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Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Sochor, J. (2019). A Gender Meta-Analysis of Transport Innovation Acceptance: Women Approve Change. In: : . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Women’s Issues in Transportation, WIiT. Irvine, California, September 10-13, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Gender Meta-Analysis of Transport Innovation Acceptance: Women Approve Change
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40589 (URN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Women’s Issues in Transportation, WIiT. Irvine, California, September 10-13, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, I. C., Mukhtar-Landgren, D., Smith, G., Koglin, T., Kronsell, A., Lund, E., . . . Sochor, J. (2019). Development and implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service: A qualitative study of barriers and enabling factors. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service: A qualitative study of barriers and enabling factors
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2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution to prevalent transport problems. However, progress from pilots to large-scale implementation has hitherto been slow. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to empirically and in-depth investigate how, and to what extent, different factors affect the development and implementation of MaaS. A framework was developed, with a basis in institutional theory and the postulation that formal as well informal factors on different analytical levels (macro, meso and micro) must be considered. The research was organised as a multiple case study in Finland and Sweden and a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection and analysis. A number of factors with a claimed impact on the development and implementation of MaaS was revealed. At the macro level, these factors included legislation concerning transport, innovation and public administration, and the presence (or not) of a shared vision for MaaS. At the meso level, (the lack of) appropriate business models, cultures of collaboration, and assumed roles and responsibilities within the MaaS ecosystem were identified as significant factors. At the micro level, people’s attitudes and habits were recognised as important factors to be considered. However, how the ‘S’ in MaaS fits (or not) the transport needs of the individual/household appears to play a more important role in adoption or rejection of MaaS than what has often been acknowledged in previous papers on MaaS. The findings presented in this paper provide several implications for public and private sector actors. Law-making authorities can facilitate MaaS developments by adjusting relevant regulations and policies such as transport-related subsidies, taxation policies and the definition of public transport. Regional and local authorities could additionally contribute to creating conducive conditions for MaaS by, for example, planning urban designs and transport infrastructures to support service-based travelling. Moreover, private actors have key roles to play in future MaaS developments, as both public and private transport services are needed if MaaS is to become a viable alternative to privately owned cars. Thus, the advance of MaaS business models that benefit all involved actors is vital for the prosperity of the emerging MaaS ecosystem.

Keywords
MaaS, Mobility-as-a-Service, Formal institutions, Informal institutions, Enablers, Barriers
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40590 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2019.09.028 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-10-31
Smith, G., Sarasini, S., Karlsson, I. C., Mukhtar-Landgren, D. & Sochor, J. (2019). Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland. In: Finger, Matthias; Audouin, Maxime (Ed.), The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems: Towards New Organizational Structures for the Development of Shared, Automated, Electric and Integrated Mobility: (pp. 169-188). Cham: Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland
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2019 (English)In: The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems: Towards New Organizational Structures for the Development of Shared, Automated, Electric and Integrated Mobility / [ed] Finger, Matthias; Audouin, Maxime, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 169-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Based on a review of recent developments in Sweden and Finland, this chapter analyzes the roles of public organizations in the governance of a transition to Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). In particular, we draw on insights from transition frameworks to explore what these two pioneering cases can teach us about how the public sector can both enable the development of MaaS and steer the development trajectory toward diffusion of MaaS offerings that contribute to transport policy goals. We propose three main points. Firstly, public sector organizations at national, regional, and local levels have key roles to play in potential transitions to MaaS, regardless of their intended operative roles in the emerging MaaS ecosystem. Secondly, a central task for public sector organizations is to align operational and tactical MaaS governance activities with both an overarching MaaS strategy and with other relevant strategies, such as transport infrastructures investments, programs for economic and industrial growth, city plans, and parking norms. Thirdly, new models and tools for public–private collaboration are needed in order to effectively govern the development and diffusion of sustainable MaaS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Mobility-as-a-Service, Transport policy, Public governance, Sustainable transitions
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39620 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-96526-0_9 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Karlsson, I. C. (2019). Intermediary MaaS Integrators: A case study on hopes and fears. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermediary MaaS Integrators: A case study on hopes and fears
2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

At present, many policymakers and practitioners are searching for actions that could facilitate Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments. A potential action, which has received a lot of attention, is to introduce Intermediary MaaS Integrators; that is intermediate actors that assemble the offerings from Transport Service Providers (TSPs) and distribute these to MaaS Operators. However, little is known about if and how TSPs and MaaS Operators would appreciate the introduction of Intermediary MaaS Integrators. To address this knowledge gap, this paper explores an attempt to establish a national Intermediary MaaS Integrator in Sweden. The contribution to transportation research is twofold. Firstly, the paper advances the conceptual understanding of Intermediary MaaS Integrators by identifying four defining dimensions: Activities, Management, Processes and Context. Secondly, it deepens the knowledge of Intermediary MaaS Integrators’ value propositions by detailing TSPs’ and prospective MaaS Operators’ hopes and fears vis-à-vis them. Lastly, practical implications for how to facilitate acceptance and adoption are proposed. Intermediary MaaS Integrators should only be introduced if basic incentives for using their services are in place, and if introduced, they should preferably: go beyond offering technical services; have clear, declared objectives; be impartial and capable actors; and carefully consider their launch strategies.

Keywords
Mobility as a Service, MaaS, Intermediary MaaS Integrator
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40591 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2019.09.024 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-10-31
Sochor, J., Arby, H., Karlsson, M. & Sarasini, S. (2018). A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals. Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), 27, 3-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 27, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterises a ‘MaaS service’, as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the ‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS' potential effects, and aiding the integration of societal goals into MaaS services. Based on an exploration of existing definitions and descriptions of MaaS, and an expert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resulting proposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterised by different types of integration: 0 no integration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the service offer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are then described in terms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for society, business, users/customers, and technical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4 and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topology adds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along the MaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can help support the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type of MaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linked with the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achieved via the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecological sustainability, and business potential.

Keywords
Business models, Integration, Mobility as a Service (MaaS), Societal goals, Value creation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38163 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.12.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062153035 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Strömberg, H., Karlsson, M. & Sochor, J. (2018). Inviting travelers to the smorgasbord of sustainable urban transport: evidence from a MaaS field trial. Transportation, 45(6), 1655-1670
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inviting travelers to the smorgasbord of sustainable urban transport: evidence from a MaaS field trial
2018 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1655-1670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) concept, UbiGo, was implemented in Gothenburg, Sweden, and used for a 6-month period by 195 individuals in 83 households. Four participant subgroups were identified: Car shedders, Car accessors, Simplifiers, and Economizers. A qualitative analysis revealed that the subgroups had different reasons to join the service and different expectations of the change that would occur on the basis of the altered preconditions offered by the service. Previous car users reduced their use of private car and increased their use of public transport and active modes. Participants who did not have access to a privately-owned car but thought they needed one discovered that they managed well without. Other participants were reinforced in their existing behaviors but in ways they did not envisage, depending on which goals they had at the outset of the trial. Overall, the participants were also satisfied with the service, as well as with stated changes and non-changes, even if this in some cases meant more planning. Based on the empirical findings it could be argued that a service approach, such as UbiGo, has the potential to reduce the need for private car ownership, and enable people to change their mode choices and travel patterns. The potential relies however on a number of specific features of the service of which flexibility and a need- rather than a mode-based approach are key features.

Keywords
Field operational test, Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), Mode choice, Sustainable transport, Travel behavior, Civil engineering, Transportation, Empirical findings, Operational test, Public transport, Qualitative analysis, Travel behaviors, Travel patterns, Urban transportation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36923 (URN)10.1007/s11116-018-9946-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056106853 (Scopus ID)
Note

.se

Available from: 2018-12-28 Created: 2018-12-28 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Sarasini, S. (2018). Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland. Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

Keywords
Barriers, Drivers, H110, H44, L240, L320, L910, L980, Mobility as a service, Neo-institutional theory
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35930 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.09.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055054090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 5 November 2018; Article in Press; Correspondence Address: Smith, G.; Chalmers University of TechnologySweden; email: goran.smith@chalmers.se; Funding text: The authors would like to express gratitude towards the Swedish Innovation Agency (Vinnova) and K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport that funded the IRIMS project. The authors are also grateful for the contributions of the interviewees and of other members of the IRIMS project team, particularly Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren and MariAnne Karlsson.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Sochor, J., Arby, H., Karlsson, M. & Sarasini, S. (2017). A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017 (pp. 187-201).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 187-201Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterizes a ‘MaaS service’,as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS’ potential effects, and aiding the integration ofsocietal goals into MaaS services. Based on a literature review analyzing existing definitions, and anexpert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resultingproposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterized by different types of integration: 0 nointegration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the serviceoffer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are described interms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for business, society, users, andtechnical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topologyadds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along theMaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can helpsupport the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type ofMaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linkedwith the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achievedvia the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecologicalsustainability, and business potential.

Keywords
Mobility as a Service (MaaS), integration, value creation, societal goals, business models
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33070 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Sarasini, S. (2017). Mobility as a Service: Comparing Developments in Sweden andFinland. In: : . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017 (pp. 223-239).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a Service: Comparing Developments in Sweden andFinland
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

This paper examines how institutional factors influence developments in the field of Mobility as a Service(MaaS). We draw upon neo-institutional theory in order to describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developmentsin Sweden and Finland. By analyzing similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set ofgeneral implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate theimportance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders.The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating theright conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levelsof the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we also assess the utility of the appliedtheoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structuralchanges are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

Keywords
Mobility as a Service; neo-institutional theory; drivers and barriers
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33085 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.09.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055054090 (Scopus ID)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Karlson, M., Koglin, T., Kronsell, A., Mukhtar-Landgren, D., Lund, E., Wendle, B., . . . Sochor, J. (2017). Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework
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2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With a continued global urbanisation trend and increasing demand for transportation with consequences interms of, for example, congestion, emissions, and noise, urban mobility is a major challenge for the future.Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution by contributing to reducing the use ofprivate cars and increasing the use of public transport and ride sharing services: “MaaS has the potentialto fundamentally change the behaviour of people in and beyond cities, hence it is regarded as the biggestparadigm change in transport since affordable cars came into the market” (maas-alliance.eu). However,even though a number of initiatives have been taken, including pilots which have shown positive outcomes(see e.g., Karlsson et al., 2016), the implementation of MaaS has been slow.Different sources refer to different challenges. The purpose of the project ‘Institutional Frameworks forIntegrated Mobility Services in Future Cities’ (IRIMS) is to determine how, and to what extent, existinginstitutional factors affect the further development of MaaS. The project aims to provide suggestions for howinstitutions can be modified to enable the implementation of MaaS to contribute to sustainable mobility. Thispaper presents part of the work: a tentative framework, intended to support the analysis of the institutionalfactors that facilitate or create barriers to the further development and dissemination of MaaS (see alsoMukhtar-Landgren et al., 2016).

Keywords
Mobility-as-a-Service; framework; institutions; barriers
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33092 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1304-485x

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