery vehicles and human operators in a terminal.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use cases and high-level requirements for safe interactions between automated delivery vehicles and human operators in a terminal
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Small electric Autonomous Delivery Vehicles (ADV) can play an important role in future logistic chains under the last mile deliveries. In terminals where ADV are loaded with goods it is important that the interactions between the ADVS and the goods handling personnel is safe. Two workshops with developers of self-driving vehicles, researchers in the area of human-machine interaction and goods handling personnel form Postnord were conducted to identify challenges, needs and requirements regarding the design of ADV and the terminals för ADV. Due to COVID19, the workshops were carried out online and a video was shown to the participants demonstrating an ADV operating in a location representing a terminal. The two main objectives for this study were to gain understanding of the interactions between the ADV and human operators in the terminal and to identify high-level functional requirements for safe and efficient deployment of ADVs in terminals. The identified use cases related to (i) the ADV’s operations in the terminal, from entering to leaving the terminal and (ii) use cases where human operators interacted with the ADV, e.g. for loading/unloading goods. For each use case a high-level functional requirement was formulated. Human operators will most likely have important roles in delivery chains with ADV, such as loading and unloading of goods, as well as managing problems the ADV cannot solve. Consequently, how to design the human - ADV interactions will be critical from safety and efficiency points of view.

Publisher
p. 19
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:131
Keywords
Automated delivery vehicles, Human – ADV interactions, Use cases, High-level functional requirements
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62049 (URN)978-91-89757-20-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-12-30 Created: 2022-12-30 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A. & Chen, L. (2021). Connected Automated Vehicles: Technologies, Developments, and Trends. In: Roger Vickerman (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Transportation: (pp. 180-188). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connected Automated Vehicles: Technologies, Developments, and Trends
2021 (English)In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021, p. 180-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Connected automated vehicles, autonomous vehicles, vehicle communications
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56299 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-08-102671-7.10110-1 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-09-02 Created: 2021-09-02 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Habibovic, A. & Rizgary, D. (2021). First encounter effects in testing of highly automated vehicles during two experimental occasions – The need for recurrent testing. it - Information Technology, 63(2), 99-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First encounter effects in testing of highly automated vehicles during two experimental occasions – The need for recurrent testing
2021 (English)In: it - Information Technology, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52938 (URN)10.1515/itit-2020-0023 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-04-19 Created: 2021-04-19 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Habibovic, A. & Englund, C. (2021). Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 10, Article ID 100381.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons
2021 (English)In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 10, article id 100381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is currently unknown how automated vehicle platoons will be perceived by other road users in their vicinity. This study explores how drivers of manually operated passenger cars interact with automated passenger car platoons while merging onto a highway, and how different inter-vehicular gaps between the platooning vehicles affect their experience and safety. The study was conducted in a driving simulator and involved 16 drivers of manually operated cars. Our results show that the drivers found the interactions mentally demanding, unsafe, and uncomfortable. They commonly expected that the platoon would adapt its behavior to accommodate a smooth merge. They also expressed a need for additional information about the platoon to easier anticipate its behavior and avoid cutting-in. This was, however, affected by the gap size; larger gaps (30 and 42.5 m) yielded better experience, more frequent cut-ins, and less crashes than the shorter gaps (15 and 22.5 m). A conclusion is that a short gap as well as external human–machine interfaces (eHMI) might be used to communicate the platoon's intent to “stay together”, which in turn might prevent drivers from cutting-in. On the contrary, if the goal is to facilitate frequent, safe, and pleasant cut-ins, gaps larger than 22.5 m may be suitable. To thoroughly inform such design trade-offs, we urge for more research on this topic. © 2021 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Automated vehicle platoon, Cut-in, eHMI, Highway on-ramp, Interaction, Merging, Perceived safety, User experience
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55668 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2021.100381 (DOI)2-s2.0-85110769602 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: VINNOVA, 2015-04881; Funding details: Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling, KKS, 20140220, 2019-05901; Funding details: Högskolan i Halmstad, HH; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge Bruno Augusto, Gunilla S?rensen, Niklas Strand, Alexander Eriksson, Mattias S?derholm Mullaart, and Henrik Nilsson for their support. Also, the authors would like to thank Eric J?rpe at Halmstad University for his insights in statistics, Joshua Bronson at RISE for proofreading the manuscript, and all study participants. The research was funded by the Swedish government agency for innovation systems (VINNOVA) through the NGEA step 2 project (ref 2015-04881), SAFER Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers, Knowledge foundation (KK) through the AIR project (ref 20140220), and the Strategic vehicle research and innovation programme (FFI) through the project External interaction principles for creating trust in heavy automated vehicles (ref 2019-05901).; Funding text 2: The authors would like to acknowledge Bruno Augusto, Gunilla Sörensen, Niklas Strand, Alexander Eriksson, Mattias Söderholm Mullaart, and Henrik Nilsson for their support. Also, the authors would like to thank Eric Järpe at Halmstad University for his insights in statistics, Joshua Bronson at RISE for proofreading the manuscript, and all study participants. The research was funded by the Swedish government agency for innovation systems (VINNOVA) through the NGEA step 2 project (ref 2015-04881), SAFER Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers, Knowledge foundation (KK) through the AIR project (ref 20140220), and the Strategic vehicle research and innovation programme (FFI) through the project External interaction principles for creating trust in heavy automated vehicles (ref 2019-05901).

Available from: 2021-08-09 Created: 2021-08-09 Last updated: 2021-08-09Bibliographically approved
Tabone, W., de Winter, J., Ackermann, C., Bärgman, J., Baumann, M., Deb, S., . . . Stanton, N. (2021). Vulnerable road users and the coming wave of automated vehicles: Expert perspectives. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 9, Article ID 100293.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerable road users and the coming wave of automated vehicles: Expert perspectives
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2021 (English)In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 9, article id 100293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors researchers were interviewed about their personal perspectives on automated vehicles (AVs) and the interaction with VRUs in the future urban environment. Aspects such as smart infrastructure, external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs), and the potential of augmented reality (AR) were addressed during the interviews. The interviews showed that the researchers believed that fully autonomous vehicles will not be introduced in the coming decades and that intermediate levels of automation, specific AV services, or shared control will be used instead. The researchers foresaw a large role of smart infrastructure and expressed a need for AV-VRU segregation, but were concerned about corresponding costs and maintenance requirements. The majority indicated that eHMIs will enhance future AV-VRU interaction, but they noted that implicit communication will remain dominant and advised against text-based and instructive eHMIs. AR was commended for its potential in assisting VRUs, but given the technological challenges, its use, for the time being, was believed to be limited to scientific experiments. The present expert perspectives may be instrumental to various stakeholders and researchers concerned with the relationship between VRUs and AVs in future urban traffic. © 2020 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Augmented reality, Automated vehicles, External human-machine interfaces, Position paper, Smart infrastructure, Virtual reality
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51926 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2020.100293 (DOI)2-s2.0-85098980212 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, MSCA, 860410; Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding text 1: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 860410.

Available from: 2021-01-20 Created: 2021-01-20 Last updated: 2021-01-20Bibliographically approved
Chen, L., Habibovic, A., Gråsjö, M., Adebahr, M. & King, P. (2020). Cloud-based traffic control: a system of systems for accelerating c-its deployment and autonomous vehicle integration. In: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress: . Paper presented at Virtual ITS European Congress, 9-10 November 2020. , Article ID Paper number ITS-TP18522.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cloud-based traffic control: a system of systems for accelerating c-its deployment and autonomous vehicle integration
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2020 (English)In: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, article id Paper number ITS-TP18522Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The traffic system is transforming into a highly complex system of systems with increasing connectivity and automation. Engineering such a system of systems requires close interaction between related stakeholders including authorities, car manufacturers, and the service and technology providers, both from the organizational and technical perspective. This paper describes a cloud-based traffic control system that provides a platform to support cross-sector interoperable information sharing, and data intelligence for future connected and autonomous vehicle integration. The system is engineered from a system of systems perspective with multi-stakeholder engagement and is designed to be cloud-native for stakeholder and service scalability. The paper discusses the motivation of the system, followed by a detailed description on the system architecture and the constituent systems. Supported services are presented with their working process, information flow, as well as their public demonstrations.

Keywords
autonomous vehicle, emergency vehicle, system of systems
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Infrastructure Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56293 (URN)
Conference
Virtual ITS European Congress, 9-10 November 2020
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2021-09-02 Created: 2021-09-02 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Dey, D., Habibovic, A., Pfleging, B., Martens, M. & Terken, J. (2020). Color and Animation Preferences for a Light Band EHMI in Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Pedestrians. In: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: . Paper presented at CHI '20: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsApril 2020. Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Color and Animation Preferences for a Light Band EHMI in Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Pedestrians
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2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we report user preferences regarding color and animation patterns to support the interaction between Automated Vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians through an external Human-Machine-Interface (eHMI). Existing concepts of eHMI differ – among other things – in their use of colors or animations to express an AV’s yielding intention. In the absence of empirical research, there is a knowledge gap regarding which color and animation leads to highest usability and preferences in traffic negotiation situations. We conducted an online survey (N=400) to investigate the comprehensibility of a light band eHMI with a combination of 5 color and 3 animation patterns for a yielding AV. Results show that cyan is considered a neutral color for communicating a yielding intention. Additionally, a uniformly flashing or pulsing animation is preferred compared to any pattern that animates sideways. These insights can contribute in the future design and standardization of eHMIs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2020
Keywords
vru, automated vehicles, ehmi, pedestrians, autonomous vehicles, animation, interface, color
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-49065 (URN)10.1145/3313831.3376325 (DOI)
Conference
CHI '20: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsApril 2020
Available from: 2020-10-21 Created: 2020-10-21 Last updated: 2020-12-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0885-9560

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