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Byrne, E., Björkmalm, J., Bostick, J., Sreenivas, K., Willquist, K. & van Niel, E. (2021). Characterization and adaptation of Caldicellulosiruptor strains to higher sugar concentrations, targeting enhanced hydrogen production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 14(1), Article ID 210.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and adaptation of Caldicellulosiruptor strains to higher sugar concentrations, targeting enhanced hydrogen production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates
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2021 (English)In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the potential for future integration into a biorefinery system due to their capacity to generate hydrogen close to the theoretical limit of 4 mol H2/mol hexose, use a wide range of sugars and can grow on numerous lignocellulose hydrolysates. However, members of this genus are unable to survive in high sugar concentrations, limiting their ability to grow on more concentrated hydrolysates, thus impeding their industrial applicability. In this study five members of this genus, C.owensensis, C. kronotskyensis, C.bescii, C.acetigenus and C.kristjanssonii, were developed to tolerate higher sugar concentrations through an adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) process. The developed mixed population C.owensensis CO80 was further studied and accompanied by the development of a kinetic model based on Monod kinetics to quantitatively compare it with the parental strain. Results: Mixed populations of Caldicellulosiruptor tolerant to higher glucose concentrations were obtained with C.owensensis adapted to grow up to 80 g/L glucose; other strains in particular C. kristjanssonii demonstrated a greater restriction to adaptation. The C.owensensis CO80 mixed population was further studied and demonstrated the ability to grow in glucose concentrations up to 80 g/L glucose, but with reduced volumetric hydrogen productivities (QH2) and incomplete sugar conversion at elevated glucose concentrations. In addition, the carbon yield decreased with elevated concentrations of glucose. The ability of the mixed population C.owensensis CO80 to grow in high glucose concentrations was further described with a kinetic growth model, which revealed that the critical sugar concentration of the cells increased fourfold when cultivated at higher concentrations. When co-cultured with the adapted C.saccharolyticus G5 mixed culture at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h, C.owensensis constituted only 0.09–1.58% of the population in suspension. Conclusions: The adaptation of members of the Caldicellulosiruptor genus to higher sugar concentrations established that the ability to develop improved strains via ALE is species dependent, with C.owensensis adapted to grow on 80 g/L, whereas C.kristjanssonii could only be adapted to 30 g/L glucose. Although C.owensensis CO80 was adapted to a higher sugar concentration, this mixed population demonstrated reduced QH2 with elevated glucose concentrations. This would indicate that while ALE permits adaptation to elevated sugar concentrations, this approach does not result in improved fermentation performances at these higher sugar concentrations. Moreover, the observation that planktonic mixed culture of CO80 was outcompeted by an adapted C.saccharolyticus, when co-cultivated in continuous mode, indicates that the robustness of CO80 mixed culture should be improved for industrial application. © 2021, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Adaptive laboratory evolution, Biohydrogen, Caldicellulosiruptor, Kinetic model, Osmolarity, Hydrogen production, Kinetic parameters, Kinetic theory, Lignin, Bio-hydrogen, Enhanced hydrogen productions, Glucose concentration, High glucose, Kinetic models, Mixed cultures, Sugar concentration, Glucose, adaptation, bacterium, concentration (composition), fermentation, hydrogen, sugar, Trachinotus falcatus
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56909 (URN)10.1186/s13068-021-02058-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85118261833 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: VINNOVA, 2017-03286; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 2017-00795, 31090-2, HighQH2; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by Lund University. This study was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (Metanova project no 31090-2), Formas (HighQH2, 2017-00795) and Vinnova (Multibio, 2017-03286)—Sweden’s Innovation Agency of which neither participated in the execution of the study or in the manuscript writing.; Funding text 2: The authors are grateful to the 3 Swedish funding agencies, Swedish Energy Agency, Formas and Vinnova for funding this research.

Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2021-11-22Bibliographically approved
Ghanim, B., O'Dwyer, T., Leahy, J., Willquist, K., Courtney, R., Pembroke, T. & Murnane, J. (2020). Application of KOH modified seaweed hydrochar as a biosorbent of Vanadium from aqueous solution: Characterisations, mechanisms and regeneration capacity. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 8(5), Article ID 104176.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of KOH modified seaweed hydrochar as a biosorbent of Vanadium from aqueous solution: Characterisations, mechanisms and regeneration capacity
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 104176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vanadium exists as a mobile and toxic trace metal in many alkaline residue leachates. Its removal and recovery not only reduces a global environmental risk but is also critical to the emergence of innovative technologies and the circular economy. In parallel, the use of treated biomass feedstock is receiving increased attention as a low cost adsorbent for toxic metals in wastewater. This study investigated the adsorption of Vanadium (V) from aqueous solution by KOH modified seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) hydrochar (HCKOH). The results showed that HCKOH is an effective V(V) adsorbent, achieving maximum uptake of 12.3 mg g-1 at solution pH 4, 60 min contact time and temperature 293 K. The kinetics followed a pseudo second order model with film diffusion controlling the overall adsorption rate. The type I adsorption isotherm was well fitted to a Langmuir model (qm = 12.3 mg g-1, R2 = 0.970, RMSE = 0.66) and a thermodynamic study indicated that the V(V) adsorption was both exothermic and spontaneous. The low enthalpy change (-10.97 kJ mol-1) indicated a weak binding of V(V) to HCKOH pointing to the possibility of V recovery. The impact of co-existing cations on V(V) uptake was negligible for Na(I) and Ga (III) but was reduced slightly for Al(III). Desorption and re-adsorption results (3 cycles) indicated that HCKOH has reusable potential to remove and recover V(V) from waste leachates. © 2020 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Adsorption, Ascophyllum nodosum, Desorption, Hydrochar, KOH modification, Seaweed, Vanadium, Alkalinity, Aluminum compounds, Computer software reusability, Environmental technology, Gallium compounds, Potassium hydroxide, Recovery, Trace elements, Vanadium compounds, Wastewater treatment, Environmental risks, Innovative technology, Low-cost adsorbents, Pseudo-second order model, Regeneration capacity, Removal and recoveries, Reusable potential, Thermodynamic studies, Sodium compounds
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-46783 (URN)10.1016/j.jece.2020.104176 (DOI)2-s2.0-85089266406 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Environmental Protection Agency, EPA; Funding details: Geological Survey of Ireland, GSI, 2018-ERAMIN2-002; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI, project no. 2018-ERAMIN2-002), the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and an EU ERA-MIN2 award to the EU Biomimic Consortium (ID 86).

Available from: 2020-08-24 Created: 2020-08-24 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Liu, T., Schnürer, A., Björkmalm, J., Willquist, K. & Kreuger, E. (2020). Diversity and abundance of microbial communities in uasb reactors during methane production from hydrolyzed wheat straw and lucerne. Microorganisms, 8(9), Article ID 1394.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity and abundance of microbial communities in uasb reactors during methane production from hydrolyzed wheat straw and lucerne
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2020 (English)In: Microorganisms, E-ISSN 2076-2607, Vol. 8, no 9, article id 1394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of straw for biofuel production is encouraged by the European Union. A previous study showed the feasibility of producing biomethane in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors using hydrolyzed, steam-pretreated wheat straw, before and after dark fermentation with Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, and lucerne. This study provides information on overall microbial community development in those UASB processes and changes related to acidification. The bacterial and archaeal community in granular samples was analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was used to predict the abundance of microbial functional groups. The sequencing results showed decreased richness and diversity in the microbial community, and decreased relative abundance of bacteria in relation to archaea, after process acidification. Canonical correspondence analysis showed significant negative correlations between the concentration of organic acids and three phyla, and positive correlations with seven phyla. Organic loading rate and total COD fed also showed significant correlations with microbial community structure, which changed over time. ADM1 predicted a decrease in acetate degraders after a decrease to pH ≤ 6.5. Acidification had a sustained effect on the microbial community and process performance. © 2020 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2020
Keywords
ADM1, Methane production, Microbial community, Next-generation amplicon sequencing, Process acidification, UASB, VFA, Wheat straw hydrolysate
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-48927 (URN)10.3390/microorganisms8091394 (DOI)2-s2.0-85091379987 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding details: Svenska ForskningsrÃ¥det Formas, 2017-00795; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 31090-2; Funding details: Lunds Universitet; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten), grant number 31090-2. E.K. was also funded by the Division of Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University. K.W. was also funded by the Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development, FORMAS (project no. 2017-00795). The APC was funded by Lund University.

Available from: 2020-10-14 Created: 2020-10-14 Last updated: 2021-02-04Bibliographically approved
Pawar, S. S., Werker, A., Bengtsson, S., Sandberg, M., Langeland, M., Persson, M. & Willquist, K. (2020). MultiBio: Environmental services from a multipurpose biorefinery. Lund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MultiBio: Environmental services from a multipurpose biorefinery
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2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

MultiBio project aimed to establish and demonstrate a novel multipurpose biorefinery cascade concept, producing three renewable biobased products: 1) biohydrogen, 2) biopolymers and 3) protein rich meal ingredients for fish farming. The cascade concept exploits the ability of a bacterium (Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus) to transform nutrients present in low-value waste process waters of the pulp and paper industry, to high-value products hydrogen gas, organic acids and microbial biomass. The organic acid rich effluent will then be managed in an open culture microbial process used to achieve discharge water quality objectives and to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers. Moreover, since C. saccharolyticus protein content is more than 63% of cell dry weight, their potential in formulation of fish feed was evaluated. 

A fiber sludge containing, CTMP residual stream was found to be a possible feedstock for the MultiBio process concept. Due to safety risks the demo-scale experiments of biohydrogen gas technology were moved from Biorefinery demo plant (Örnsköldsvik) of 40 m3 capacity to ATEX classified pilot-scale facility with 0.4 m3 capacity. Hence, bacterial biomass enough for the large-scale fish feed ingredient could not be produced. Lab-scale experiments with Caldicellulosiruptor cells as fish feed ingredient showed promising results as a protein-rich, sustainable fish feed ingredient. In addition, PHA biopolymer also showed favourable results as fish food ingredient for experiments at Gårdsfisk AB. Lab-scale experimental tests showed that the surplus activated sludge from the mills wastewater treatment could currently accumulate PHA to about 20 % of its dry weight. Mass balance evaluations based on realistically achievable expectations indicated a PHA biopolymer production potential of 3 600 tons of PHA per year from available organic residuals and for the two evaluated mills combined. 

The MultiBio concept has a positive climate impact in comparison with current treatment and moves developments in a positive direction to achieve 7 of the 10 Swedish environmental goals. Through a detailed feasibility analysis, a natural progression in next steps in scenarios were suggested for PHA production. The MultiBio cascade process can be implemented with further necessary development with good business potential and a positive effect on climate change. However, biohydrogen technology needs further developments before this cascade process concept can be implemented. Alternatively, a scenario with only biopolymer technology shows already a significant business potential and even larger positive effect on climate change. A successful next step in demonstration of the PHA biopolymer production scenario may lead to it being implemented within the next few years. Furthermore, MultiBio has attracted a lot of attention regionally and nationally but also internationally with a total of 65 media listings. A licentiate thesis and three university degree projects linked to the project have been completed. Overall, the MultiBio project has successfully achieved its goals and objectives.

Abstract [sv]

MultiBio syftade till att etablera och demonstrera ett nytt bioraffinaderi-kaskadkoncept med tre förnybara biobaserade produkter: 1) bioväte, 2) biopolymerer och 3) proteinrika foderingredienser för fiskodling. Kaskadkonceptet utnyttjar förmågan hos en bakterie (Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus) att omvandla näringsämnen som finns i massa- och pappersindustrins lågvärdiga processavloppsvatten till högvärdiga produkter vätgas, organiska syror och mikrobiell biomassa. Det utgående vattnet, rikt på organiska syror, hanteras sedan i en bioprocess med blandad mikrobiell kultur som används för att rena processvattnet och samtidigt producera biopolymerer av typen polyhydroxyalkanoater (PHA). Eftersom C. saccharolyticus proteininnehållet är mer än 63 % av celltorrvikt, utvärderades deras potential för beredning av fiskfoder.

En fiberslam-innehållande CTMP-restström visade sig vara en lämplig råvara för konceptet. På grund av säkerhetsrisker flyttades demoskalaexperimenten av biovätgasteknik från Biorefinery-demoanläggning (Örnsköldsvik) med 40 m3 kapacitet till ATEX-klassificerad pilotskaleanläggning med 0,4 m3 kapacitet. Därför kunde inte tillräckligt med bakteriebiomassa för den storskaliga fiskfoderingrediensen produceras. Experiment i laboratorieskala med Caldicellulosiruptor-celler som fiskfoderingrediens visade lovande resultat som en proteinrik, hållbar fiskfoderingrediens. Dessutom visade PHA-biopolymeren gynnsamma resultat som fiskfoderingrediens för experiment på Gårdsfisk AB. Experimentella test i laboratorieskala visade att bioslammet från bruken kunde ackumulera PHA till cirka 20 % av dess torrvikt. Massbalansbedömningar baserade på realistiska förväntningar indikerade en produktionspotential på 3 600 ton PHA per år från tillgängligt organiskt avfall vid de två ingående bruken. 

MultiBio-konceptet har en positiv klimatpåverkan jämfört med nuvarande behandling och har potential att bidra i rätt riktning för att uppnå 7 av de 10 svenska miljömålen. Genom en detaljerad genomförbarhetsanalys föreslogs scenarier med en stegvis implementering. MultiBio-kaskadprocessen kan implementeras med ytterligare nödvändig utveckling med god affärspotential och en positiv effekt på klimatförändringen. Men bioväte-tekniken behöver vidareutvecklas innan detta kaskad-koncept kan implementeras. Samtidigt visar ett scenario med enbart biopolymerteknologi redan nu en signifikant affärspotential och ännu större positiv effekt på klimatförändringen. En framgångsrik demonstration av det senare scenariot med endast PHA-produktion kan leda till att det genomförs inom de närmaste åren. Dessutom MultiBio har rönt stor uppmärksamhet regionalt och nationellt men även internationellt med totalt 65st medianoteringar. En licentiatavhandling och tre examensarbeten har färdigställts kopplat till projektet. Sammantaget har MultiBio framgångsrikt uppnått sina syften och mål.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: , 2020. p. 23
Keywords
Biohydrogen, Caldicellulosiruptor, polyhydroxyalkanoate, PHA, fishfeed ingredient, pulp and paper mills, residual streams
National Category
Water Treatment Bioprocess Technology Other Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51011 (URN)
Projects
MultiBio (Dnr 2017-03286)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03286
Note

This report summarizes key developments made within the project MultiBio (Dnr 2017-03286) that was financed by Vinnova. 

Available from: 2020-12-16 Created: 2020-12-16 Last updated: 2023-03-30Bibliographically approved
Spooren, J., Binnemans, K., Björkmalm, J., Breemersch, K., Dams, Y., Folens, K., . . . Kinnunen, P. (2020). Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe: technology development trends. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 160, Article ID 104919.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe: technology development trends
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2020 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 160, article id 104919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With an increasing number of low-grade primary ores starting to be cost-effectively mined, we are at the verge of mining a myriad of low-grade primary and secondary mineral materials. At the same time, mining practices and mineral waste recycling are both evolving towards sustainable near-zero-waste processing of low-grade resources within a circular economy that requires a shift in business models, policies and improvements in process technologies. This review discusses the evolution towards low-grade primary ore and secondary raw material mining that will allow for sufficient supply of critical raw materials as well as base metals. Seven low-grade ores, including primary (Greek and Polish laterites) and secondary (fayalitic slags, jarosite and goethite sludges, zinc-rich waste treatment sludge and chromium-rich neutralisation sludge) raw materials are discussed as typical examples for Europe. In order to treat diverse and complex low-grade ores efficiently, the use of a new metallurgical systems toolbox is proposed, which is populated with existing and innovative unit operations: (i) mineral processing, (ii) metal extraction, (iii) metal recovery and (iv) matrix valorisation. Several promising novel techniques are under development for these four unit-operations. From an economical and environmental point of view, such processes must be fitted into new (circular) business models, whereby impacts and costs are divided over the entire value chain. Currently, low-grade secondary raw material processing is only economic and environmentally beneficial when the mineral residues can be valorised and landfill costs are avoided and/or incentives for waste processing can be taken into account. © 2020 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2020
Keywords
Circular economy, Critical raw materials, Low-grade ores, Metals, Near-zero-waste, Recycling, Costs, Metal recovery, Mineral resources, Ore treatment, Ores, Slags, Soils, Waste treatment, In-process technology, Metal extractions, Metallurgical systems, Mineral materials, Mineral processing, Secondary Raw Materials, Technology development, Raw materials, municipal solid waste, policy implementation, policy making, sludge, waste disposal, waste technology, Europe
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45070 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104919 (DOI)2-s2.0-85085052305 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020, 690088; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme: Metal Recovery from Low-Grade Ores and Wastes Plus (METGROW+) [grant number 690088]. Project website: https://metgrowplus.eu .

Available from: 2020-07-01 Created: 2020-07-01 Last updated: 2021-01-13Bibliographically approved
Pawar, S. (2019). Scale-up and Process development of biological hydrogen process by Caldicellulosiruptor species using ‘fibresludge water’. Lund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scale-up and Process development of biological hydrogen process by Caldicellulosiruptor species using ‘fibresludge water’
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: , 2019. p. 17
Keywords
Biohydrogen, Caldicellulosiruptor, Scale-up, process water
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61169 (URN)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03286
Available from: 2022-11-15 Created: 2022-11-15 Last updated: 2023-03-27Bibliographically approved
Björkmalm, J., Byrne, E., van Niel, E. & Willquist, K. (2018). A non-linear model of hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus for diauxic-like consumption of lignocellulosic sugar mixtures. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 11, Article ID 175.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A non-linear model of hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus for diauxic-like consumption of lignocellulosic sugar mixtures
2018 (English)In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, article id 175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an attractive hydrogen producer suitable for growth on various lignocellulosic substrates. The aim of this study was to quantify uptake of pentose and hexose monosaccharides in an industrial substrate and to present a kinetic growth model of C. saccharolyticus that includes sugar uptake on defined and industrial media. The model is based on Monod and Hill kinetics extended with gas-to-liquid mass transfer and a cybernetic approach to describe diauxic-like growth.

Results

Mathematical expressions were developed to describe hydrogen production by C. saccharolyticus consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose. The model parameters were calibrated against batch fermentation data. The experimental data included four different cases: glucose, xylose, sugar mixture, and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) fermentations. The fermentations were performed without yeast extract. The substrate uptake rate of C. saccharolyticus on single sugar-defined media was higher on glucose compared to xylose. In contrast, in the defined sugar mixture and WSH, the pentoses were consumed faster than glucose. Subsequently, the cultures entered a lag phase when all pentoses were consumed after which glucose uptake rate increased. This phenomenon suggested a diauxic-like behavior as was deduced from the successive appearance of two peaks in the hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivity. The observation could be described with a modified diauxic model including a second enzyme system with a higher affinity for glucose being expressed when pentose saccharides are consumed. This behavior was more pronounced when WSH was used as substrate.

Conclusions

The previously observed co-consumption of glucose and pentoses with a preference for the latter was herein confirmed. However, once all pentoses were consumed, C. saccharolyticus most probably expressed another uptake system to account for the observed increased glucose uptake rate. This phenomenon could be quantitatively captured in a kinetic model of the entire diauxic-like growth process. Moreover, the observation indicates a regulation system that has fundamental research relevance, since pentose and glucose uptake in C. saccharolyticus has only been described with ABC transporters, whereas previously reported diauxic growth phenomena have been correlated mainly to PTS systems for sugar uptake.

Keywords
Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus – Hydrogen – Kinetic growth model – Glucose uptake – Xylose uptake – Diauxic
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34067 (URN)10.1186/s13068-018-1171-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049011727 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 31090-2
Available from: 2018-07-06 Created: 2018-07-06 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Byrne, E., Kovacs, K., Van Niel, E. W. J., Willquist, K., Svensson, S.-E. & Kreuger, E. (2018). Reduced use of phosphorus and water in sequential dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and the application of ensiled steam-pretreated lucerne as a macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 11(1), Article ID 281.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced use of phosphorus and water in sequential dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and the application of ensiled steam-pretreated lucerne as a macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion
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2018 (English)In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Current EU directives demand increased use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector but restrict governmental support for production of biofuels produced from crops. The use of intercropped lucerne and wheat may comply with the directives. In the current study, the combination of ensiled lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and wheat straw as substrate for hydrogen and methane production was investigated. Steam-pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw [WSH, 76% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and ensiled lucerne (LH, 24% of total COD) were used for sequential hydrogen production through dark fermentation and methane production through anaerobic digestion and directly for anaerobic digestion. Synthetic co-cultures of extreme thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species adapted to elevated osmolalities were used for dark fermentation. Results: Based on 6 tested steam pretreatment conditions, 5 min at 200 °C was chosen for the ensiled lucerne. The same conditions as applied for wheat straw (10 min at 200 °C with 1% acetic acid) would give similar sugar yields. Volumetric hydrogen productivities of 6.7 and 4.3 mmol/L/h and hydrogen yields of 1.9 and 1.8 mol/mol hexose were observed using WSH and the combination of WSH and LH, respectively, which were relatively low compared to those of the wild-type strains. The combinations of WSH plus LH and the effluent from dark fermentation of WSH plus LH were efficiently converted to methane in anaerobic digestion with COD removal of 85-89% at organic loading rates of COD 5.4 and 8.5 g/L/day, respectively, in UASB reactors. The nutrients in the combined hydrolysates could support this conversion. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the possibility of reducing the water addition to WSH by 26% and the phosphorus addition by 80% in dark fermentation with Caldicellulosiruptor species, compared to previous reports. WSH and combined WSH and LH were well tolerated by osmotolerant co-cultures. The yield was not significantly different when using defined media or hydrolysates with the same concentrations of sugars. However, the sugar concentration was negatively correlated with the hydrogen yield when comparing the results to previous reports. Hydrolysates and effluents from dark fermentation can be efficiently converted to methane. Lucerne can serve as macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion. Intercropping with wheat is promising.

Keywords
Alfalfa, Biofuel, Biogas, Caldicellulosiruptor, Co-substrate, Energy crops, Intercropping, Osmotolerance, Thermophilic hydrogen production, UASB, Biofuels, Chemical oxygen demand, Crops, Effluents, Fermentation, Hydrogen production, Methane, Phosphorus, Plants (botany), Straw, Substrates, Anaerobic digestion, Medicago sativa, Triticum aestivum
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35603 (URN)10.1186/s13068-018-1280-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85054918693 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Lunds Universitet; Funding details: 31090‑2, Energimyndigheten;

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Xie, Y., Björkmalm, J., Ma, C., Willquist, K., Yngvesson, J., Wallberg, O. & Ji, X. (2018). Techno-economic evaluation of biogas upgrading using ionic liquids in comparison with industrially used technology in Scandinavian anaerobic digestion plants. Applied Energy, 227, 742-750
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic evaluation of biogas upgrading using ionic liquids in comparison with industrially used technology in Scandinavian anaerobic digestion plants
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 742-750Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The process of biogas upgrading with ionic liquids, i.e. pure 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]), aqueous choline chloride/urea (ChCl/Urea), and aqueous 1-allyl-3-methyl imidazole formate ([Amim][HCOO]), was simulated in Aspen Plus and compared with the conventional water scrubbing upgrading technique. The comparisons of the performances on the amount of recirculated solvents and energy usage show the following order: aqueous [Amim][HCOO]<aqueous ChCl/Urea<[bmim][Tf2N]<water. Six different co-digestion plants (anaerobic digestion, AD, plants) were surveyed to acquire data for comparison. The selected plants had different raw biogas production capacities and produced gas with differing methane content. The data confirmed the simulation results that the type of substrate and the configuration of AD process are two factors affecting energy usage, investment cost, as well as operation and maintenance costs for the subsequent biogas upgrading. In addition, the simulation indicated that the energy usage of the ionic liquid-based upgrading was lower than that of the conventional upgrading techniques in Scandinavian AD plants. The estimated cost including investment, operation and maintenance for the ionic liquid technology showed to be lower than that for the water scrubbing upgrading process.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Biogas upgrading, Ionic liquids, Process simulation, Techno-economic evaluation, Biogas, Computer software, Costs, Economic analysis, Energy utilization, Gas plants, Investments, Liquids, Choline chloride, Estimated costs, Investment costs, Ionic liquid technology, Operation and maintenance, Process simulations
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31131 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.067 (DOI)2-s2.0-85026290782 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Ekman Nilsson, A., Macias Aragones, M., Arroyo Torralvo, F., Dunon, V., Angel, H., Komnitsas, K. & Willquist, K. (2017). A review of carbon footprint of Cu and Zn production from primary and secondary sources. Minerals, 7(9), 168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of carbon footprint of Cu and Zn production from primary and secondary sources
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2017 (English)In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 168-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with their unique propertiesare central for economic growth, quality of life and creation of new jobs. The base-metalproducing sector is, however, under growing public pressure in respect toenergy and water requirements and needs to meet several challenges, includingincreased demand and lower ore grades generally associated with larger resourceuse. The development of technologies for metal production from secondarysources is often motivated by increased sustainability and this paper aims to providefurther insights about one specific aspect of sustainability, namely climatechange. The paper presents a review of carbon footprints (CF) for Cu and Znproduced from primary and secondary raw materials, by analyzing data taken fromscientific literature and the Ecoinvent database. Comparisons are carried outbased on the source of data selected as reference case. In the case of Cu,reduced CF of secondary production is indicated, although there is large datavariation. As for Zn, production of this metal from secondary sources seems to bebeneficial but the number of data and cases to be compared is much smallercompared to Cu. The general variation of data suggests that standardization ofcomparison is needed when assessing the environmental benefits of production inline with the principles of waste valorization, zero waste approach andcircular economy.

Keywords
Cu; Zn; circular economy; carbon footprint; mining; secondary materials; Ecoinvent database
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33286 (URN)10.3390/min7090168 (DOI)2-s2.0-85031404282 (Scopus ID)
Projects
H2020 METGROWplus
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0359-3652

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