Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 65) Show all publications
Helsing, E., Malaga, K., Suchorzewski, J. & Gabrielsson, I. (2023). Kortversion av SVU-rapport 2022:5 ”Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar”.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kortversion av SVU-rapport 2022:5 ”Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar”
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This RISE report is a short version of SVU report 2022:5 “Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar” (Low carbon concrete for drinking water infrastructure). The purpose of the project was to clarify if the carbon footprint of concrete for drinking water infrastructure can be lowered by replacing Portland cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) accepted for use in concrete without influencing the quality of the drinking water negatively with regard to trace substances and PAH. In addition to reviewing the literature, leaching tests and LCA analyses were conducted on thirteen concretes mixes with varying binder compositions. The results show that it is possible to replace up to 50 % of the cement with the SCMs, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume and fly ash. All this may be GGBS and up to 35 % fly ash may be used. This is valid under condition that a drinking water facility which in its entirety is new drinking goes through a tuning period of some days up to a week during which the water quality is monitored before water is delivered to clients. Leaching of some substances is somewhat increased and others are decreased by the replacement of the cement, however the changes are so small that the content in the drinking water in a real facility is only marginally influenced. Which type of binder to use should be decided based on other these materials influence on other concrete properties, for instance on the strength development. The decrease of the carbon footprint is roughly proportional to the cement replacement ratio.

Publisher
p. 19
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:40
Keywords
Low carbon concrete, drinking water, leaching, LCA, dangerous substances, PAH, slag, fly ash
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66070 (URN)
Note

SVU-projektet har delfinansierats av Sydvatten, Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, Kretslopp och vatten Göteborg, Vatten- och avfallskompetens i Norr AB, Kommunalförbundet Norrvatten samt 4S. Därtill inkluderas i SVU-rapporten resultat från utlakningsprovningar på betong med flygaska finansierade av Heidelberg Materials (dåvarande Cementa AB) och RISE. 

Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2023-08-22Bibliographically approved
Suchorzewski, J., Santandrea, F. & Malaga, K. (2023). Quality assurance for reused concrete building elements. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality assurance for reused concrete building elements
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report describes work performed by RISE within Återhus project funded by the Swedish Innovation Agency Vinnova within Challenges-Driven Innovation program. The project aimed for developing new tools for accelerating the transition to circular construction understood as reusing building parts in new buildings. The key part of that process was identified as quality assurance and tackling the challenges concerning legal regulations, certification processes, determination of material quality by non-destructive and destructive testing, as well as calculation of remaining service-life. The report discussed also the most common deterioration mechanisms affecting service-life based on the pilot cases from the project. The calculation tool included carbonation and chloride ingress as two main mechanisms leading to risk of corrosion. Additionally theoretical relation of environment relative humidity to corrosion rate was embedded in the calculation to give an estimate of the remaining propagation period after corrosion initiation. The calculation tools were applied to estimate the residual service-life of slab elements of four pilot buildings based on empirical data gathered during inventory and condition assessment using both non-destructive methods and laboratory testing. A simple classification of concrete elements was proposed with a clear link to three main factors: remaining calculated service-life, observed cracking and the target environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2023. p. 84
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:10
Keywords
Concrete, Reuse, Quality, Deterioration, Service-life
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64292 (URN)978-91-89757-53-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-04-17 Created: 2023-04-17 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Sadagopan, M., Oliva Rivera, A., Malaga, K. & Nagy, A. (2023). Recycled Fine and Coarse Aggregates’ Contributions to the Fracture Energy and Mechanical Properties of Concrete. Materials, 16(19), Article ID 6437.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycled Fine and Coarse Aggregates’ Contributions to the Fracture Energy and Mechanical Properties of Concrete
2023 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 6437Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the fracture mechanical properties of concrete, using crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) for partial cement replacement. CCAs made from prefabricated concrete replace 100% of the fine and coarse fractions in concrete recipes with w/c ratios of 0.42 and 0.48. Two pre-treatment methods, mechanical pre-processing (MPCCA) and accelerated carbonation (CO2CCA), are investigated for quality improvements in CCA. The resulting aggregates show an increased density, contributing to an increase in the concrete’s compressive strength. The novelty of this paper is the superposition of the effects of the composite parts of concrete, the aggregate and the cement mortar, and their contributions to concrete fracture. Investigations are directed toward the influence of fine aggregates on mortar samples and the influence of the combination of coarse and fine aggregates on concrete samples. The physical and mechanical properties of the aggregates are correlated with mortar and concrete fracture properties. The results show that CCA concrete achieves 70% of the fracture energy values of concrete containing natural aggregates, and this value increases to 80% for GGBS mixes. At lower w/c ratios, MPCCA and CO2CCA concretes show similar fracture energies. CO2CCA fine aggregates are the most effective at strengthening the mortar phase, showing ductile concrete behavior at a w/c ratio of 0.48. MPCCA aggregates contribute to higher compressive strengths for w/c ratios of 0.42 and 0.48. Thus, mechanical pre-processing can be improved to produce CCA, which contributes to more ductile concrete behavior.

National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67422 (URN)10.3390/ma16196437 (DOI)
Note

 This research was funded by the FORMAS-A Swedish research council for sustainabledevelopment. Project title: Construction waste as a carbon dioxide sink and raw material for newproduction. Decision number: FR-2021/0004.

Available from: 2023-09-28 Created: 2023-09-28 Last updated: 2023-09-28Bibliographically approved
Suchorzewski, J., Santandrea, F. & Malaga, K. (2023). Reusing of concrete building elements – Assessment and quality assurance for service-life. Materials Today: Proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reusing of concrete building elements – Assessment and quality assurance for service-life
2023 (English)In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Strategic reuse of demounted concrete elements in new buildings may be one of the solutions that will support the transition to circular construction. To ensure wider application of concrete reuse, RISE developed a methodology for the assessment of the structural condition of existing buildings, and the selection of elements suitable for reuse, including guidelines for their disassembly, storage, and installation. However, one of the main obstacles for wide application of concrete reuse is the uncertainty concerning the remaining service-life of concrete elements and evaluation of quality over the future service-life in a new building. This paper describes a methodology for material and structural assessments which combine non-destructive, on-site testing with traditional laboratory tests of samples extracted from the structures. The results are intended to support the decision-making process on reuse and give a technical basis for the design of new buildings. Great consideration is put on various deterioration mechanisms for concrete and steel corrosion affecting structural condition of housing and office buildings. To assess the impact of degradation processes, theoretical models are considered, while the remaining service life is estimated by means of a simplified approach that provides the basis for evaluation of likelihood and severity of consequences entailed by material degradation on the structural performance. The proposed approach was validated on the results from three pilot projects, where real buildings in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, were reused or prepared for reuse to different extent. The analysed buildings had different functions (housing, office, parking) and structures (prefabricated elements and in-situ casted concrete), being representative for Swedish building stock. One of the buildings has been already dissembled and the prefabricated, where prestressed hollow-core slabs have been successfully reused for a new office building construction. Based on these experiences, a simple classification system for quality of concrete elements for reuse was proposed with three main parameters, namely calculation of remaining service-life, extent of cracking and the target exposure class. The proposed system is not complete and must be further validated for various types of elements and structures by wider group of market actors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66336 (URN)10.1016/j.matpr.2023.07.195 (DOI)
Note

The research presented in this paper was supported by Swedish Innovation Agency Vinnova within project “Återhus-Buildings from buildings” in years 2021-2023 (2020-04171). 

Available from: 2023-09-07 Created: 2023-09-07 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Helsing, E., Malaga, K. & Ollandezos, P. (2023). Vidareutveckling av provningsmetod för klotterskyddsprodukter för betongytor.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vidareutveckling av provningsmetod för klotterskyddsprodukter för betongytor
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Further development of a test method for anti-graffiti products for concrete surfaces Modified test methods for the performance of anti-graffiti coatings are presented in this report. As a base a test method applied in Sweden since is used which involves outdoor exposure of concrete slabs on which the coatings are applied followed by application of the graffiti and cleaning. The modifications are based on a review of methods existing in other countries, discussions with producers of anti-graffiti coatings and a test program carried out at RISE in Borås. The tests were carried out with two sacrificial coatings and some permanent coatings. In the latter case the graffiti is applied and cleaned ten times. In the existing method, the outdoor exposure is said to be three months. However, it was found that when this exposure takes place, in winter or in summer, greatly influenced the protective capability of the coating. In this project the influence of three different exposures were investigated; three month summer exposure, three month winter exposure and twelve month exposure. The test showed that the three-month summer exposure and the twelve-month exposure gave comparable results. Hence prolonging the exposure period is not necessary. However, very deviating results were obtained after the three-month winter exposure. The evaluation of the protective capability is started with a visual inspection against certain specified assessment criteria on remaining stains and visible marks of graffiti. If the coating met the assessment criteria for the visual inspection, assessment criteria on colour changes measured with a colour measuring device shall also be met. Separate assessment criteria for measured colour changes are used for sacrificial and for permanent anti-graffiti coatings. For a sacrificial coating, the assessment criterium is given in relation to the original concrete surface, while for a permanent coating the assessment criterium is formulated in relation to the exposed surface. It was found that the performance requirement on changes in gloss was irrelevant. In the revised method the selection of colour types and water temperature and pressure used in pressure washing has been modified to be consistent with praxis. The drying between cycles including application of graffiti and cleaning was shortened. The method is divided into two methods; one for sacrificial anti-graffiti coatings and one for permanent anti-graffiti coatings that does not require the use of chemical compounds. The latter method is not applicable to permanent anti-graffiti coatings which need the help of chemical products to give satisfactory cleaning.

Publisher
p. 91
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:120
Keywords
anti-graffiti coating, sacrificial, permanent, test method, assessment of protective capability, performance, concrete surfaces
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68162 (URN)978-91-89896-07-9 (ISBN)
Note

Att kunna utvärdera funktionalitet av ett klotterskydd som appliceras på en betongyta är avgörande för val av lämpliga kemiska produkter som ska ge ett skydd mot estetisk skadegörelse. Sedan 2010 har vi använt en metod som utvecklades av RISE (dåvarande CBI Betonginstitutet) för både offerskydd och permanenta skydd. Under 2022-2023 fick RISE i uppdrag att verifiera den befintliga testmetoden som finns i AMA Anläggning och komma med förslag till modifieringar av provning- och utvärderingsproceduren. RISE, Trafikverket och ett antal representanter för klotterskyddproducenter fick möjlighet till att diskutera och lämna synpunkter på själva metoden och branschens utmaningar. Metoden har anpassats till praxis och beskrivs i den här rapporten.

Fulltextfilen är uppdaterad 2023-12-13.

Available from: 2023-12-05 Created: 2023-12-05 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Selander, A., Gil Berrocal, C., Löfgren, I., Sandelin, S. & Malaga, K. (2022). Karbonatisering - En förbisedd koldioxidsänka.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Karbonatisering - En förbisedd koldioxidsänka
Show others...
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten beskriver i en enkel form karbonatisering som kemisk fenomen. Var kommer koldioxiden från, hur tas den upp igen av betongen och hur skall den beaktas i en LCA. I tillägg till detta har en fallstudie genomförts där koldioxidupptaget i ett flerbostadshus beräknats för olika scenarier där designlösningar valts för att maximera koldioxidupptaget och därmed även sänka koldioxidavtrycket för hela byggnaden. Arbetet har genomförts inom ramen för BETCRETE 2.0 som samfinansierats av Vinnova inom programmet utmaningsdriven innovation (UDI) och deltagande företag. Författarna till denna rapport representerar Cementa AB (Anders Selander och Stefan Sandelin), Thomas Concrete Group AB (Carlos Gil Berrocal och Ingemar Löfgren) samt RISE (Katarina Malaga). Fallstudien som presenteras i Bilaga 2 är skriven av Carlos Gil Berrocal.

Publisher
p. 32
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:108
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60130 (URN)978-91-89711-53-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Malaga, K., Helsing, E. & Utgenannt, P. (2022). Kartläggning av befintlig provningsverksamhet för cement och betong i Sverige och bedömning av provningsbehov vid introduktion av nya cement.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kartläggning av befintlig provningsverksamhet för cement och betong i Sverige och bedömning av provningsbehov vid introduktion av nya cement
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten presenterar resultat från projektet ‘Kartläggning av befintlig provnings-verksamhet för cement och betong i Sverige och bedömning av provningsbehov vid introduktion av nya cement’. Mot bakgrund av en minskad eller stoppad produktion av cement vid Cementas fabrik i Slite gav Regeringen Verket för innovationssystem (VINNOVA) den 3 november 2021 i uppdrag att kartlägga befintlig provningsverksamhet för cement och betong (N2021/02773) som finns tillgänglig för svenska aktörer och att föreslå åtgärder som kan skapa förutsättningar för en samordning vid en kraftigt ökad efterfrågan på denna verksamhet. Denna rapport behandlar hur provningsbehovet kan komma att utvecklas vid stopp i den svenska cementproduktionen i Slite vilket resulterar i ett behov av introduktion av stora volymer av ett eller flera nya cement under kort tid. Denna händelse benämns i rapporten förenklat som “cementkris”. Rapporten pekar på några förutsättningar som bör gälla för att ett cementbyte skall kunna genomföras rimligt kontrollerat. I rapporten görs det inte någon bedömning av hur byggbranschen eller samhället i stort skulle påverkas av en cementkris. Det görs inte heller någon analys av vem som tillser att produktions-bortfallet från Slite ersätts med annat cement eller varifrån detta cement kan komma. För en bedömning av provningsbehovet av betong har detta inte någon avgörande betydelse. Ett nytt cement från Kina kräver för betongtillverkaren lika mycket provning som ett nytt cement från närområdet i Europa eller för den delen Sverige. Förutsatt att cementet i sig är CE-märkt och uppfyller svenska krav.

Den huvudsakliga slutsatsen är att: Under förutsättning att inte avkall får göras på de krav som ställs på cement och betong i Sverige idag krävs det att nu använda och nya cement finns tillgängliga parallellt under en övergångsperiod på minst två och ett halvt år. Detta gäller främst betong till anläggningskonstruktioner och infrastrukturprojekt där kraven på kvalitetssäkring via provning på ackrediterade laboratorier är hög. På grund av ökat provningsbehov går det inte att genomföra ett omfattande byte av cement på ett stort antal betongfabriker under kort tid utan betydande störningar och stopp i betongleveranser till svenska byggarbetsplatser, om inte nu använda och nya cement finns tillgängliga parallellt. Inom husbyggnadsområdet är behoven av provning på ackrediterade laboratorier lägre. Hur snabbt och smidigt ett byte av cement kan göras för husbyggnadsbetong avgörs i stället av möjligheterna att utföra nödvändiga interna provningar och intrimningar på fabrikerna.

Om nu använda och nya cement till anläggningsbyggandet finns tillgängliga parallellt under minst två och ett halvt år är bedömningen att nödvändig ökning av provnings-kapacitet hinner byggas upp samtidigt som ett byte från nu använda till nya cement kan göras på ett rimligt kontrollerat sätt med avseende på behovet av extern provning. Detta förutsätter emellertid att samtliga nya cement är CE-märkta och uppfyller svenska krav samt en samordning av provningskapaciteten inom vissa kritiska provnings-områden. För att öka provningskapaciteten på nationell nivå inom kritiska provnings-områden krävs en noggrann planering av hur en sådan utökning skall genomföras (lokaler, utrustning, kompetens, vem som skall vara huvudman) och vem som skall bekosta en sådan ökning av provningskapaciteten.

Publisher
p. 60
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:12
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58487 (URN)978-91-89561-27-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-02-07 Created: 2022-02-07 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Sadagopan, M., Malaga, K., Lundin, M. & Nagy, A. (2021). Effects of Slag Addition and Mechanical Pre-Processing on the Properties of Recycled Concrete in Terms of Compressive Strength and Workability. Nordic Concrete Research, 64(1), 11-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Slag Addition and Mechanical Pre-Processing on the Properties of Recycled Concrete in Terms of Compressive Strength and Workability
2021 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 11-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concrete waste as crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) in structural concrete prolongs the technical life of the reference concrete accomplishing closed loop recycling. CCA concrete reaches the reference concrete compressive strength and workability by the densification of CCA and cement paste. Our previous study demonstrates CCA densification by mechanical pre-processing, aggregate quality improvements discerned by increased packing density giving reference concrete strength and workability. This study addresses paste densification with blast furnace slag (GGBS) to replace 30 (wt.%) of Portland cement at reference concrete w/b ratio 0.5 and a lower w/b 0.42. Two CCA replacements are investigated: fine aggregates, CCA50; overall aggregate replacement, CCA100

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58175 (URN)10.2478/ncr-2020-0018 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-01-14 Created: 2022-01-14 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Mueller, U., Plusquellec, G. & Malaga, K. (2021). Potential for use of activated clays in concrete in Sweden – Roadmap.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential for use of activated clays in concrete in Sweden – Roadmap
2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish construction industry is generating a save and affordable built environment for transport, work and living but it is faced with a huge challenge: drastic reduction of greenhouse gases and an increase of circularity in their production cycles. One material, which has inherently embodied CO2, is limestone, which is needed for the production of Portland cement, the essential ingredient in concrete. The CO2 emission during cement production can be drastically compensated by so called supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), which replace cement components causing CO2 emissions. SCM can be used by incorporating them into Portland cement or can be used directly by mixing into concrete. However, traditionally used SCM such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash are only available in limited amounts in Sweden, not matching the domestic cement production. An alternative to those more traditional SCM is activated or calcined clay, which reacts similar to blast furnace slag or fly ash. Calcined clay is created from natural clays by heating up to 700 ° - 800 °C, where it become very reactive. In this roadmap the state-of-the-art about activated clays is shown from a Swedish perspective. It also shows challenges and needs that have been formulated for a future implementation of activated clays as a component of low carbon concrete.

Publisher
p. 41
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2021:110
Keywords
Clay, lera, calcined clay, kalcinerade leror, concrete, betong, cement, roadmap, färdplan
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57321 (URN)978-91-89561-01-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Sadagopan, M., Malaga, K. & Nagy, A. (2020). Improving recycled aggregate quality by mechanical pre-processing. Materials, 13(19), Article ID 4342.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving recycled aggregate quality by mechanical pre-processing
2020 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 19, article id 4342Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concrete with crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) shows lesser compressive strength than reference concrete with natural aggregates. The goal of this study is to improve the strength of structural concrete with 53% and 100% CCA replacements without increasing the cement content. Thus, improvements in CCA quality are induced by combining mechanical and pre-soaking pre-processing techniques. Mechanical pre-processing by rotating drum is separately pursued on fine and coarse CCA for 10 and 15 min respectively. Results show, adhered mortar content and CCA water absorption reduces as pre-processing duration increases. Pre-processing influences CCA particle grading, flakiness index, shape index, void-content, unit-weight and density, jointly seen as packing density, which increases with pre-processing duration. Water amount to pre-soak CCA before concrete mixing is stable despite grading modifications, due to reduced water absorption resulting from mechanical pre-processing. Compressive strength and workability for pre-processed CCA50 and CCA100 concrete are comparable to reference concrete and show similar trends of improvement with packing density. Packing density markedly shows the quality improvements induced by pre-processing on CCA, maybe considered as one of the quality assessment indexes for CCA. Packing density should be investigated for other recipes to see the stability of the trend with workability and compressive strength. © 2020 by the authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2020
Keywords
Aggregate quality, Aggregate shape, Compressive strength, Concrete recycling, Mechanical pre-processing, Packing density, Recycled aggregates, Sustainability, Workability, Aggregates, Concrete mixing, Concrete mixtures, Grading, Water absorption, Compressive strength and workability, Flakiness index, Natural aggregate, Particle grading, Quality assessment, Quality improvement, Structural concretes, Concrete aggregates
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-50360 (URN)10.3390/ma13194342 (DOI)2-s2.0-85093938328 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: Funding: This study is a part of a Swedish research project RE: Concrete financed by Gunnar Ivarson’s foundation, project Doktorand Byggavfall.

Available from: 2020-11-05 Created: 2020-11-05 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9867-7631

Search in DiVA

Show all publications