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Carlborg, M., Weiland, F., Ma, C., Backman, R., Landälv, I. & Winikka, H. (2018). Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 38(2), 777-787
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture
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2018 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 777-787Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Finding resilient refractory materials for slagging gasification systems have the potential to reduce costs and improve the overall plant availability by extending the service life. In this study, different refractory materials were evaluated under slagging gasification conditions. Refractory probes were continuously exposed for up to 27 h in an atmospheric, oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier fired with a mixture of bark and peat powder. Slag infiltration depth and microstructure were studied using SEM EDS. Crystalline phases were identified with powder XRD. Increased levels of Al, originating from refractory materials, were seen in all slags. The fused cast materials were least affected, even though dissolution and slag penetration could still be observed. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were done for mixtures of refractory and slag, from which phase assemblages were predicted and viscosities for the liquid parts were estimated. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords
Biomass, Entrained flow, Gasification, Oxygen blown, Refractory, Slag, Mixtures, Peat, Slags, Crystalline phasis, Entrained flow gasifiers, High-temperature gasification, Oxygen-blown, Phase assemblages, Plant availability, Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation, Refractory materials
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33235 (URN)10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.09.016 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029532285 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Bio4Gasification, Energimyndigheten; Funding text: This work has been founded by the Swedish Energy Agency through Bio4Gasification.

Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Winikka, H., Toth, P., Jansson, K., Molinder, R., Broström, M., Sandström, L., . . . Weiland, F. (2018). Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity. Combustion and Flame, 189, 1339-1351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity
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2018 (English)In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 189, p. 1339-1351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of operating condition on particle formation during pressurized, oxygen blown gasification of wood powder with an ash content of 0.4 wt% was investigated. The investigation was performed with a pilot scale gasifier operated at 7 bar(a). Two loads, 400 and 600 kW were tested, with the oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) varied between 0.25 and 0.50. Particle concentration and mass size distribution was analyzed with a low pressure cascade impactor and the collected particles were characterized for morphology, elemental composition, nanostructure, and reactivity using scanning electron microscopy/high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to quantify the nanostructure of the particles and identify prevalent sub-structures, a novel image analysis framework was used. It was found that the process temperature, affected both by λ and the load of the gasifier, had a significant influence on the particle formation processes. At low temperature (1060 °C), the formed soot particles seemed to be resistant to the oxidation process; however, when the oxidation process started at 1119 °C, the internal burning of the more reactive particle core began. A further increase in temperature (> 1313 °C) lead to the oxidation of the less reactive particle shell. When the shell finally collapsed due to severe oxidation, the original soot particle shape and nanostructure also disappeared and the resulting particle could not be considered as a soot anymore. Instead, the particle shape and nanostructure at the highest temperatures (> 1430 °C) were a function of the inorganic content and of the inorganic elements the individual particle consisted of. All of these effects together lead to the soot particles in the real gasifier environment having less and less ordered nanostructure and higher and higher reactivity as the temperature increased; i.e., they followed the opposite trend of what is observed during laboratory-scale studies with fuels not containing any ash-forming elements and where the temperature was not controlled by λ.

Keywords
Biomass, Gasification, HRTEM, Nanostructure, Soot, Dust, Electron microscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Internal oxidation, Meteorological instruments, Nanostructures, Oxidation, Oxidation resistance, Scanning electron microscopy, Temperature, Thermogravimetric analysis, Transmission electron microscopy, Elemental compositions, Mass size distribution, Ordered nanostructures, Particle concentrations, Particle formation process, Pressurized entrained flow gasification, Reactive particle shells, Particle size analysis, fuel, inorganic compound, nanomaterial, oxygen, Article, ash, chemical composition, chemical structure, combustion, crystallization, gas flow, heat loss, high temperature, image analysis, partial pressure, particle size, particulate matter, powder, priority journal, solid, thermal analysis, thermodynamics, thermostability, wood
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33230 (URN)10.1016/j.combustflame.2017.10.025 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034087389 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: LTU, Luleå Tekniska Universitet; Funding details: Bio4Energy, Energimyndigheten; Funding details: NSF, National Science Foundation; Funding details: MTA, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia; Funding details: SU, Stockholms Universitet; Funding details: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Funding text: The authors wish to acknowledge the PEBG project financed by the Swedish Energy Agency , IVAB , Sveaskog and Smurfit Kappa Kraftliner . The Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish goverment. The Swedish Center for Gasification financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the member companies. Pal Toth is thankful for the support of the Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and Kjell Jansson to the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation for support to the electron microscope facility at MMK, Stockholm University. Prof. Marcus Öhman, Luleå University of Technology is also acknowledged for discussions regarding the inorganic phase of the particles and Esbjörn Pettersson, RISE ETC AB is acknowledged for sampling of the particles during the experiments. This material is based upon work while Dr. Lighty served at the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Bräck, T., Weiland, F., Pettersson, E., Hedman, H. & Sepman, A. (2018). Replace fossil gas in industrial burners with renewable biogas. In: Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica (Ed.), The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018: proceedings. Paper presented at The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct. (pp. 73-73). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Replace fossil gas in industrial burners with renewable biogas
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2018 (English)In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018: proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , 2018, p. 73-73Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2018
Series
VTT Technology, ISSN 2242-1211 ; 340
Keywords
industrial burner, fossil gas, renewable gas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36368 (URN)978-951-38-8672-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct.
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Umeki, K., Furusjö, E., Kirtania, K. & Weiland, F. (2017). Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation. Energy Technology, 5, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation
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2017 (English)In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the development of a multiscale equivalent reactor network model for pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification to quantify the effect of operational parameters on the gasification process, including carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and syngas methane content. The model, implemented in the commercial software Aspen Plus, includes chemical kinetics as well as heat and mass transfer. Characteristic aspects of the model are the multiscale effect caused by the combination of transport phenomena at particle scale during heating, pyrolysis, and char burnout, as well as the effect of macroscopic gas flow, including gas recirculation. A validation using experimental data from a pilot-scale process shows that the model can provide accurate estimations of carbon conversion, concentrations of main syngas components, and cold gas efficiency over a wide range of oxygen-to-biomass ratios and reactor loads. The syngas methane content was most difficult to estimate accurately owing to the unavailability of accurate kinetic parameters for steam methane reforming.

Keywords
Aspen Plus, Biomass, Entrained flow gasification, Equivalent reactor network modeling, Kinetics, Computer software, Efficiency, Enzyme kinetics, Flow of gases, Mass transfer, Methanation, Methane, Reforming reactions, Steam reforming, Synthesis gas, Biomass Gasification, Cold gas efficiency, Gasification process, Heat and mass transfer, Operational parameters, Reactor network, Gasification
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29204 (URN)10.1002/ente.201600760 (DOI)2-s2.0-85015226098 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Wiinikka, H., Wennebro, J., Gullberg, M., Pettersson, E. & Weiland, F. (2017). Pure oxygen fixed-bed gasification of wood under high temperature (>1000 °C) freeboard conditions. Applied Energy, 191, 153-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pure oxygen fixed-bed gasification of wood under high temperature (>1000 °C) freeboard conditions
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2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 191, p. 153-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the performance (syngas composition, syngas production and gasification efficiency) of an 18 kW atmospheric fixed bed oxygen blown gasifier (FOXBG) with a high temperature (>1000 °C) freeboard section was compared to that of a pressurized (2–7 bar) oxygen blown entrained flow biomass gasifier (PEBG). Stem wood in the form of pellets (FOXBG) or powder (PEBG) was used as fuel. The experimentally obtained syngas compositions, syngas production rates and gasification efficiencies for both gasification technologies were similar. Efficient generation of high quality syngas (in terms of high concentration and yield of CO and H2 and low concentration and yield of CH4, heavier hydrocarbons and soot) is therefore not specific to the PEBG. Instead, efficient gasification seems to be linked to high reactor process temperatures that can also be obtained in a FOXBG. The high quality of the syngas produced in the FOXBG from fuel pellets is promising, as it suggests that in the future, much of the cost associated with milling the fuel to a fine powder will be avoidable. Furthermore, it is also implied that feedstocks that are nearly impossible to pulverize can be used as un-pretreated fuels in the FOXBG.

Keywords
Biomass, Entrained flow, Fixed bed, Gasification, Oxygen blown
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29180 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.01.054 (DOI)2-s2.0-85012306104 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Weiland, F., Sweeney, D. J. & Wiinikka, H. (2016). Extractive Sampling of Gas and Particulates from the Reactor Core of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier. Energy & Fuels, 30(8), 6405-6412
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extractive Sampling of Gas and Particulates from the Reactor Core of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier
2016 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 6405-6412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the purpose of demonstrating a process for pressurized entrained flow gasification for pulverized biomass, the aim with this work was to characterize the conditions inside the gasifier. To gain a broader understanding, it was important to extract both gases and particulate matter from the hot reaction zone. The objectives were, therefore, to (1) develop a sampling system capable of extracting both gas and particulates from the gasifier, (2) study the production of particulate matter as well as its composition and size distribution as a function of different operating conditions, and (3) extract time-resolved data for the syngas species (CO, CO2, and CH4) in order to study the compositional variance. The results indicated that the syngas heating value was lower at the sampling position in the gasifier compared to the heating value measured downstream of the quench cooler. The difference was most probably an effect of ongoing gasification of carboneous solids downstream of the sampling position in the gasifier. Furthermore, it was concluded that the fuel feedrate was fluctuating, most likely because of heterogeneity in the fuel powder and/or the challenges in the fuel feeding system itself. With regards to particulate matter in the syngas, it was shown to mostly consist of soot. The soot yield was significantly reduced by increasing γ. The reactor core sampling system proved superior to the traditional sampling system downstream of the quench with regard to measuring soot yield at different operating conditions of the gasifier. Finally, it was concluded that the submicron fly ash particles from oxygen blown biomass gasification contain high propotions of refractory elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, and Si) in addition to the more volatile elements (e.g., K, Na, S, and Cl). This is probably due to extremely high temperature in the flame and substoichiometric condition in the gasifier, which may promote vaporization of refractory elements during char gasification.

Keywords
Biomass, Carbon dioxide, Fly ash, Fuels, Magnesium, Reactor cores, Refractory materials, Soot, Synthesis gas, Biomass Gasification, Different operating conditions, Fuel feeding system, Particulate Matter, Pressurized entrained flow gasification, Refractory elements, Sampling positions, Time-resolved data, Gasification
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27622 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00434 (DOI)2-s2.0-84983657248 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Weiland, F., Hedman, H., Wiinikka, H. & Marklund, M. (2016). Pressurized entrained flow gasification of pulverized biomass - Experiences from pilot scale operation. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 50, 325-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pressurized entrained flow gasification of pulverized biomass - Experiences from pilot scale operation
2016 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 50, p. 325-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the goals in the national energy strategy of Sweden is that the vehicle fleet should be independent of fossil fuels by 2030. To reach that goal and to domestically secure for supply of alternative fuels, one of the suggested routes is methanol production from forest residues via pressurized and oxygen blown entrained flow gasification. In this context, ongoing industrial research in a 1 MWth gasification pilot plant is carried out at SP Energy Technology Center (SP ETC) in Pitea, Sweden. The plant is operated with pulverized or liquid fuels at process pressures up to 10 bar and this work summarizes the experiences from over 600 hours of operation with forest based biomass fuels. This paper covers results from thorough process characterization as well as results from extractive samplings of both permanent gases and particulate matter (soot) from inside the hot gasifier. Furthermore, the challenges with pressurized entrained flow gasification of pulverized biomass are discussed. During the characterization work, four of the most important process parameters (i.e. oxygen stoichiometric ratio (λ), fuel load, process pressure and fuel particle size distribution) were varied with the purpose of studying the effect on the process performance and the resulting syngas quality. The experimental results showed that the maximum cold gas efficiency (CGE) based on all combustible species in the syngas was 75% (at λ=0.30), whereas the corresponding value based only on CO and H2 (with respect to further MeOH synthesis from the syngas) was 70% (at λ=0.35). As expected, the pilot experiments showed that both the soot yield and soot particle size was reduced by increasing λ. One of the additional conclusions from this work was that; minimizing heat losses from the gasifier is of utmost importance to optimize the process performance regarding energy efficiency (i.e. CGE). Therefore, a well-insulated refractory lined gasifier is the primary alternative in regards to reactor design to maximize the CGE. Future development of the PEBG process should focus on identifying suitable hot-phase refractory, that exhibit long life-time and can sustain the alkali-rich biomass ash under gasification conditions. In addition to this, the remaining issue around how to improve the slag flow from the reactor, by additives or fuel mixing, should be investigated.

Keywords
Alternative fuels, Biomass, Energy efficiency, Fleet operations, Forestry, Fossil fuels, Fuel additives, Fuels, Industrial research, Methanol fuels, Oxygen supply, Particle size, Particle size analysis, Pilot plants, Refractory materials, Slags, Soot, Synthesis gas, Cold gas efficiency, Energy technologies, Entrained flow gasification, Methanol production, Pressurized entrained flow gasification, Process characterization, Process performance, Stoichiometric ratio, Gasification
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27682 (URN)10.3303/CET1650055 (DOI)2-s2.0-84976870478 (Scopus ID)9788895608419 (ISBN)
Note

References: Börjesson, M., Ahlgren, E., Modelling transportation fuel pathways: Achieving cost-effective oil use reduction in passenger cars in Sweden (2012) Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79, pp. 801-818; Carlsson, P., Ma, C., Molinder, R., Weiland, F., Wiinikka, H., Öhman, M., Öhrman, O., Slag formation during oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasification of stem wood (2014) Energy and Fuels, 28, pp. 6941-6952; Higman, C., Van Der Burgt, M., (2008) Gasification, , 2nd Edition, GPP, Burlington, MA, USA; Leijenhorst, E.J., Assink, D., Van De Beld, L., Weiland, F., Wiinikka, H., Carlsson, P., Öhrman, O.G.W., Entrained flow gasification of straw- and wood-derived pyrolysis oil in a pressurized oxygen blown gasifier (2015) Biomass and Bioenergy, 79, pp. 166-176; Öhrman, O.G.W., Weiland, F., Pettersson, E., Johansson, A.-C., Hedman, H., Pedersen, M., Pressurized oxygen blown entrained flow gasification of a biorefinery lignin residue (2013) Fuel Processing Technology, 115, pp. 130-138; Swedish Government, (2009) En Sammanhållen Klimat-och Energipolitik - Energi, , Swedish Government, Stockholm, Sweden; Warnatz, J., Maas, U., Dibble, R.W., (2006) Combustion - Pysical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, Pullutant Formation, , 4th ed., Springer, Berlin, Germany; Weiland, F., Hedman, H., Marklund, M., Wiinikka, H., Öhrman, O., Gebart, R., Pressurized oxygen blown entrained-flow gasification of wood powder (2013) Energy and Fuels, 27, pp. 932-941; Weiland, F., Nordwaeger, M., Olofsson, I., Wiinikka, H., Nordin, A., Entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood residues (2014) Fuel Processing Technology, 125, pp. 51-58; Weiland, F., Wiinikka, H., Hedman, H., Wennebro, J., Pettersson, E., Gebart, R., Influence of process parameters on the performance of an oxygen blown entrained flow gasifier (2015) Fuel, 153, pp. 510-519; Woolcock, P., Brown, R., A review of cleaning technologies for biomass-derived syngas (2013) Biomass and Bioenergy, 52, pp. 54-84

Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Leijenhorst, E. J., Assink, D., van de Beld, B., Weiland, F., Wiinikka, H., Carlsson, P. & Öhrman, O. G. W. (2015). Entrained flow gasification of straw- and wood-derived pyrolysis oil in a pressurized oxygen blown gasifier (ed.). Biomass and Bioenergy, 79, 166-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrained flow gasification of straw- and wood-derived pyrolysis oil in a pressurized oxygen blown gasifier
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2015 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 79, p. 166-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast pyrolysis oil can be used as a feedstock for syngas production. This approach can have certain advantages over direct biomass gasification. Pilot scale tests were performed to investigate the route from biomass via fast pyrolysis and entrained flow gasification to syngas. Wheat straw and clean pine wood were used as feedstocks; both were converted into homogeneous pyrolysis oils with very similar properties using in-situ water removal. These pyrolysis oils were subsequently gasified in a pressurized, oxygen blown entrained flow gasifier using a thermal load of 0.4 MW. At a pressure of 0.4 MPa and a lambda value of 0.4, temperatures around 1250 °C were obtained. Syngas volume fractions of 46% CO, 30% H2 and 23% CO2 were obtained for both pyrolysis oils. 2% of CH4 remained in the product gas, along with 0.1% of both C2H2 and C2H4. Minor quantities of H2S (3 vs. 23) cm3 m−3, COS (22 vs. 94) cm3 m−3 and benzene (310 vs. 532) cm3 m−3 were measured for wood- and straw derived pyrolysis oils respectively. A continuous 2-day gasification run with wood derived pyrolysis oil demonstrated full steady state operation. The experimental results show that pyrolysis oils from different biomass feedstocks can be processed in the same gasifier, and issues with ash composition and melting behaviour of the feedstocks are avoided by applying fast pyrolysis pre-treatment.

Keywords
Entrained flow, Gasification, Pyrolysis oil, Syngas, Pilot plant
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6937 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.11.020 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2019-07-03Bibliographically approved
Öhrman, O. G. W., Molinder, R., Weiland, F. & Johansson, A.-C. (2014). Analysis of trace compounds generated by pressurized oxygen blown entrained flow biomass gasification. In: Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy: . Paper presented at The Tcbiomass 2013 conference; September 3–6, 2013, at Chicago, Illinois. (pp. 699-705). , 33, Article ID 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of trace compounds generated by pressurized oxygen blown entrained flow biomass gasification
2014 (English)In: Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 2014, Vol. 33, p. 699-705, article id 3Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Trace compounds were measured in synthesis gas and waste water from a pilot scale pressurized entrained flow oxygen blown biomass gasifier. The feedstock used was milled soft stem wood powder. Gaseous trace compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. Up to 20 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was observed in the cold synthesis gas and the concentration seemed to be independent of the oxygen equivalence ratio (ER). Benzene varied from 30 to 1100 ppm, strongly depended on the ER and correlated well with the methane concentration. The concentrations of acetylene and ethylene increased as the ER was reduced and could have acted as precursors for the observed soot particles which were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from high temperature biomass gasification such as pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and naphthalene were observed in low concentrations in the soot, in the cold synthesis gas and also in the waste water from the quench. Inorganic elements from the feedstock were observed in the waste water. Comparisons were also made with previous results from a black liquor gasifier.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-209 (URN)10.1002/ep.11975 (DOI)2-s2.0-84904252341 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The Tcbiomass 2013 conference; September 3–6, 2013, at Chicago, Illinois.
Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-06-13 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Wiinikka, H., Weiland, F., Pettersson, E., Öhrman, O. .. .., Carlsson, P. & Stjernberg, J. (2014). Characterisation of submicron particles produced during oxygen blown entrained flow gasification of biomass (ed.). Combustion and Flame, 161(7), 1923-1934
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of submicron particles produced during oxygen blown entrained flow gasification of biomass
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2014 (English)In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 161, no 7, p. 1923-1934Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper submicron particles sampled after the quench during 200kW, 2bar(a) pressurised, oxygen blown gasification of three biomass fuels, pure stem wood of pine and spruce, bark from spruce and a bark mixture, have been characterised with respect to particle size distribution with a low pressure cascade impactor. The particles were also characterised for morphology and elemental composition by a combination of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy/selected area electron diffraction pattern (HRTEM/EDS/SAED) techniques. The resulting particle concentration in the syngas after the quench varied between 46 and 289mg/Nm3 consisting of both carbon and easily volatile ash forming element significantly depending on the fuel ash content. Several different types of particles could be identified from classic soot particles to pure metallic zinc particles depending on the individual particle relation of carbon and ash forming elements. The results also indicate that ash forming elements and especially zinc interacts in the soot formation process creating a particle with shape and microstructure significantly different from a classical soot particle. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

Keywords
Biomass, Gasification, HRTEM, SAED, Soot, Zinc, Energiteknik
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6940 (URN)10.1016/j.combustflame.2014.01.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-84901625416 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2890-3546

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