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Wedin, H., Lopes, M., Sixta, H. & Hummel, M. (2019). Evaluation of post-consumer cellulosic textile waste for chemical recycling based on cellulose degree of polymerization and molar mass distribution. Textile research journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of post-consumer cellulosic textile waste for chemical recycling based on cellulose degree of polymerization and molar mass distribution
2019 (English)In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of which end-of-life cellulosic textiles can be used for chemical recycling according to their composition, wear life and laundering—domestic versus service sector. For that purpose, end-of-life textiles were generated through laboratorial laundering of virgin fabrics under domestic and industrial conditions, and the cellulose content and its intrinsic viscosity and molar mass distribution were measured in all samples after two, 10, 20, and 50 laundering cycles. Results presented herein also address the knowledge gap concerning polymer properties of end-of-life man-made cellulosic fabrics—viscose and Lyocell. The results show that post-consumer textiles from the home consumer sector, using domestic laundering, can be assumed to have a similar, or only slightly lower, degree of polymerization than the virgin textiles (−15%). Post-consumer textiles from the service sector, using industrial laundering, can be assumed to have a substantially lower degree of polymerization. An approximate decrease of up to 80% of the original degree of polymerization can be expected when they are worn out. A higher relative decrease for cotton than man-made cellulosic textiles is expected. Furthermore, in these laboratorial laundering trials, no evidence evolved that the cellulose content in blended polyester fabrics would be significantly affected by domestic or industrial laundering. With respect to molar mass distribution, domestic post-consumer cotton waste seems to be the most suitable feedstock for chemical textile recycling using Lyocell-type processes, although a pre-treatment step might be required to remove contaminants and lower the intrinsic viscosity to 400–500 ml/g. © The Author(s) 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications Ltd, 2019
Keywords
cotton, degree of polymerization, domestic laundering, industrial laundering, Lyocell, viscose, Cellulose, Cellulosic resins, Fabrics, Polymerization, Recycling, Textile chemical treatment, Viscosity, Waste treatment, Industrial conditions, Intrinsic viscosity, Lyocells, Man made cellulosics, Man-made cellulosic fabrics, Molar mass distribution, Laundering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39570 (URN)10.1177/0040517519848159 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067807739 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Östlund, Å., de la Motte, H., Östmark, E., Wedin, H. & Sandin, G. (2018). Chemical Recycling of Textile Fibres (2ed.). In: Annie Gullingsrud (Ed.), Sustainable Fibre Toolkit 2018: (pp. 169-171). Stockholm: Stiftelsen Svensk Textilforskning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical Recycling of Textile Fibres
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2018 (English)In: Sustainable Fibre Toolkit 2018 / [ed] Annie Gullingsrud, Stockholm: Stiftelsen Svensk Textilforskning , 2018, 2, p. 169-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stiftelsen Svensk Textilforskning, 2018 Edition: 2
Keywords
Textile fibres, sustainable fashion, fibre recycling, textile recycling, chemical recycling, Textilfibrer, hållbart mode, fiberåtervinning, textilåtervinning, kemisk återvinning
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33902 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Wedin, H., Källman, B., Kristinsdottir, A. R., Niit, E., Mansoor, Z., Lindgren, C. & Rammsy, H. (2018). Evaluation of dyeing and finishingcomponents in recycling and regeneration ofcoloured textiles prototypes.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of dyeing and finishingcomponents in recycling and regeneration ofcoloured textiles prototypes
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ability to create secondary raw materials with low impurity content is importantfrom a fibre regeneration processing perspective. Cotton textiles contain colourantsand textile finish, which can be considered as impurities in a chemical recyclingprocess. Removal of such impurities in a decolourisation stage would enhance the fibredissolving capacity and stabilise and simplify the fibre regeneration process.Moreover, the removal of impurities from secondary raw materials is also importantfrom an environmental and health perspective. Chemical recycling has the potentialto deal with the risk of retaining or spreading hazardous substances further inre-circulated textile loops. Of specific concern are colourants or additives withcarcinogenic or endocrine disruptive attributes as well as bioaccumulative substancessuch as PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), which are commonly used intextiles for dirt and water repellency.This report describes an experimental evaluation of physical properties of decolourisedcotton regenerated into viscose fibres and an analysis of potentially hazardous textilefinish components throughout a decolourisation approach. The three main researchquestions in this report are:1. Can we obtain viscose fibres from a decolourised black cotton fabric withsimilar physical properties as commercial viscose fibres by using the re:newcelldecolourisation approach?2. Can the impact from a DMeDHEU(1) anti-wrinkle and a fatty acid softener finish onthe physical viscose fibre properties be eliminated using this decolourisation approach?3. Could chemical recycling be a potential solution for recirculation of textiles whichhave a risk of containing hazardous substances of for example PFAS dirt and waterrepellent type?

The project has been performed within the Mistra Future Fashion research program byjoint work from re:newcell, MoRe research, Swerea IVF, Swedish School of Textile and RISE,and with support from the companies DyStar®, Lenzing AG, H&M, I:CO, Boob design,Wiges, New Wave Group, Filippa K and Kappahl. The part of the study that concerned thedirt and water repellent was performed in cooperation with the research project SUPFESfunded by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences andSpatial Planning (FORMAS) under grant agreement No. 2012-2148.The study showed that viscose fibres can be produced from decolourised cotton usingthe re:newcell decolourisation approach. However, the desired physical fibre propertieswere not obtained. More optimisation in the decolourisation stage is needed to adapt thecotton substrate for the viscose process.

A first indication of the softener to positively affect tenacity of the viscose fibre wasobserved. The anti-wrinkle treated fabric showed a tendency in higher reduced cloggingnumber, but no influence on the physical fibre properties was seen. While caution shouldbe taken in drawing conclusions from the few performed trials, it seems likely that theimpact from the tested types of anti-wrinkle agent and softener on the viscose processcould not be eliminated by the use of the decolourisation approach. This also raisesthe question of how persistent the softener is in a decolourisation process. The resultsfrom the analysis on dirt and water repellent substances (DWR/PFAS) throughout thedecolourisation process showed that one third remained in the pulp. This suggests thatthe DWR binds to the fibres in a way which the decolourisation process is not able toreverse.Taken together, these results are not sufficient to prove the hypothesis of whetherchemical recycling could be a potential solution for recirculation of textiles with risk forcontaining hazardous substances of this sort.The trials lead to the following conclusions: The used decolourisation approach haspotential to remove the type of reactive dye, wrinkle-free agent and softener tested inthis study. Adaption of the decolourisation process for the cotton substrate is neededin further trials. In the specific case of cotton flows with presence of dirt and waterrepellent finish we recommend designing of another decolourisation approach.

Publisher
p. 20
Series
Mistra Future Fashion report ; 2018:09
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37692 (URN)978-91-88907-32-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-02-01 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Wedin, H., Niit, E., Mansoor, Z. A., Kristinsdottir, A. R., de la Motte, H., Jönsson, C., . . . Lindgren, C. (2018). Preparation of Viscose Fibres Stripped of Reactive Dyes and Wrinkle-Free Crosslinked Cotton Textile Finish. Journal of polymers and the environment, 26(9), 3603-3612
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation of Viscose Fibres Stripped of Reactive Dyes and Wrinkle-Free Crosslinked Cotton Textile Finish
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2018 (English)In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 3603-3612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The chemical recycling of cellulosic fibres may represent a next-generation fibre–fibre recycling system for cotton textiles, though remaining challenges include how to accommodate fibre blends, dyes, wrinkle-free finishes, and other impurities from finishing. These challenges may disrupt the regeneration process steps and reduce the fibre quality. This study examines the impact on regenerated viscose fibre properties of a novel alkaline/acid bleaching sequence to strip reactive dyes and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneureas (DMDHEU) wrinkle-free finish from cotton textiles. Potentially, such a bleaching sequence could advantageously be integrated into the viscose process, reducing the costs and environmental impact of the product. The study investigates the spinning performance and mechanical properties (e.g., tenacity and elongation) of the regenerated viscose fibres. The alkaline/acid bleaching sequence was found to strip the reactive dye and DMDHEU wrinkle-free finish from the cotton fabric, so the resulting pulp could successfully be spun into viscose fibres, though the mechanical properties of these fibres were worse than those of commercial viscose fibres. This study finds that reactive dyes and DMDHEU wrinkle-free finish affect the viscose dope quality and the regeneration performance. The results might lead to progress in overcoming quality challenges in cellulosic chemical recycling. 

Keywords
Chemical textile recycling, Crosslinking agent, Decolourization, Easy-care, Reactive dye, Alkalinity, Bleaching, Cleaning, Crosslinking, Environmental impact, Mechanical properties, Recycling, Spinning (fibers), Textile fibers, Textile finishing, Textiles, Cross linking agents, Reactive dyes, Textile recycling, Cotton
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33886 (URN)10.1007/s10924-018-1239-y (DOI)2-s2.0-85046401795 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Englund, F., Wedin, H., Ribul, M., de la Motte, H. & Östlund, Å. (2018). Textile tagging to enable automated sorting and beyond: a report to facilitate an active dialogue within the circular textile industry.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textile tagging to enable automated sorting and beyond: a report to facilitate an active dialogue within the circular textile industry
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Series
Mistra Future Fashion report ; 2018:1
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33597 (URN)978-91-88695-29-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Wedin, H., Niit, E., Ahmad Mansoor, Z., Kristinsdottir, A. R., de la Motte, H., Jönsson, C., . . . Lindgren, C. (2017). Investigation of recycled viscose fibres after removal of a reactive dye combination and an easy care finish agent. In: : . Paper presented at Cellulosic material Properties and industrial potential – Final meeting in COST FP1205 March 7-9 2017, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden (pp. 78-79).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of recycled viscose fibres after removal of a reactive dye combination and an easy care finish agent
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Textile-to-textile recycling from cotton textiles can be done either mechanically or chemically. In chemical textile recycling of cotton there are challenges to overcome in order to regenerate new fibres. Two of the challenges among others are reactive dyes and wrinkle-free finishes that could disturb the regeneration process steps since these finishes are covalently linked to the cellulose.

This poster discusses the impact of using a novel alkaline/acid bleaching sequence to strip reactive dyes and wrinkle-free finish (DMDHEU) from cotton textile for production of regenerated viscose fibre properties. The results might generate a promising step forward to overcome quality challenges for cellulosic chemical recycling.

Keywords
decolorization, chemical textile recycling, recycled cotton, cellulose, crosslinking agent, wrinkle-free, reactive dye
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29277 (URN)
Conference
Cellulosic material Properties and industrial potential – Final meeting in COST FP1205 March 7-9 2017, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Projects
Mistra Future Fashion
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-04-10 Created: 2017-04-10 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Östlund, Å., Wedin, H., Bolin, L., Berlin, J., Jönsson, C., Posner, S., . . . Sandin, G. (2015). Textilåtervinning: tekniska möjligheter och utmaningar (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Textilåtervinning: tekniska möjligheter och utmaningar
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Publisher
p. 115
Series
Rapport / Naturvårdsverket, ISSN 0282-7298
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-5650 (URN)28245 (Local ID)978-91-620-6685-7 (ISBN)28245 (Archive number)28245 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4253-3801

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