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Smith, G., Sarasini, S., Karlsson, I. C., Mukhtar-Landgren, D. & Sochor, J. (2019). Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland. In: Finger, Matthias; Audouin, Maxime (Ed.), The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems: Towards New Organizational Structures for the Development of Shared, Automated, Electric and Integrated Mobility: (pp. 169-188). Cham: Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland
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2019 (English)In: The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems: Towards New Organizational Structures for the Development of Shared, Automated, Electric and Integrated Mobility / [ed] Finger, Matthias; Audouin, Maxime, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 169-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Based on a review of recent developments in Sweden and Finland, this chapter analyzes the roles of public organizations in the governance of a transition to Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). In particular, we draw on insights from transition frameworks to explore what these two pioneering cases can teach us about how the public sector can both enable the development of MaaS and steer the development trajectory toward diffusion of MaaS offerings that contribute to transport policy goals. We propose three main points. Firstly, public sector organizations at national, regional, and local levels have key roles to play in potential transitions to MaaS, regardless of their intended operative roles in the emerging MaaS ecosystem. Secondly, a central task for public sector organizations is to align operational and tactical MaaS governance activities with both an overarching MaaS strategy and with other relevant strategies, such as transport infrastructures investments, programs for economic and industrial growth, city plans, and parking norms. Thirdly, new models and tools for public–private collaboration are needed in order to effectively govern the development and diffusion of sustainable MaaS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Mobility-as-a-Service, Transport policy, Public governance, Sustainable transitions
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39620 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-96526-0_9 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Sochor, J., Arby, H., Karlsson, M. & Sarasini, S. (2018). A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals. Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), 27, 3-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 27, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterises a ‘MaaS service’, as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the ‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS' potential effects, and aiding the integration of societal goals into MaaS services. Based on an exploration of existing definitions and descriptions of MaaS, and an expert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resulting proposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterised by different types of integration: 0 no integration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the service offer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are then described in terms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for society, business, users/customers, and technical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4 and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topology adds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along the MaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can help support the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type of MaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linked with the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achieved via the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecological sustainability, and business potential.

Keywords
Business models, Integration, Mobility as a Service (MaaS), Societal goals, Value creation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38163 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.12.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062153035 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Strömberg, H., Karlsson, M. & Sochor, J. (2018). Inviting travelers to the smorgasbord of sustainable urban transport: evidence from a MaaS field trial. Transportation, 45(6), 1655-1670
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inviting travelers to the smorgasbord of sustainable urban transport: evidence from a MaaS field trial
2018 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1655-1670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) concept, UbiGo, was implemented in Gothenburg, Sweden, and used for a 6-month period by 195 individuals in 83 households. Four participant subgroups were identified: Car shedders, Car accessors, Simplifiers, and Economizers. A qualitative analysis revealed that the subgroups had different reasons to join the service and different expectations of the change that would occur on the basis of the altered preconditions offered by the service. Previous car users reduced their use of private car and increased their use of public transport and active modes. Participants who did not have access to a privately-owned car but thought they needed one discovered that they managed well without. Other participants were reinforced in their existing behaviors but in ways they did not envisage, depending on which goals they had at the outset of the trial. Overall, the participants were also satisfied with the service, as well as with stated changes and non-changes, even if this in some cases meant more planning. Based on the empirical findings it could be argued that a service approach, such as UbiGo, has the potential to reduce the need for private car ownership, and enable people to change their mode choices and travel patterns. The potential relies however on a number of specific features of the service of which flexibility and a need- rather than a mode-based approach are key features.

Keywords
Field operational test, Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), Mode choice, Sustainable transport, Travel behavior, Civil engineering, Transportation, Empirical findings, Operational test, Public transport, Qualitative analysis, Travel behaviors, Travel patterns, Urban transportation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36923 (URN)10.1007/s11116-018-9946-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056106853 (Scopus ID)
Note

.se

Available from: 2018-12-28 Created: 2018-12-28 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Sarasini, S. (2018). Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland. Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

Keywords
Barriers, Drivers, H110, H44, L240, L320, L910, L980, Mobility as a service, Neo-institutional theory
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35930 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.09.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055054090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 5 November 2018; Article in Press; Correspondence Address: Smith, G.; Chalmers University of TechnologySweden; email: goran.smith@chalmers.se; Funding text: The authors would like to express gratitude towards the Swedish Innovation Agency (Vinnova) and K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport that funded the IRIMS project. The authors are also grateful for the contributions of the interviewees and of other members of the IRIMS project team, particularly Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren and MariAnne Karlsson.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Sochor, J., Arby, H., Karlsson, M. & Sarasini, S. (2017). A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017 (pp. 187-201).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 187-201Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterizes a ‘MaaS service’,as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS’ potential effects, and aiding the integration ofsocietal goals into MaaS services. Based on a literature review analyzing existing definitions, and anexpert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resultingproposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterized by different types of integration: 0 nointegration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the serviceoffer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are described interms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for business, society, users, andtechnical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topologyadds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along theMaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can helpsupport the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type ofMaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linkedwith the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achievedvia the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecologicalsustainability, and business potential.

Keywords
Mobility as a Service (MaaS), integration, value creation, societal goals, business models
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33070 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Sarasini, S. (2017). Mobility as a Service: Comparing Developments in Sweden andFinland. In: : . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017 (pp. 223-239).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a Service: Comparing Developments in Sweden andFinland
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

This paper examines how institutional factors influence developments in the field of Mobility as a Service(MaaS). We draw upon neo-institutional theory in order to describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developmentsin Sweden and Finland. By analyzing similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set ofgeneral implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate theimportance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders.The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating theright conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levelsof the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we also assess the utility of the appliedtheoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structuralchanges are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

Keywords
Mobility as a Service; neo-institutional theory; drivers and barriers
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33085 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.09.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055054090 (Scopus ID)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Karlson, M., Koglin, T., Kronsell, A., Mukhtar-Landgren, D., Lund, E., Wendle, B., . . . Sochor, J. (2017). Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework
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2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With a continued global urbanisation trend and increasing demand for transportation with consequences interms of, for example, congestion, emissions, and noise, urban mobility is a major challenge for the future.Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution by contributing to reducing the use ofprivate cars and increasing the use of public transport and ride sharing services: “MaaS has the potentialto fundamentally change the behaviour of people in and beyond cities, hence it is regarded as the biggestparadigm change in transport since affordable cars came into the market” (maas-alliance.eu). However,even though a number of initiatives have been taken, including pilots which have shown positive outcomes(see e.g., Karlsson et al., 2016), the implementation of MaaS has been slow.Different sources refer to different challenges. The purpose of the project ‘Institutional Frameworks forIntegrated Mobility Services in Future Cities’ (IRIMS) is to determine how, and to what extent, existinginstitutional factors affect the further development of MaaS. The project aims to provide suggestions for howinstitutions can be modified to enable the implementation of MaaS to contribute to sustainable mobility. Thispaper presents part of the work: a tentative framework, intended to support the analysis of the institutionalfactors that facilitate or create barriers to the further development and dissemination of MaaS (see alsoMukhtar-Landgren et al., 2016).

Keywords
Mobility-as-a-Service; framework; institutions; barriers
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33092 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Sarasini, S., Sochor, J. & Arby, H. (2017). What characterises a sustainable MaaS business model?. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017.1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What characterises a sustainable MaaS business model?
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Generally, business models are increasingly recognised as a vital component of transitions towardssustainability (Bocken et al., 2014; Bocken and Short, 2016; Boons and Lüdeke-Freund, 2013a; Schaltegger etal., 2016, 2012; Stubbs and Cocklin, 2008). For example, several works have noted that new business modelsmay unlock the economic potential of electric vehicle technology and assist in its adoption (e.g. BuddeChristensen et al., 2012; Costain et al., 2012; Weiller et al., 2015), but there exists no such work on Mobilityas a Service (MaaS), although it can, in principal, revolutionise the way we travel and has a huge potential toimprove the sustainability of the transport system. Whilst is not presently clear which business model/s willunderpin the development and adoption of Mobility as a Service, it is possible to outline the characteristicsof a sustainable MaaS business model. This paper aims to address the following research question:“What characterises MaaS business models that deliver improvements in the economic, environmental andsocial sustainability dimensions?In order to address this question, we must first tackle the sticky problem of understanding how to treat MaaSas a concept that currently lacks a formal and robust definition. MaaS is often described as an alternativeto private vehicle ownership that combines different types of mobility services as part of a single, seamlessoffering made available to users via subscription-based smartphone applications (Beutel et al., 2014; Goldmanand Gorham, 2006; Sochor et al., 2015), and is also referred to using the rubrics ‘combined’ or ‘integrated’mobility services. However, the MaaS concept can refer to different types of services, and there are several‘things’ that can be integrated within any MaaS initiative. Also, at the current, pre-commercial phase, itmakes little sense to attempt to define MaaS as the field is in a state of fluidity, with several innovativeconcepts being tested. Hence any pre-emptive definition would run the risk of quickly becoming redundant,especially given the current level of hype around the MaaS concept. Instead, it is better to treat MaaS in topological terms by classifying different elements in terms of what may be integrated in a single service.A business model is commonly referred to as a device for creating, delivering and capturing value (Chesbrough,2010; Johnson et al., 2008; Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010; Teece, 2010; Zott et al., 2011; Zott and Amit,2010). Hence in order to examine what characterises sustainable MaaS business models, it is important toconsider: 1) the concept of sustainable value; and 2) the ways in which MaaS, as a topological phenomenon,can be translated into a set of business models that create, deliver and capture sustainable value. These twopoints underpin the structure of this paper, which consists of four sections, of which this is the first. The nextsection outlines the methods deployed, focusing on an integrative literature review. Section three presentsour main findings, outlining a set of principled arguments regarding sustainable MaaS business models,supported by practical examples. The last section concludes with a set of implications for practitioners andfurther research.

Keywords
Mobility services, business models, value capture, sustainable development
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33094 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017.1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1304-485x

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