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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Smith, G. & Sandberg, J. (2018). Barriers to innovating with open government data: Exploring experiences across service phases and user types. Information Polity, 23(3), 249-265
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to innovating with open government data: Exploring experiences across service phases and user types
2018 (English)In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 249-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Open government data (OGD) can enable outbound open innovation (OI) that is beneficial to society. However, innovation barriers hinder OGD users from generating value. While previous studies have detailed a large number of such barriers, little is known of how different types of OGD users are affected, and when the barriers appear in their innovation processes. To this end, this paper describes a case study of distributed service development in the Swedish public transport sector. The contribution to extant research is twofold. Firstly, based on an inductive analysis, three OGD user archetypes are proposed: employees, entrepreneurs and hobbyists. Secondly, the study finds that the significance of distinct innovation barriers varies across phases of the services’ lifecycles and depending on the OGD users’ motivation, objective, pre-conditions and approach. Drawing on these insights, we propose that OGD initiatives aimed at facilitating outbound OI to a greater extent should address the barriers that appear during diffusion of innovations, the barriers that are not directly related to the OGD provision, and the barriers that are experienced by non-obvious OGD user groups.

Keywords
Outbound open innovation, open innovation in public sector, open government data, open data users, open data ecosystem, service lifecycle, innovation barriers
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35101 (URN)10.3233/IP-170045 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052884972 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Faxer, A., Olausson, E., Olsson, L., Smith, G. & Pettersson, S. (2018). Electric cargo bike with a twist - A field test of two innovative bicycle concepts. In: : . Paper presented at EVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric cargo bike with a twist - A field test of two innovative bicycle concepts
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electric cargo (e-cargo) bikes have superior carrying capacity compared to conventional bicycles. Consequently, both scholars and policymakers have proposed that e-cargo bikes might be the answer to realizing car-free living. This study aims to identify their potential to replace car-use from the user’s, the manufacturer’s and the city’s perspective. Two versions of an e-cargo bike concept, equipped with weather protection, were field tested across four professional organizations in Gothenburg, Sweden. In short, the data show that the demonstrated e-cargo bikes can replace certain car travel. Still, this modal shift seems contingent to strong organizational and managerial support.

Keywords
electric cargo bike, light vehicles, user study, business trips, transportation planning
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34908 (URN)
Conference
EVS 31 & EVTeC 2018, Kobe, Japan, October 1 - 3, 2018
Note

This research project is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and supported by the City of Gothenburg.

Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Sarasini, S. (2018). Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland. Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

Keywords
Barriers, Drivers, H110, H44, L240, L320, L910, L980, Mobility as a service, Neo-institutional theory
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35930 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.09.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055054090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 5 November 2018; Article in Press; Correspondence Address: Smith, G.; Chalmers University of TechnologySweden; email: goran.smith@chalmers.se; Funding text: The authors would like to express gratitude towards the Swedish Innovation Agency (Vinnova) and K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport that funded the IRIMS project. The authors are also grateful for the contributions of the interviewees and of other members of the IRIMS project team, particularly Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren and MariAnne Karlsson.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Karlson, M., Koglin, T., Kronsell, A., Mukhtar-Landgren, D., Lund, E., Wendle, B., . . . Sochor, J. (2017). Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework
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2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With a continued global urbanisation trend and increasing demand for transportation with consequences interms of, for example, congestion, emissions, and noise, urban mobility is a major challenge for the future.Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution by contributing to reducing the use ofprivate cars and increasing the use of public transport and ride sharing services: “MaaS has the potentialto fundamentally change the behaviour of people in and beyond cities, hence it is regarded as the biggestparadigm change in transport since affordable cars came into the market” (maas-alliance.eu). However,even though a number of initiatives have been taken, including pilots which have shown positive outcomes(see e.g., Karlsson et al., 2016), the implementation of MaaS has been slow.Different sources refer to different challenges. The purpose of the project ‘Institutional Frameworks forIntegrated Mobility Services in Future Cities’ (IRIMS) is to determine how, and to what extent, existinginstitutional factors affect the further development of MaaS. The project aims to provide suggestions for howinstitutions can be modified to enable the implementation of MaaS to contribute to sustainable mobility. Thispaper presents part of the work: a tentative framework, intended to support the analysis of the institutionalfactors that facilitate or create barriers to the further development and dissemination of MaaS (see alsoMukhtar-Landgren et al., 2016).

Keywords
Mobility-as-a-Service; framework; institutions; barriers
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33092 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Hjalmarsson, A. & Burden, H. (2016). Catalyzing knowledge transfer in innovation ecosystems through contests. In: AMCIS 2016: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave - 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems. Paper presented at 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave (AMCIS 2016), August 11-14, 2016, San Diego, US.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalyzing knowledge transfer in innovation ecosystems through contests
2016 (English)In: AMCIS 2016: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave - 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Open innovation practices are gaining traction. Hence, the relevance of measures for engaging and managing heterogeneous groups of distributed complementors is rising. This mixed-method case study defines a pilot demonstration of emergent technology as an innovation ecosystem and utilizes a knowledge transfer lens to explore the impact of an open innovation contest. The contribution to the IS research stream is threefold. Firstly, the paper portrays that open innovation contests can spark coupled open innovation and facilitate innovation management, without lowering the generative capability. Secondly, it explains these gains by concluding that contests can catalyze cross-border knowledge transfer within innovation ecosystems. Thirdly, the paper moreover proposes that additional innovation deployment measures are needed in order for sustaining established relations and for aiding the implementation of innovation ideas beyond the contests.

Keywords
Innovation ecosystem, Knowledge transfer, Open innovation, Open innovation contest, Ecology, Ecosystems, Information management, Information systems, Knowledge management, Emergent technologies, Innovation ideas, Innovation management, Is researches, Mixed method, Pilot demonstrations, Innovation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37068 (URN)2-s2.0-84987668300 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave (AMCIS 2016), August 11-14, 2016, San Diego, US
Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Ofe, H. A. & Sandberg, J. (2016). Digital Service Innovation from Open Data: Exploring the Value Proposition of an Open Data Marketplace. In: Proceedings of the 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016): . Paper presented at 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016), January 5-8, 2016, Kauai, Hawaii (pp. 1277-1286).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital Service Innovation from Open Data: Exploring the Value Proposition of an Open Data Marketplace
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016), 2016, p. 1277-1286Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Open data marketplaces have emerged as a mode of addressing open data adoption barriers. However, knowledge of how such marketplaces affect digital service innovation in open data ecosystems is limited. This paper explores their value proposition for open data users based on an exploratory case study. Five prominent perceived values are identified: lower task complexity, higher access to knowledge, increased possibilities to influence, lower risk and higher visibility. The impact on open data adoption barriers is analyzed and the consequences for ecosystem sustainability is discussed. The paper concludes that open data marketplaces can lower the threshold of using open data by providing better access to open data and associated support services, and by increasing knowledge transfer within the ecosystem. 

Keywords
Open Data, Open innovation
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-25397 (URN)10.1109/HICSS.2016.162 (DOI)978-0-7695-5670-3 (ISBN)
Conference
49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016), January 5-8, 2016, Kauai, Hawaii
Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Burden, H. & Hjalmarsson, A. (2016). ElectriCity innovation challenge 2015: Experiences. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 8(3), 690-698
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ElectriCity innovation challenge 2015: Experiences
2016 (English)In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 690-698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ElectriCity Innovation Challenge 2015 was an open innovation contest in Gothenburg, Sweden. The main purpose was to surge public interest and involvement in ElectriCity, a demonstration arena for next-generation's electrified bus systems. The contest furthermore aimed to catalyse innovation that can contribute to making public transport more attractive, and to test a novel innovation platform that assembles data from buses and bus stops. The outcome was six events with a total of more than 800 attendants, 48 viable prototypes with potential to increase the modal share of electrified public transport and feedback on the innovation platform's potential for development.

Keywords
Case-study, Demonstration, EV, PHEV, Public transport, Automotive engineering, Demonstrations, Bus stop, Bus systems, Catalyse, Innovation platforms, nocv1, Open innovation, Public interest, Buses
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37069 (URN)10.3390/wevj8030696 (DOI)2-s2.0-85013498141 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Olstam, J., Häll, C., Smith, G. & Habibovic, A. (2015). Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study. Paper presented at Thursday, August 27, 2015. K2 research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dedicated bus lanes and bus streets have, in recent years, become common measures for prioritisation of public transport. By ensuring free path along routes, they increase average speed and travel time reliability of buses. However, a major drawback is that the total traffic capacities of the roads decrease. Hence, these measures are only suitable when the total traffic flow is low enough to allow for a reduction of lanes; if it is possible to reroute adjacent traffic; or if it is possible to extend the road with additional lanes. A supplementary priority measure could be to utilize dynamic bus lanes (also called intermittent bus lanes and bus lanes with intermittent priority). Dynamic bus lanes are only dedicated for buses when and where the buses need them, and otherwise open for all vehicles to use. At any given point, adjacent traffic is only permitted from using the dynamic bus lanes at the stretches where buses are in the vicinity. This report presents the results from a pre-study, investigating the potential that dynamic bus lanes could have as a priority measure for public transport in a Swedish context.

Knowledge of situations in which dynamic bus lanes have the highest potential, and their implementation requirements is scarce. It is moreover uncertain how they would affect traffic safety, level of service and user experience. Two real world field tests have been conducted; one in Lisbon and one in Melbourne. The installation in Melbourne is now permanently applied for trams on one street. The field test in Lisbon was on the contrary not made permanent, although the results showed large benefits for buses and limited adverse effects on other vehicles. Dynamic bus lanes have also been investigated by means of traffic analysis and traffic simulation experiments. In general, these studies show that the effects on travel time for buses are in general positive and delays for other vehicles are limited. Results from example calculations in this pre-study show that this also could be true for a Swedish context. It has also been identified that the effects on travel times are highly dependent on factors such as: the total traffic flow; the bus flow, the capacity of roads and junctions; the distance between junctions and bus stops; the type of bus stops and the yielding rules at bus stops. The effects on travel time variations are unclear and need to be further investigated.

Few rigorous research studies have in general been undertaken to measure the user experiences or road safety implications of bus priority schemes, and evidence from those that do exist are mixed. Anyhow, the experiences from Lisbon and Melbourne suggest that drivers in adjacent lanes in general understand and accept that they are deprived of the right to use the lane when the buses need it, and that they will behave appropriately. Neither of the field tests has observed any negative impact on road safety. A workshop was conducted within this pre-study in order to further investigate plausible user experiences. The results indicate that bus drivers’ stress levels could be reduced; the relative attractiveness of travelling by bus might rise; and that motorists probably would experience the introduction of dynamic bus lanes as neither good nor bad, as long as the system is fairly intuitive.

Technical solutions for implementing dynamic bus lanes exist. A dynamic bus lane system would require development of a system control unit and integration with bus sensors, sensors for traffic flow measurement, variable message signs (to inform road users of the current status of the dynamic bus lane) and traffic signals. It is moreover, in Sweden, possible to develop a local traffic rule that regulates dynamic bus lanes. However, the rule needs to be properly specified, designed, communicated, signed and marked on the road.

The overall conclusion form the pre-study is that dynamic bus lanes could be a useful complementary priority measure for public transport vehicles in Sweden, especially when dedicated bus lanes are not feasible or desirable. However, a real world installation in Sweden, including pre implementation traffic analysis, is needed, in order to further investigate the potential and consequences. Thus, the next step is to plan for an implementation on a specific road stretch. That would include both estimation of costs, and generate input to further studies of effect on level of service and user experience. Driving simulators and traffic simulation experiments are applicable methods for investigating these issues. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
K2 research, 2015
Keywords
Public transport
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-26051 (URN)
Conference
Thursday, August 27, 2015
Available from: 2018-03-06 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Smith, G. (2015). Marknadsplatser för öppna data: En fallstudie kring användare, användning och upplevt värde. Paper presented at Wednesday, December 9, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marknadsplatser för öppna data: En fallstudie kring användare, användning och upplevt värde
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Marknadsplatser för öppna data används allt oftare som en metod för att adressera innovationsbarriärer inom ekosystem för öppna data. Syftet med den här studien var att, via en fallstudie, studera hur sådana marknadsplatser kan skapa värde för utvecklare och därigenom främja innovation. Studien bygger på intervjuer med utvecklare och en webbenkät samt statistik från den studerade marknadsplatsens hemsida.

Den studerade marknadsplatsen attraherar många olika typer av utvecklare, men programmeringskunniga unga män drivna av interna drivkrafter är en dominant användargrupp. Utvecklarna använder marknadsplatsen på olika sätt, där vissa endast vill komma åt öppen data tidigt under tjänsteutvecklingsprocessen och andra ser marknadsplatsen som en viktig partner under hela tjänstelivscykeln. Marknadsplatsen har genererat fem tydliga värden för utvecklarna: lägre uppgiftskomplexitet, högre tillgång till kunskap, bättre möjligheter att påverka, lägre risk samt större synlighet för öppna data och dess effekter. Dessa värden genereras av en kombination av marknadsplatsens fyra huvudelement: teknisk plattform, hemsida, supportfunktioner samt aktiviteter för kunskapsutbyte. 

Keywords
Open Data
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-26058 (URN)
Conference
Wednesday, December 9, 2015
Available from: 2016-11-01 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Niska, A. & Grönqvist, T. (2014). Cykeleffekt - Slutrapport för förstudie. Paper presented at Thursday, March 26, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cykeleffekt - Slutrapport för förstudie
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Det finns sedan länge en bred politisk samsyn i Sverige kring att andelen cykelresor bör ökas. Trots detta är det svårt att påvisa någon övergripande positiv trend. En bidragande orsak är att det i dagsläget saknas grundläggande kunskap om hur utformning, drift och underhåll av cykelinfrastruktur påverkar cyklisterna och cykeltrafiken. Kunskapsluckorna gör det svårt för trafikplanerare att prioritera mellan olika typer av åtgärder samt att motivera sina val gentemot beslutsfattare. Det leder i sin tur till att utväxlingen av tilldelade resurser inte maximeras.

Det överliggande syftet med forskningsinitiativet Cykeleffekt är att komplettera befintliga handböcker om cykelinfrastruktur med kunskap om vilken effekt olika typer av infrastrukturåtgärder ämnade att främja cykling har. För att möjliggöra forskningen krävs en samverkansplattform mellan kommuner och forskningsinstanser samt tillgång till faktiska infrastrukturåtgärder/-objekt att studera. Huvudmålet med den här förstudien var därför att bedöma potentialen för att koppla den typen av forskningsprojekt till det nybildade kommunnätverket Svenska Cykelstäder.

För att kunna bedöma forskningspotentialen utfördes: en kort litteraturöversikt över befintlig kunskap om effekten av åtgärder och identifierade metoder för att utreda effektsamband; en konkretisering av nätverkets upplägg och agenda samt; en kartläggning av medlemskommunerna planerade åtgärder och intresse i att beforska effektsamband.

Litteraturstudien pekade på att kunskapen om effekten av cykelinfrastrukturåtgärder är låg men att det finns metoder för att möjliggöra den forskning som krävs för att ta fram hypoteser om effektsamband. Det konkretiserade nätverket ansågs vara en lämplig plattform att koppla samma forskningsinstanser och kommunala cykelplanerare kring sådan forskning. Kommunerna uttryckte dessutom stort intresse för att delta i framtida forskningsprojekt och det finns gott om planerade infrastrukturåtgärder att beforska inom nätverket. I kontakten med kommunerna framkom det även att de tror att de skulle kunna utnyttja sina resurser för att öka andelen cykling bättre om de hade större tillgång till dokumenterad kunskap om effektsamband. Sammantaget bedömdes forskningspotentialen därav som god.

Som slutprodukt för förstudien utvecklades ett förslag till syfte, mål, upplägg och genomförandeplan för fortsatt forskning med koppling till Svenska Cykelstäder.

Keywords
Bicycle
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-26046 (URN)
Conference
Thursday, March 26, 2015
Projects
Cykeleffekt
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5607-1180

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