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Andersson, M., Oxfall, H. & Nilsson, C. (2019). Mapping and Evaluation of some Restricted Chemical Substances in Recycled Plastics Originating from ELV and WEEE Collected in Europe. Mölndal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping and Evaluation of some Restricted Chemical Substances in Recycled Plastics Originating from ELV and WEEE Collected in Europe
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recycling of plastics is a critical step toward the realisation of a sustainable society. Plastic is a fitting material to recycle, as it often can easily be melted and formed into new products. Plastic recycling is therefore an easy process with pure plastics, however, most of the plastics that are recycled today are not pure and contain additives and/or impurities. Some of these additives can be hazardous substances that could be harmful for both humans and the environment. It is therefore important that these hazardous substances are not recycled and transferred into new products. To ensure a safe use of plastics, these substances are today regulated in new products, but old products could still contain these substances (legacy chemicals). To comply with legislation it is therefore critical that these substances are removed during the recycling process. There are however many hazardous substances that are yet not regulated, which may also be present in products and therefore recycled material. 

Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) and End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) are two of the materials streams that contains a high amount of legacy chemicals. These streams have been associated with spreading legacy chemicals after recycling. In several reports WEEE plastics have been identified as the source of brominated flame retardants (BRF) found in toys and everyday items. According to the EU regulation the use of certain BFRs is not permitted in new products or articles above a certain value. Recyclers and resellers of the recycled plastic often specified that the products should not be used in toys, medical equipment of food contact application, yet BFRs from WEEE can still be found in these products. This could mean that either producers that use recycled material in new products do not follow the recommendations from the recyclers, or that the recycled material does not fulfil the regulations. Another possibility for the findings of legacy chemicals in these items could be a meagre follow-up on imported plastics.

In this study the Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) has, on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket), investigated the content of legacy chemicals in recycled plastics that have been processed in a recycling facility. The plastics originated from WEEE and ELV and have been gathered from recyclers across Europe. A number of different legacy chemicals were investigated, both inorganic (Cd, Pb, Hg) and organic substances (flame retardants and plasticisers). To simulate a real case scenario and to get better measurement accuracy, all samples were injection moulded. The analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and Gas chromatography with a Mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the processing and analysis (except for SCCP/MCCP)) were done by RISE which gives good control over the analysis process, which are important when interpreting the results. In total 54 samples of PE, PP, ABS and PS, were gathered and tested. It was found that all but two samples contained legacy chemicals below the regulated values. The two samples that did not meet the legal limit had a HBCDD content above 100 ppm. All the tested materials contained detectable amounts of bromine, and 15 samples contained detectable amounts of regulated BFRs. None of the detected regulated BRFs were above 186 ppm.  Most of the materials also contained detectable amounts of cadmium and lead.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mölndal: , 2019. p. 87
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:28
Keywords
regulated chemicals, flame retardant, plastic, polymer, recycling, WEEE, ELV, BFR, reglerade kemikalier, flamskyddsmedel, plast, polymer, återvinning, WEEE, ELV, BFR
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38176 (URN)978-91-88907-54-7 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Lindqvist, K., Andersson, M., Boss, A. & Oxfall, H. (2019). Thermal and mechanical properties of blends containing PP and recycled XLPE cable waste. Journal of polymers and the environment, 27(2), 386-394
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal and mechanical properties of blends containing PP and recycled XLPE cable waste
2019 (English)In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 386-394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recycled XLPE from cable manufacturing waste and end-of-life cables were mixed with virgin polypropylene (PP) in order to evaluate the potential to be used in new injection molded products. The influence of metal contaminations on the mechanical and thermal properties and how the blends could be stabilized in order to be recycled and give reliable properties over time were studied. The results show that blends of 25–50% XLPE in PP give good mechanical properties with retained or improved impact strength independent of the source of XLPE. Ageing at 105 °C for 6 months showed a more severe material degradation and loss of mechanical properties for blends that contained XLPE with end-of-life cable. Addition of metal deactivator proved to retain the mechanical properties for more than 8 months of ageing at 105 °C. Simulated recycling of 50% XLPE in PP stabilized with a metal deactivator, showed that mechanical properties were preserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Recycling · XLPE · Ageing · Stabilization
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36938 (URN)10.1007/s10924-018-1357-6 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2018-12-27 Created: 2018-12-27 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Oxfall, H., Ariu, G., Gkourmpis, T., Rychwalski, R. W. & Rigdahl, M. (2015). Effect of carbon black on electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) composites (ed.). eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 9(1), 66-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of carbon black on electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) composites
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2015 (English)In: eXPRESS Polymer Letters, ISSN 1788-618X, E-ISSN 1788-618X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 66-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of adding carbon black on the electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene- butyl acrylate) copolymer composites produced via melt or solution mixing was studied. By adding a small amount of low- or high-structured carbon black to the nanocomposite, the electrical percolation threshold decreased and the final conductivity (at higher filler contents) increased. The effect on the percolation threshold was significantly stronger in case of the high-structured carbon black where replacing 10 wt% of the total filler content with carbon black instead of graphite nanoplatelets reduced the electrical percolation threshold from 6.9 to 4.6 vol%. Finally, the solution mixing process was found to be more efficient leading to a lower percolation threshold. For the composites containing high-structured carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets and their hybrids there was a quite reasonable correlation between the electrical and rheological percolation thresholds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BME-PT and GTE, 2015
Keywords
Electrical properties, Hybrid composites, Melt mixing, Nanocomposites, Rheology
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-13307 (URN)10.3144/expresspolymlett.2015.7 (DOI)2-s2.0-84908336625 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-07-03Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E., Oxfall, H., Wandelt, W., Rychwalski, R. & Hagström, B. (2013). Melt spinning of conductive textile fibers with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler (ed.). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 130(4), 2579-2587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Melt spinning of conductive textile fibers with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2579-2587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, two different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) are studied as conductive fillers for the preparation of conductive polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites. In order to obtain a homogenous dispersion of GNP, GNP/PP composites were prepared by two different methods: solid state mixing (SSM) and traditional melt mixing (MM). The result shows that MM is more efficient in the dispersion of GNP particles compared to SSM method. PP nanocomposites containing only one conductive filler and two fillers were prepared at different filler concentrations. Based on the analysis of electrical and rheological properties of the prepared nanocomposites, it shows that a hybridized composite with equal amounts of GNP and CB has favorable processing properties. Conductive fibers with a core/sheath structure were produced on a bicomponent melt spinning line. The core materials of these fibers are the hybridized GNP/CB/PP nanocomposite and the sheath is pure polyamide. It was found that GNPs were separated during melt and cold drawing which results in the decrease of conductivity. However, the conductivity could partly be restored by the heat treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords
conducting polymers, fibers, graphene and fullerenes, manufacturing, nanotubes, textiles
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-13325 (URN)10.1002/app.39480 (DOI)2-s2.0-84883050196 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E., Oxfall, H., Wandelt, W., Rychwalski, R. & Hagström, B. (2012). Electrically conductive textile fibres with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic polymer days, May 29-31, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrically conductive textile fibres with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34238 (URN)
Conference
Nordic polymer days, May 29-31, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2018-07-18 Created: 2018-07-18 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6496-7111

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