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Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Ahlström, J., Zetterholm, J., Pettersson, K., Harvey, S. & Wetterlund, E. (2020). Economic potential for substitution of fossil fuels with liquefied biomethane in Swedish iron and steel industry – Synergy and competition with other sectors. Energy Conversion and Management, 209, Article ID 112641.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic potential for substitution of fossil fuels with liquefied biomethane in Swedish iron and steel industry – Synergy and competition with other sectors
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2020 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 209, article id 112641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, the iron and steel industry (ISI) is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Most of the emissions result from the use of fossil reducing agents. Nevertheless, the use of fossil fuels for other purposes must also be eliminated in order to reach the Swedish emissions reduction targets. In this study, we investigate the possibility to replace fossil gaseous and liquid fuels used for heating in the ISI, with liquefied biomethane (LBG) produced through gasification of forest residues. We hypothesize that such utilization of fuels in the Swedish ISI is insufficient to independently drive the development of large-scale LBG production, and that other sectors demanding LBG, e.g., for transportation, can be expected to influence the economic potential for the ISI to switch to LBG. The paper investigates how demand for LBG from other sectors can contribute to, or prevent, a phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI under different future energy market scenarios, with additional analysis of the impact of a CO2 emissions charge. A geographically explicit cost-minimizing biofuel production localization model is combined with heat integration and energy market scenario analysis. The results show that from a set of possible future energy market scenarios, none yielded more than a 9% replacement of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI, and only when there was also a demand for LBG from other sectors. The scenarios corresponding to a more ambitious GHG mitigation policy did not achieve higher adoption of LBG, due to corresponding higher biomass prices. A CO2 charge exceeding 200 EUR/tonCO2 would be required to achieve a full phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI. We conclude that with the current policy situation, substitution of fossil fuels by LBG will not be economically feasible for the Swedish ISI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Biomass gasification, Biomethane, Energy market scenarios, Iron and steel industry, Process integration, Supply chain optimization, Carbon dioxide, Competition, Emission control, Fossil fuels, Gas emissions, Gasification, Greenhouse gases, Heating, Power markets, Reducing agents, Steelmaking, Supply chains
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44448 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112641 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080042583 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 39740-1, 42194-1; Funding text 1: This work was carried out under the auspices of Forskarskola Energisystem, financed by the Swedish Energy Agency , Sweden (project No. 39740-1 ). Additional support from the Swedish Energy Agency , Sweden (project no. 42194-1 ) and from Bio4Energy , Sweden is also acknowledged.

Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2020-03-17Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, K., Axelsson, E., Eriksson, L., Svensson, E., Berntsson, T. & Harvey, S. (2020). Holistic methodological framework for assessing the benefits of delivering industrial excess heat to a district heating network. International journal of energy research (Print)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holistic methodological framework for assessing the benefits of delivering industrial excess heat to a district heating network
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2020 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, over 50% of building heating requirements are covered by district heating. Approximately 8% of the heat supply to district heating systems comes from excess heat from industrial processes. Many studies indicate that there is a potential to substantially increase this share, and policies promoting energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction provide incentives to do this. Quantifying the medium and long-term economic and carbon footprint benefits of such investments is difficult because the background energy system against which new investments should be assessed is also expected to undergo significant change as a result of the aforementioned policies. Furthermore, in many cases, the district heating system has already invested or is planning to invest in non-fossil heat sources such as biomass-fueled boilers or CHP units. This paper proposes a holistic methodological framework based on energy market scenarios for assessing the long-term carbon footprint and economic benefits of recovering excess heat from industrial processes for use in district heating systems. In many studies of industrial excess heat, it is assumed that all emissions from the process plant are allocated to the main products, and none to the excess heat. The proposed methodology makes a distinction between unavoidable excess heat and excess heat that could be avoided by increased heat recovery at the plant site, in which case it is assumed that a fraction of the plant emissions should be allocated to the exported heat. The methodology is illustrated through a case study of a chemical complex located approximately 50 km from the city of Gothenburg on the West coast of Sweden, from which substantial amounts of excess heat could be recovered and delivered to heat to the city's district heating network which aims to be completely fossil-free by 2030. © 2020 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2020
Keywords
carbon footprint, district heating, energy market scenarios, GHG emissions, industrial excess heat, Commerce, Economic and social effects, Emission control, Energy efficiency, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Heating equipment, Investments, Power markets, Waste heat, Zoning, District heating networks, District heating system, Excess heats, GHG emission, Greenhouse gas emissions reductions, Industrial processs, Methodological frameworks
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43950 (URN)10.1002/er.5005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85078729475 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten, P42222‐1; Funding details: European Commission, EC, ENER/C2/2014‐641; Funding text 1: Funding for this work was provided by the Swedish Energy Agency (grant number P42222‐1).; Funding text 2: . COM( 2016 ) 51. European Commission , Brussels, Belgium . 2016. Study on mapping and analyses of the current and future (2020‐2030) heating/cooling fuel deployment (fossil/renewables) . Prepared for: European Commission under contract N° ENER/C2/2014‐641. 2016. European Commission. Energy Roadmap 2050 .

Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
Anheden, M., Kulander, I., Pettersson, K., Wallinder, J., Vamling, L., Hjerpe, C. J., . . . Håkansson, Å. (2018). Evaluation of alternative routes for production of bio-oil from forest residues and kraft lignin. In: Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica (Ed.), The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings. Paper presented at The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct. 2018 (pp. 85-89). Espoo: VTT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of alternative routes for production of bio-oil from forest residues and kraft lignin
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2018 (English)In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 85-89Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Espoo: VTT, 2018
Keywords
bio-oil, forest residue, kraft lignin, hydropyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, production cost
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35549 (URN)978-951-38-8672-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct. 2018
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Wetterlund, E., Pettersson, K. & Lundgren, J. (2018). Evaluation of value chain configurations for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass - Integration, feedstock, and product choice. Energy, 144, 564-575
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of value chain configurations for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass - Integration, feedstock, and product choice
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 144, p. 564-575Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass constitutes a promising technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The product, pyrolysis liquids, can either substitute heavy fuel oil directly, or be upgraded via e.g. hydroprocessing to diesel and petrol. This study presents a systematic evaluation of production costs and CO2 mitigation potentials of different fast pyrolysis value chain configurations. The evaluation considers types of localisations, emissions from electricity and hydrogen production, biomass feedstocks, and final products. The resulting production costs were found to be in the range of 36–60 EUR/MWh for crude pyrolysis liquids, and 61–90 EUR/MWh upgraded to diesel and petrol. Industrial integration was found to be favoured. The CO2 mitigation potential for the pyrolysis liquids was in the range of 187–282 t-CO2/GWh biomass. High variations were found when upgraded to diesel and petrol –best-case scenario resulted in a mitigation of 347 t-CO2/GWh biomass, while worst-case scenarios resulted in net CO2 emissions. Favourable policy support, continued technology development, and/or increased fossil fuel prices are required for the technology to be adapted on an industrial scale. It was concluded that integration with existing industrial infrastructure can contribute to cost reductions and thus help enable the transformation of traditional forest industry into biorefineries.

Keywords
Biofuel, Fast pyrolysis, Hydroprocessing, Process integration, Pyrolysis liquid, Value chain, Biofuels, Biomass, Carbon dioxide, Chains, Cost reduction, Costs, Feedstocks, Fossil fuels, Fuels, Gasoline, Hydrogen production, Liquids, Pyrolysis liquids, Value chains, Pyrolysis, cellulose, diesel, fossil fuel, integrated approach, lignin, petroleum, processing, production cost, valuation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33243 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.12.027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85038946657 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding details: dnr. 213-2014-184, Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas

Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Pettersson, K., Leduc, S., Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids. Applied Energy, 230, 912-924
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 912-924Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries for the production of fuels, chemicals, or materials can be an important contributor to reducing dependence on fossil fuels. The economic performance of the biorefinery supply chain can be increased by, for example, industrial integration to utilise excess heat and products, increasing size to improve economy of scale, and using intermediate upgrading to reduce feedstock transport cost. To enable a large-scale introduction of biorefineries it is important to identify cost efficient supply chain configurations. This work investigates a lignocellulosic biorefinery concept integrated with forest industry, focusing on how different economic conditions affect the preferred supply chain configurations. The technology investigated is black liquor gasification, with and without the addition of pyrolysis liquids to increase production capacity. Primarily, it analyses trade-offs between high biomass conversion efficiency and economy of scale effects, as well as the selection of centralised vs. decentralised supply chain configurations. The results show the economic advantage for biomass efficient configurations, when the biorefinery investment is benefited from an alternative investment credit due to the replacement of current capital-intensive equipment at the host industry. However, the investment credit received heavily influenced the cost of the biorefinery and clearly illustrates the benefit for industrial integration to reduce the cost of biorefineries. There is a benefit for a decentralised supply chain configuration under very high biomass competition. However, for lower biomass competition, site-specific conditions will impact the favourability of either centralised or decentralised supply chain configurations.

Keywords
Biorefinery, Black liquor, Economy of scale, Efficiency, Pyrolysis liquids, Supply chain, Bioconversion, Biomass, Cost reduction, Fossil fuels, Gasification, Investments, Liquids, Pyrolysis, Refining, Supply chains, Biorefineries, Black liquor gasification, Efficiency and economies, Industrial integration, Supply chain configuration, Economic and social effects, cost analysis, economic conditions, efficiency measurement, fossil fuel, integrated approach, replacement, resource use, supply chain management, Cost Control
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35582 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053046147 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding details: 213-2014-184, Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas; Funding text: The work has been carried out under the auspices of Forskarskola Energisystem financed by the Swedish Energy Agency . Economic support from the Swedish Research Council FORMAS is also gratefully acknowledged (dnr. 213-2014-184), as well as from Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish government.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, K., Lundberg, V., Anheden, M. & Fuglesang, M. (2018). Systems analysis of different value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-SNG. International journal of energy research (Print), 42(6), 2117-2140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems analysis of different value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-SNG
2018 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2117-2140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study compares value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG) with respect to economic performance, GHG emissions, and energy efficiency. Value chains in which raw material is upgraded to intermediate products before transportation to an SNG plant integrated with a district heating system for further upgrading are compared with a chain in which the raw material is transported directly to the SNG plant. The intermediates considered are either dried biomass from forest residues, or bark, upgraded at pulp mills, or pellets from sawdust upgraded at sawmills. The findings show that the difference in performance between the studied value chains is generally small. The highest cost and significantly lowest energy efficiency are associated with the value chain with pellets, which leads to the conclusion that more pretreatment than what is required by the SNG process, to lower transport costs, is not profitable. Drying forest residues at pulp mills before further transportation to and upgrading at an SNG plant leads to somewhat higher transportation costs because of the relatively high fixed costs associated with transportation. However, the benefit of drying the biomass using excess heat at pulp mills is that heat is "moved" from a location, where it can be hard to find profitable ways to use it, to the SNG plant, where the excess heat can be used for district heating. With these two factors working in opposition, the total cost is similar if forest residues are transported directly to the SNG plant or via a pulp mill. The lowest cost is achieved when falling bark from pulp mills is used because the first transportation step is avoided and no additional investment for biomass handling at the mill is required. However, there is a technical uncertainty regarding how much bark can be used in the SNG process.

Keywords
Bark, Biomass drying, Forest residues, Gasification, Intermediate product, Sawdust, SNG, Supply chains, Systems analysis, Biomass, Costs, District heating, Drying, Energy efficiency, Forestry, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Investments, Materials handling, Paper and pulp mills, Pelletizing, Profitability, District heating system, Economic performance, Forest residue, Synthetic natural gas, Transport costs, Transportation cost, Transportation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33464 (URN)10.1002/er.3992 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041674088 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-09 Created: 2018-03-09 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
de Jong, S., Hoefnagels, R., Wetterlund, E., Pettersson, K., Faaij, A. & Junginger, M. (2017). Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations. Applied Energy, 195, 1055-1070
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations
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2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 1055-1070Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations (i.e. supply chains with an intermediate pre-treatment step to reduce biomass transport cost). The model assessed biofuel production levels ranging from 1 to 150 PJ a−1 in the context of the existing Swedish forest industry. Biofuel was produced from forestry biomass using hydrothermal liquefaction and hydroprocessing. Simultaneous implementation of all cost reduction strategies yielded minimum biofuel production costs of 18.1–18.2 € GJ−1 at biofuel production levels between 10 and 75 PJ a−1. Limiting the economies of scale was shown to cause the largest cost increase (+0–12%, increasing with biofuel production level), followed by disabling integration benefits (+1–10%, decreasing with biofuel production level) and allowing unimodal truck transport only (+0–6%, increasing with biofuel production level). Distributed supply chain configurations were introduced once biomass supply became increasingly dispersed, but did not provide a significant cost benefit (<1%). Disabling the benefits of integration favors large-scale centralized production, while intermodal transport networks positively affect the benefits of economies of scale. As biofuel production costs still exceeds the price of fossil transport fuels in Sweden after implementation of all cost reduction strategies, policy support and stimulation of further technological learning remains essential to achieve cost parity with fossil fuels for this feedstock/technology combination in this spatiotemporal context. © 2017 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
Keywords
Biofuel, Cost optimization, Distributed supply chain, Economies of scale, Integration, Intermodal transport, Biofuels, Biomass, Cost benefit analysis, Costs, Economics, Forestry, Fossil fuels, Industrial economics, Intermodal transportation, Optimization, Supply chains, Truck transportation, Biofuel production, Biomass transports, Hydrothermal liquefactions, Supply chain configuration, Technological learning, Cost reduction
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29395 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.109 (DOI)2-s2.0-85016928741 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Ahlström, J., Pettersson, K., Wetterlund, E. & Harvey, S. (2017). Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites – Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation. Applied Energy, 206, 1590-1608
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites – Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation
2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industry's increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

Keywords
Gasification, Liquefied bio-SNG, Process integration, Sawmill, System analysis, Value chain, Biomass, Chains, Costs, Feedstocks, Fuels, Investments, Liquefied natural gas, Sawing, Sawmills, Systems analysis, Wood products, Biomass transportations, Carbon footprint reductions, Efficient use of energy, Integrated production, Transportation cost, Value chains, Carbon footprint
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32803 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.09.104 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029745260 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Heyne, S., Hackl, R., Pettersson, K., Harvey, S. & Poulikidou, S. (2017). Well-to-tank data for advanced tailor-made biofuel alternatives. In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings: . Paper presented at European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (pp. 1230-1236). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (25thEUBCE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Well-to-tank data for advanced tailor-made biofuel alternatives
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2017 (English)In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2017, no 25thEUBCE, p. 1230-1236Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The present work is part of a cross-disciplinary Swedish research project on advanced tailor-made biofuels that aims at identifying drop-in biofuel options for the transport sector that combine excellent combustion properties with sustainable production pathways. The present paper addresses the methodology and primary results of the biofuel production pathway assessment for the diesel fuel alternatives identified within the project. The methodology is illustrated for 2-Ethylhexanol. Three alternative production pathways for 2-Ethylhexanol are analyzed: gasification-based, butanol-based and ethanol-based. The highest biomass to 2-Ethylhexanol conversion (33.9%, lower heating value basis) is achieved for the ethanol-based conversion pathway. The varying spectrum of by-products requires a sophisticated analysis necessary, as addressed in the present work. 2-Ethylhexanol as biofuel cannot outperform conventional biofuels such as e.g. ethanol from a well-to-tank energy performance perspective due to the additional conversion steps necessary. End-use phase benefits such as higher blend-in ratios or reduced pollutant emissions may change the well-to-wheel picture. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2017
Keywords
Biofuel, Energy balance, Integration, Mass balance, Production, Transport sector
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38081 (URN)2-s2.0-85043790418 (Scopus ID)
Conference
European Biomass Conference and Exhibition
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, K., Wetterlund, E., Athanassiadis, D., Lundmark, R., Ehn, C., Lundgren, J. & Berglin, N. (2015). Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry - A geographically explicit approach. Applied Energy, 154, 317-332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry - A geographically explicit approach
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2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 154, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The geographic locations of biofuel production facilities should be strategically chosen in order to minimise the total cost of using biofuels. Proximity to biomass resources, possibilities for integration, and distance to biofuel users are aspects that need to be considered. In this paper, the geographically explicit optimisation model BeWhere Sweden was used to investigate the future production of next-generation biofuels from forest biomass in Sweden. A focus was placed on the integration of biofuel production with the existing forest industry, as well as on how different parameters affect biofuel production costs, the choice of technologies and biofuels, and the localisation of new biofuel plants. Six examples of different biofuel routes were considered. A methodology was developed considering detailed, site-specific conditions for potential host industries. The results show that the cost of biomass and the biofuel plant capital cost generally dominate the biofuel cost, but the cost for biomass transportation and biofuel distribution can also have a significant impact. DME produced via black liquor gasification (naturally integrated with chemical pulp mills) and SNG produced via solid biomass gasification (mainly integrated with sawmills), dominate the solutions. The distribution of these technology cases varies depending on a number of parameters, including criteria for sizing biofuel plants, the electricity price, the biofuel distribution cost and the cost of biomass, and is sensitive to changes in these parameters. Generally, plants with low specific investment costs (i.e., high biofuel production) and/or plants with low specific biomass transportation costs occur most frequently in the solutions. Because these properties often vary significantly among biofuel production facilities at different host industry sites of the same type, the results show the advantage of including site-specific data in this type of model.

Keywords
Bioenergy, Biofuels, Energy system optimisation, Forest industry, Process integration
National Category
Renewable Bioenergy Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-755 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.041 (DOI)2-s2.0-84930207809 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-14 Created: 2016-08-03 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6999-6585

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