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Sundelin, H., Linder, M., Mellquist, A.-C., Gustavsson, M., Börjesson, C. & Pettersson, S. (2018). Business case for electric road. In: : . Paper presented at 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, April 16-19, 2018, Vienna, Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business case for electric road
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electrified roads have the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector. Where long-distance heavy traffic is concerned, there is actually no cheaper alternative which is equally energy-efficient, has such low carbon dioxide emissions and for which the energy supply is assured in Sweden and the rest of Europe. Many questions nevertheless remain.

In this preliminary study we have focussed on the business ecosystem likely to be built up alongside an electrified road. This has been done by means of interviewing interested parties and a thorough review of previous publications. On the basis of this background information, a computation model has been developed to be able to analyse the influence of various parameters. The stretch of 120 kilometre long road between Gävle and Borlänge has been used as a case study but an attempt to find other applicable stretches has also been undertaken. The model has a solid footing with the parties involved in the project and with people who have good insight into financial computations previously undertaken in relation to electrified roads.

The computation model that has been developed is primarily thought of as a model for overall surpluses or deficits for all stakeholders in the business ecosystem. It is not, therefore, a complete socio-economic model, which would include considerably more consequences for society at large, such as the influence on local and national businesses, increased employment and so forth. The model has been developed on the assumption that all prices and values are given for a point in time when the solution is in an ’early commercialisation phase’.

In comparison with diesel routes, it generally applies for electrified roads that every kilometre of road and every vehicle adds extra costs and that every kilometre driven creates savings. Thus for an electrified road system to be profitable, the stretch of electrified road must comprise a significant percentage of the overall distance driven by a truck. Nor must the stretch of road be too short, for then too much time is spent loading/unloading and too few kilometres (where the savings occur) are driven. Following familiarisation with various scenarios, a coherent, highly qualitative judgment, based on the electrified road computation model, would suggest that the suitable characteristics for such roads would be:

  • A distance of at least twenty kilometres
  • Annual average daily traffic (AADT) for electrified road trucks should be around two times as many as the number of electrified kilometres
  • The electrified stretch should comprise 60% percent or more of the trucks’ overall distance driven each year.

For the case of Gävle-Borlänge (120 km), it appears that the stretch will be able to pay for itself, for example, when 190 electrified trucks complete the stretch an average of 4 times per day throughout the year (back and forth twice a day 365 days a year), amounting to 92% of the vehicles’ overall distance being driven on electrified road.

Keywords
Electric Road System; ERS; Dynamic power transfer; Sustainable transport; Electric vehicles
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37687 (URN)
Conference
7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, April 16-19, 2018, Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Sarasini, S. & Linder, M. (2018). Integrating a business model perspective into transition theory: The example of new mobility services. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 27, 16-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating a business model perspective into transition theory: The example of new mobility services
2018 (English)In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 27, p. 16-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Business model innovation is increasingly seen as a means to promote sustainable forms of production and consumption, having been linked to technological innovations in electric vehicles and the circular economy. Business models are an organisational phenomenon that concern focal firms and their networks. However, there is no theory of the firm in transition theory, such that the role of business model innovation in wider transformative processes is unclear. This paper aims to redress this issue by combining a business model perspective with core concepts and constructs from transition theory. We elucidate sources of change and inertia that issue from new and existing business models, illustrating our arguments by focusing on mobility services, which have the potential to radically transform road transportation via new business models. We derive new lines of inquiry that can be used to examine the dynamics of business model innovation in the context of sustainability transitions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Business model; Sustainability transitions; Mobility services; Technological innovation systems; Multi-level perspective
National Category
Social Sciences Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36971 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2017.09.004 (DOI)
Funder
Nordic Council of Ministers, SHIFT
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Linder, M., Sarasini, S. & van Loon, P. (2017). A Metric for Quantifying Product-Level Circularity. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 21(3), 545-558
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Metric for Quantifying Product-Level Circularity
2017 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Circularity metrics are useful for empirically assessing the effects of a circular economy in terms of profitability, job creation, and environmental impacts. At present, however, there is no standardized method for measuring the circularity of products. We start by reviewing existing product-level metrics in terms of validity and reliability, taking note of theoretically justified principles for aggregating different types of material flows and cycles into a single value. We then argue that the economic value of product parts may constitute a useful basis for such aggregation; describe a set of principles for using economic value as a basis for measuring product circularity; and outline a metric that utilizes this approach. Our recommendation is to use the ratio of recirculated economic value to total product value as a circularity metric, using value chain costs as an estimator. In order to protect value chain actors’ sensitive financial data and facilitate neutrality regarding outsourcing or insourcing, we suggest a means to calculate product-level circularity based on sequential approximations of adding one product part and activity at a time. We conclude by suggesting potential avenues for further research, including ways in which the proposed metric can be used in wider assessments of the circular economy, and ways in which it may be further refined.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29615 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12552 (DOI)2-s2.0-85013628702 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Vinnova. Grant Number: 2014-00880
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Linder, M. & Williander, M. (2017). Circular Business Model Innovation: Inherent Uncertainties. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(2), 182-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circular Business Model Innovation: Inherent Uncertainties
2017 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 182-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Circular business models based on remanufacturing and reuse promise significant cost savings as well as radical reductions in environmental impact. Variants of such business models have been suggested for decades, and there are notable success stories such as the Xerox product–service offering based on photocopiers that are remanufactured. Still, we are not seeing widespread adoption in industry. This paper examines causes for reluctance. Drawing on a hypothesis‐testing framework of business model innovation, we show that circular business models imply significant challenges to proactive uncertainty reduction for the entrepreneur. Moreover, we show that many product–service system variants that facilitate return flow control in circular business models further aggravate the potential negative effects of failed uncertainty reduction because of increased capital commitments. Through a longitudinal action research study we also provide a counterexample to many of the challenges identified in previous studies, which could be overcome in the studied case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
circular business model; business model innovation; customer development; product–service systems; circular economy; remanufacturing
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36977 (URN)10.1002/bse.1906 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova, 2010–02776Region Västra Götaland, RUN625‐0827‐11
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Arvidsson, N., Bolin, L., Lindberg, S. M., Linder, M., Mellquist, A.-C., Norefjell, F., . . . Tööj, L. (2017). Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Sverige har en stark möbelindustri och en stolt tradition av att tillverka tidlösa och högkvalitativa möbler, ofta av naturmaterial. 2016 producerade Sverige möbler för 22,8 miljarder SEK, varav kontorsmöbler stod för nästan en fjärdedel1. Det saknas idag statistik över vad som händer med dessa möbler när de inte längre används, men det står klart att många av dem slängs i förtid när verksamheter flyttar eller när deras behov ändras. Samtidigt syns en tydlig utveckling mot att kunder mer och mer efterfrågar återbrukade eller renoverade möbler som en del i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Denna utveckling var startpunkten för projektet ”Affärsmodell-innovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”.

Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden är ett Vinnovafinansierat projekt som under åren 2015-2017 arbetat med att utveckla och testa koncept för cirkulära affärsmodeller för i första hand offentliga möbler. I projektet har tjugo aktörer från hela värdekedjan, från underleverantörer, möbelproducenter, återförsäljare och användare till forskare och branschorgan, samarbetat kring affärsutveckling, kundincitament, produktdesign, logistik, hållbarhets- och certifieringsfrågor.

Den här skriften belyser hur nya affärsmodeller för mer cirkulära möbelflöden kan bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling och ger smakprov på slutsatser från projektet. Skriften riktar sig framför allt till producenter och återförsäljare av möbler för offentliga miljöer, men även kunder och inköpare tror vi kan ha stor nytta av skriften. Vi hoppas att den även kan fungera som inspiration för andra industrier och branscher som funderar på en övergång till mer cirkulära affärsekosystem.

Publisher
p. 29
Keywords
Cirkularitet, möbler, hållbarhet
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29611 (URN)
Projects
Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden - Steg 2
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Sundelin, H., Mellquist, A.-C., Linder, M., Gustavsson, M., Börjesson, C. & Pettersson, S. (2017). Förstudie av affärsekosystem förelvägar.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förstudie av affärsekosystem förelvägar
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Elvägar har potential att minska koldioxidutsläppen från transportsektorn. För långväga tungtrafik finns egentligen inga rimliga alternativ som både är energieffektiva, har lågtkoldioxidutsläpp och där energiförsörjningen är säkrad såväl i Sverige som i övriga Europa,men det återstår ännu många frågor.I denna förstudie har vi fokuserat på det affärsekosystem som kommer att byggas upp kringen elväg. Detta har gjorts genom intressentintervjuer och en grundlig genomgång av tidigarepublikationer. Utifrån denna bakgrundsinformation har en kalkyl skapats för att kunnaanalysera olika parametrars påverkan. Sträckan Gävle-Borlänge har använts som fallstudie,men ett första försök att finna andra lämpliga sträckor har även genomförts. Kalkylen harförankrats med projektets parter och personer med god insikt i tidigare genomfördaekonomiska kalkyler av elvägar.För att undersöka förutsättningar för ett framtida samarbete har projektet fört dialog medEU projektet FABRIC, organisationerna CEDR och ERTRAC, samt även amerikanskaintressenter. I de fall då det inneburit deltagande på konferenser så har kunskapen från dessaförmedlats genom nyhetsbrevet OMEV.Den kalkyl som skapats är i första hand tänkt som en kalkyl över totalt över- eller underskottför alla inblandade aktörer i affärsekosystemet. Det är alltså inte en komplettsamhällsekonomisk kalkyl som skulle inkludera betydligt fler konsekvenser för samhället istort, såsom påverkan på lokalt och nationellt näringsliv, ökad sysselsättning etc. Kalkylen ärgjord med antagandet att alla priser och värden anges för en punkt i tiden då lösningenbefinner sig i en ”tidig kommersialiseringsfas”.För elvägar i jämförelse med dieselvägar gäller generellt att varje vägkilometer och varjefordon skapar extra kostnader, och varje körd kilometer skapar besparingar. Därför vill manför lönsamma elvägssystem att sträckan på elväg utgör en avsevärd andel av lastbilarnastotala körda distans. Dock får sträckan inte vara för kort för då ägnas för mycket tid åtlastning och för få kilometrar (där besparingen sker) blir körda. En samlad och i hög gradkvalitativ bedömning efter att ha bekantat sig med olika scenarier, baserade påelvägskalkylen, är att lämpliga egenskaper för öppna vägsträckor är:• Minst ett par mils distans,• Årsdygnstrafik (ÅDT) för elvägslastbilar bör, i bägge riktningarna, vara ungefärdubbelt så många som sträckans antal kilometer i en riktning.• Elsträckan utgör en avsevärd andel av lastbilarnas totala körda distans varje år,åtminstone 40 %, och gärna en bit över 60 %.Ingående värden i kalkylen baseras på en kartläggning av tidigare genomfördakostnadsanalyser. Med hjälp av experter har vi sedan valt en sannolik nivå. Andelen (60 %)av den totala sträckan som elektrifieras baseras på preliminära resultat av en analys avsträckan Gävle-Borlänge från forskningsprojektet ERSET.Slutna elvägsystem har en del fördelar i termer av att de har förmodat färrediffusionsbarriärer. Det krävs dock stora volymer för att nå lönsamhet. För områden som har stora volymer kan det dock fungera enligt den här modellen. Tänkbara fall skulle kunna varahamnar, gruvor och andra typer av storskaliga industriskyttlar.I ett slutet system längs en 30 km lång sträcka med 50 lastbilar behöver varje lastbil körafram och tillbaka 8 gånger per dag 365 dagar om året för att nå break-even. Vidmedelhastigheten 50 km/h blir det 9,6 timmar – exklusive på och avlastning. Om vi antar attvarje på- respektive avlastning tar 15 minuter tillkommer 4 timmar. En framtida fråga är dåvilka produktionsanläggningar som kan sysselsätta 50 lastbilar 13,5 timmar om dagen 365dagar om året.För fallet Gävle-Borlänge framgår det att sträckan kan betala sig exempelvis då 190elvägslastbilar passerar sträckan i snitt 4 gånger varje dag hela året (t.ex. två gånger fram ochtillbaka 365 gånger per år), vilket utgör 92 % elvägsandel av fordonets totala distans.Sträckan Göteborg – Stockholm har diskuterats i flertalet rapporter och analysen visar attden kan bli lönsam. Det krävs dock en avsevärd investering, men en storskalig utbyggnad ärsamtidigt det scenario som kräver lägst andel elvägsfordon. ÅDT för tunga lastbilar påsträckan varierar längs sträckan mellan 1000 och 2000. Analysen visar att elvägssystemetskulle betala av sig om 700 elvägslastbilar trafikerade sträckan en gång varje dag året omvilket ger en elvägslastbils-ÅDT på 854, d.v.s. mellan 43 % och 86 % av totala flödet.

Publisher
p. 41
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33080 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Linder, M. (2016). Determinants of economic performance of environmental technology-based offers: A cross-sectional study of small Swedish firms. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 10(3), 237-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of economic performance of environmental technology-based offers: A cross-sectional study of small Swedish firms
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1740-8822, E-ISSN 1740-8830, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 237-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper examines the association between offer differentiation based on environmental orientation and economic performance. The analysis consists of an ordinary least-squares regression based on accounting data and a survey of the leaders of small environmental technology-based firms in Sweden. The results indicate that eco-efficiency creating a low total cost of ownership is more strongly associated with offer performance than is regulatory support, eco-branding, eco-quality differentiation and provision of strategic environmental information. This suggests that environmental differentiation of offers is the most successful when it is associated with a low total cost of ownership for customers.

Keywords
Business case for sustainability, Eco-efficiency, Environmental differentiation, Environmental innovation, Environmental profit, Environmental strategy, Environmental technology, Green business models, Green innovation, Proactive environmental strategy
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32619 (URN)10.1504/IJISD.2016.077502 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978962252 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Björkdahl, J. & Linder, M. (2015). Formulating problems for commercializing new technologies: The case of environmental innovation (ed.). Scandinavian Journal of Management, 31(1), 14-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formulating problems for commercializing new technologies: The case of environmental innovation
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 14-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior research on environmental innovation has highlighted the importance for the firm of a shared environmental vision but has not empirically explored why or what are its effects. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of an environmental sustainability vision for the development and commercialization of environmental innovations. We conduct an in-depth, multilevel investigation of the development of green product lines in a multinational manufacturing firm, based primarily on interview data collected over five years. By analyzing the interaction between environmental vision and the product development process as an interaction between problem formulation and the search for problem solutions, we explain how and why a shared environmental vision can accelerate environmental innovation. Specifically, we show that a shared environmental vision can lead to an increase in the number of application areas, and increased sales of previously customized solutions but that the efficacy of the shared vision is dependent on a good match between the environmental problems being focused on, and the core competencies of the firm.

Keywords
Environmental innovation, Green, Problem formulation, Problem solving, Shared vision, Sustainability vision, Environmental vision
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31889 (URN)10.1016/j.scaman.2014.05.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-10-24 Created: 2017-10-24 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Sarasini, S., Linder, M. & Collado, M. (2015). Governing the transition to a circular economy: A multidimensional approach. Journal of Cleaner Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing the transition to a circular economy: A multidimensional approach
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-25970 (URN)
Available from: 2016-11-16 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Williander, M., Linder, M. & Nyström, T. (2015). The organizational impacts of a product-service based business model innovation process in an incumbent manufacturing firm. In: 22nd Innovation Product Development Management Conference (IPDMC 2015): . Paper presented at 22nd Innovation Product Development Management Conference (IPDMC 2015), June 14-16, 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The organizational impacts of a product-service based business model innovation process in an incumbent manufacturing firm
2015 (English)In: 22nd Innovation Product Development Management Conference (IPDMC 2015), 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

AThe circular economy, it is hoped, is one possible way to radically improveenvironmental sustainability. One suggested path towards a more environmentallysustainable industry that is part of the circular economy concept is for firms to movefrom product offerings to product-service offerings. Such offerings requiresubstantially different business models, such that business model innovation isneeded. In such situations of innovation and change, core capabilities can becomecore rigidities in incumbent firms.Lean startup methodologies are claimed to rapidly and cost effectively developvalidated business models for startup companies. This set of methods is designed forstartup companies but may be useful also for incumbent firms. A collaborative andinterventionist research project together with a company with a long business historytested whether one of these methods, Customer Development, could be of use, thechallenges of using it, and if and how these challenges could be addressed. At thisfirm, it was found that the Customer Development process can be very useful andpotentially work as intended, but requires a conscious setup of the project team. Itseems reasonable to expect that core competencies for the business model in currentuse would become core rigidities that would have jeopardized both the CustomerDevelopment process and its business model outcome without external help to reflectupon important but organizationally embedded presumptions

Keywords
business model, business model innovation, incumbent firm, servitization, PSS, product-service systems
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-25354 (URN)
Conference
22nd Innovation Product Development Management Conference (IPDMC 2015), June 14-16, 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2554-2300

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