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Blomqvist, P. & Sandinge, A. (2018). Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An experimental evaluation of the most common bench-scale tests methods for fire toxicity was conducted by RISE Fire Research. The background of the work was the on-going discussion in the fire community on the applicability and relevance of these test methods.

The test methods included in the programme were the ISO/TS 19700 steady-state tube furnace (SSTF), the controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (CACC), and the EN 45545-2 smoke chamber test (SC). In these tests the production of selected toxic gases was quantitatively analysed using FTIR. Tests for the measurement of toxic gas production were made with eleven different materials used as test specimens, both combustible and non-combustible materials. The materials were commercially available insulation products provided by EURIMA, the sponsor of the project. These materials should not be regarded as typical or fully representative of a product category.

The evaluation of the results from the different test methods was divided into combustible test specimens and non-combustible test specimens. That was because the test conditions in the first case are greatly influenced by the combustion behaviour of the test specimen, while in the second case the test conditions are more constant.

A general observation was that there in many cases was correlation between both species composition and level of toxic gas species yields between test methods when the combustion conditions were similar. In cases where yields differed significantly it could in most cases be explained by clear differences in test conditions.

For combustible materials it was concluded that the SSTF offers the best means for conducting tests at pre-decided and controlled flaming combustion conditions. The CACC does not give steady-state flaming combustion and the influence of vitiation was limited in the tests made. The SC generally accumulates a mixture of gases from both flaming and non-flaming combustion periods in a test, and the yields measured do not in those cases represent any specific combustion stage.

For non-combustible materials a general observation was that any of the test methods investigated in principle could be used since the influence on the test conditions from the material itself is limited compared to combustible materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2018. p. 134
RISE Rapport ; 2018:40
fire toxicity, test methods, combustion conditions, insulation materials
National Category
Materials Chemistry Other Materials Engineering
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33941 (URN)978-91-88695-79-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
Sandinge, A., Blomqvist, P., Dederichs, A. & Markert, F. (2018). Methods for accelerated ageing of composite materials: a review. In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days: . Paper presented at Nordic Fire & Safety Days, Norway, June 7-8 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for accelerated ageing of composite materials: a review
2018 (English)In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

New materials and designs enter the market every day. They have a great market potential needed for many applications. The future market for development and production of fibre reinforced composite materials (lightweight materials) is very promising, not only within advanced application such as aeronautics, but also in maritime industries, on modern ship vessels and in railway vehicles. As a result of this it is important to know the material properties and fire behaviour in order to ensure a high safety level [1].Materials are tested as “new” and un-aged, which means testing is performed on newly produced products and materials. Very little research has been done regarding fire performance of materials after aging [5].Accelerated ageing can be performed with different aspects and in numerous ways. One type of these can be called weathering and there are mainly four basic types of this ageing used for products and materials. They are: thermal ageing, exposure of high temperature during a selected time; moisture ageing, exposure of water or moisture; UV exposure, and radiation ageing. [5]These types of ageing can be performed in many ways and combinations. For example, thermal ageing can be performed at a selected temperature and time. But it can also be one part of a climate cycling were you have fixed periods with temperature exposure followed by moisture exposure and UV exposure. This cycle can be repeated a numerus of times [7].The degradation of composite materials and change in properties is slow at room temperature. It gets faster with increased temperature. Accelerated ageing is an intentional way to expose materials and products to a proper simulation of long-term usage. Within a few days, weeks or months the damage and degradation of the materials can occur, which normally would be after years in normal climate and after normal usage. Accelerated ageing can cause the material properties to get worse, and an undesirable loss of functionality may be evolved [4].The behavior and material properties of fibre reinforced composites, after exposure of aggressive environmental conditions, shows changes, compared to new materials. After exposure of moisture, the fibres may result in damage and the material structure might be changed. After exposure of moisture and high temperature the durability of the composite is reduced [2].The Arrhenius Rate Law of accelerated ageing can be used to correlate the time in ageing climate. A generalization, supported by the Arrhenius Rate Laws, is that for a reaction in room temperature, the reaction rate doubles every 10°C increase in temperature [6].The objective of this work is to gather the most common methods to perform accelerated ageing, to see the variations between the methods and within the method.

ageing, accelerated ageing, composite materials, fire behaviour
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38869 (URN)10.23699/40g3-6g70 (DOI)978-91-88907-57-8 ()
Nordic Fire & Safety Days, Norway, June 7-8 2018
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved

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