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Williams Portal, NatalieORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0033-1841
Publications (10 of 49) Show all publications
Larsson, J., Johansson, F., Ivars, D., Johnson, E., Flansbjer, M. & Williams Portal, N. (2023). A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Derivation of quality assurance parameters and geometric reproducibility. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Derivation of quality assurance parameters and geometric reproducibility
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Since each rock joint is unique by nature, the utilization of replicas in direct shear testing is required to carry out experimental parameter studies. However, information about the ability of the replicas to simulate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint and their dispersion in direct shear testing is lacking. With the aim to facilitate generation of high-quality direct shear test data from replicas, a novel component in the testing procedure is introduced by presenting two parameters for geometric quality assurance. The parameters are derived from surface comparisons of three-dimensional (3D) scanning data of the rock joint and its replicas. The first parameter, σmf, captures morphological deviations between the replica and the rock joint surfaces. σmf is derived as the standard deviation of the deviations between the coordinate points of the replica and the rock joint. Four sources of errors introduced in the replica manufacturing process employed in this study could be identified. These errors could be minimized, yielding replicas with σmf ≤ 0.06 mm. The second parameter is a vector, VHp100, which describes deviations with respect to the shear direction. It is the projection of the 100 mm long normal vector of the best-fit plane of the replica joint surface to the corresponding plane of the rock joint. |VHp100| was found to be less than or equal to 0.36 mm in this study. Application of these two geometric quality assurance parameters demonstrates that it is possible to manufacture replicas with high geometric similarity to the rock joint. In a subsequent paper (part 2), σmf and VHp100 are incorporated in a novel quality assurance method, in which the parameters shall be evaluated prior to direct shear testing. Replicas having parameter values below established thresholds shall have a known and narrow dispersion and imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2023
Keywords
Geometric quality assurance, Geometric reproducibility, Replicas, Rock joint, Surface comparisons, Three-dimensional (3D) scanning
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63984 (URN)10.1016/j.jrmge.2022.12.011 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147379920 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Larsson, J, RISE, Sweden; email: jorgen.larsson@ri.se; Funding details: BeFo 391; Funding details: Nuclear Waste Management Organization, NWMO; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial contribution received from BeFo Rock Engineering Research Foundation (Grant proposal BeFo 391); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) , Toronto, Canada and Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. ( SKB ), Solna, Sweden. The authors also would like to acknowledge Jörgen Spetz at the Department of Measurement Technology at Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) for performing the scanning.

Available from: 2023-02-16 Created: 2023-02-16 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Johansson, F., Ivars, D. M., Johnson, E., Flansbjer, M. & Williams Portal, N. (2023). A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing : Part 2: Validation and mechanical replicability. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing : Part 2: Validation and mechanical replicability
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Each rock joint is unique by nature which means that utilization of replicas in direct shear tests is required in experimental parameter studies. However, a method to acquire knowledge about the ability of the replicas to imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint and their dispersion in direct shear testing is lacking. In this study, a novel method is presented for geometric quality assurance of replicas. The aim is to facilitate generation of high-quality direct shear testing data as a prerequisite for reliable subsequent analyses of the results. In Part 1 of this study, two quality assurance parameters, σmf and VHp100, are derived and their usefulness for evaluation of geometric deviations, i.e. geometric reproducibility, is shown. In Part 2, the parameters are validated by showing a correlation between the parameters and the shear mechanical behavior, which qualifies the parameters for usage in the quality assurance method. Unique results from direct shear tests presenting comparisons between replicas and the rock joint show that replicas fulfilling proposed threshold values of σmf < 0.06 mm and < 0.2 mm have a narrow dispersion and imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint in all aspects apart from having a slightly lower peak shear strength. The wear in these replicas, which have similar morphology as the rock joint, is in the same areas as in the rock joint. The wear is slightly larger in the rock joint and therefore the discrepancy in peak shear strength derives from differences in material properties, possibly from differences in toughness. It is shown by application of the suggested method that the quality assured replicas manufactured following the process employed in this study phenomenologically capture the shear strength characteristics, which makes them useful in parameter studies.

Keywords
Three-dimensional (3D) scanning, Contact area measurements, Direct shear testing, Geometric quality assurance, Mechanical replicability, Replicas, Rock joint
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64280 (URN)10.1016/j.jrmge.2022.12.012 (DOI)
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial contribution received from BeFo Rock Engineering Research Foundation (Grant proposal BeFo 391); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Canada and Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Solna, Sweden. 

Available from: 2023-03-30 Created: 2023-03-30 Last updated: 2023-07-03Bibliographically approved
Godio, M., Flansbjer, M. & Williams Portal, N. (2023). Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements. International Journal of Impact Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the center of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on unreinforced masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

Keywords
Impacts, Masonry, Out-of-plane, Arching, Digital Image Correlation (DIC), High-speed cameras
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64282 (URN)10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2023.104597 (DOI)
Note

This study was funded by the ÅForsk Foundation, through the ‘Young researcher’ granting scheme, grant agreement n. 20-335.

Available from: 2023-04-06 Created: 2023-04-06 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Godio, M., Flansbjer, M. & Williams Portal, N. (2023). Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 178, Article ID 104597.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 178, article id 104597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the centre of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

Keywords
Impacts, Masonry, Out-of-plane, Arching, Digital image correlation (DIC), High-speed cameras
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64373 (URN)10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2023.104597 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152227379& (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was funded by the ÅForsk Foundation, through the ‘Young researcher’ granting scheme, grant agreement n. 20-335.

Available from: 2023-04-25 Created: 2023-04-25 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Godio, M., Flansbjer, M. & Williams Portal, N. (2023). Single- and double-wythe brick masonry walls subjected to four-point bending tests under different support conditions: Simply supported, rigid, non-rigid. Construction and Building Materials, 404, Article ID 132544.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single- and double-wythe brick masonry walls subjected to four-point bending tests under different support conditions: Simply supported, rigid, non-rigid
2023 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 404, article id 132544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Out-of-plane actions cause confined unreinforced masonry walls (URM) to develop what is known as an arching action. The role of arching is central in the resisting mechanisms of a wall; it contributes significantly to its loadbearing capacity as long as the wall’s deflections are minor, but gradually loses effect with increasing deflections, until collapse occurs. To date, limited experimental data is available on how arching develops in relation to the out-of-plane behaviour of the wall. This study brings new experimental evidence to this aspect. Quasi-static monotonic four-point bending tests were conducted on eleven brick wall strips, with reinforced concrete (RC) slabs affixed below and over the walls to simulate contact conditions of a typical construction system. The walls were tested vis-à-vis three different support conditions: simply supported, rigid, and non-rigid. The influence of these support conditions on the out-of-plane behaviour of the walls was studied on specimens with varying thickness – single and double wythe – and subjected to different levels of axial compression (or overload). While the former support condition was designed not to yield any arching inside the wall (unconfined masonry), the intermediate and latter solutions generated an arching action that was proportional respectively to the elongation of the wall (partially confined masonry), and its deflection (confined masonry). The walls were tested inside a bi-axial test setup that allowed not only the out-of-plane force but also the arching action to be measured, corroborating its central role in the development of the out-of-plane capacity of the walls. To support the observations, deformation characteristics and crack distributions were determined using two optical measurement systems placed in front and to the side of the walls, making use of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The results of the tests are discussed in terms of failure mechanism as well as force and displacement capacity of the walls in relation to the investigated parameters. The test data is collected and made available to help with future research on the out-of-plane capacity of URM walls.

Keywords
Unreinforced masonry (URM), Out-of-plane, Arching, Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Bending, Shear failure
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66705 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.132544 (DOI)
Note

This study was made possible with the support of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) and Swedish Fortifications Agency (FORTV), working jointly in the Centre of excellence for fortifications (Centrum for fortifikatorisk kompetens, CFORT). 

Available from: 2023-09-07 Created: 2023-09-07 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Williams Portal, N., Prieto Rábade, M. & Franciscangelis, C. (2022). Sensor characteristics and implementation for tidal turbine foundation.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensor characteristics and implementation for tidal turbine foundation
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of CF2T project is to develop a competitive foundation, immerse it as part of a precommercial project and validate the concept in a real sea environment. The innovative foundation will be designed to decrease construction costs, with modular interfaces to allow an installation in several packages (foundation parts, ballasts, turbine) in order to limit the installation vessel’s crane capacity requirement, which will also reduce installation costs. The different alternatives to reduce the structure construction costs and modularity will be evaluated including the design of a hybrid foundation combining concrete and steel. The new foundation should also have an adaptive interface with the seabed in order to avoid any seabed preparation. In addition, the project will develop a monitoring system to have a better understanding of loads applied to the structure for future foundations developments. This monitoring will allow to carry out a survey of the structural health for preventive maintenance which will contribute to improve reliability of the foundation. This report is the first deliverable in WP6 (Foundation Monitoring), namely D6.1 Sensor characteristics and implementation report. RISE led the work in collaboration with SAITEC and ALKIT. This report proposes sensor characteristics and implementation for the foundation of tidal turbine designed within the project. A literature review is firstly included on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), relevant SHM techniques and SHM’s applicability to both concrete and offshore structures. Fibre optics, specifically Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG), were identified to be the most suitable solution for SHM of the concrete foundation. Critical measurement areas and performance indicators for the concrete foundation were identified and a detailed measurement scheme was proposed. Implementation on the laboratory scale was studied for both material and component levels, i.e., steel reinforcement and concrete surface. It was observed that the fibre optics were able to measure the distribution of strains coherently and accurately on steel reinforcement subjected to tensile loading, all while proving to be durable against high levels of corrosion. Detection of strain in the concrete surface which could indicate tilting and/or onset of cracking was also possible with the proposed fibre optic system.

Publisher
p. 50
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:03
Keywords
marine structure, tidal turbine, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), fibre optics
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62520 (URN)978-91-89561-18-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-13 Created: 2023-01-13 Last updated: 2023-05-26
Williams Portal, N., Prieto Rábade, M. & Franciscangelis, C. (2022). Sensors implemented and calibrated in proof-of-concept.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensors implemented and calibrated in proof-of-concept
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of CF2T project is to develop a competitive foundation, immerse it as part of a precommercial project and validate the concept in a real sea environment. The innovative foundation will be designed to decrease construction costs, with modular interfaces to allow an installation in several packages (foundation parts, ballasts, turbine) in order to limit the installation vessel’s crane capacity requirement, which will also reduce installation costs. The different alternatives to reduce the structure construction costs and modularity will be evaluated including the design of a hybrid foundation combining concrete and steel. The new foundation should also have an adaptive interface with the seabed in order to avoid any seabed preparation. In addition, the project will develop a monitoring system to have a better understanding of loads applied to the structure for future foundations developments. This monitoring will allow to carry out a survey of the structural health for preventive maintenance which will contribute to improve reliability of the foundation. This report is the second deliverable in WP6 (Foundation Monitoring), namely D6.2 Sensor implemented and calibrated in proof-of-concept. RISE led the work with collaborative efforts from ALKIT. The proof-of-concept was proposed by RISE to enable the implementation of the proposed and developed monitoring system based on fibre optics in a representative reinforced concrete test object. This report covers the implementation in the proof-of-concept, the execution of experiment with mechanical loading on the test object, as well as the calibration of the given sensors and verification using secondary measuring techniques. The results show a complete characterization of the structure strain response along several loading cycles and the compatibility between the fibre optics-based sensors and the strain gauges validating the optical solution for structural monitoring. The system showed its capability for crack detection and also showed a good consistency of the measurements under repeated cycles. Lastly, a description of requirements and details for taking this proof-of-concept to the next phase of offshore monitoring of the concrete foundation is provided.

Publisher
p. 54
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:06
Keywords
marine structure, tidal turbine, Structural health monitoring (SHM), fibre optics, concrete foundation
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62521 (URN)978-91-89561-21-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-13 Created: 2023-01-13 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Godio, M., Williams Portal, N., Flansbjer, M., Magnusson, J. & Byggnevi, M. (2021). Experimental and numerical approaches to investigate the out-of-plane response of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to free far-field blasts. Engineering structures, 239, Article ID 112328.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and numerical approaches to investigate the out-of-plane response of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to free far-field blasts
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2021 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 239, article id 112328Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Masonry walls are bulky and heavy and have therefore the potential to act naturally as a protective system to blasts. Yet, they are known to have a limited flexural and torsional capacity, particularly when unreinforced. When exposed to shockwaves, they experience out-of-plane failure mechanisms which may affect the overall stability of the building and engender flying debris inside the building. The out-of-plane response of unreinforced masonry walls to blasts depends on many factors characterizing both the wall and blast action, making any sort of prediction difficult. In this context, experimental tests and numerical models become key tools that can be used to study the wall’s response on a case-by-case basis. This review covers the major experimental and numerical approaches to assess the out-of-plane response of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to blasts. A methodological appraisal is used for the test methods, focusing on the preparation of the test items and test setup, the boundary conditions and failure mechanisms investigated, as well as the commonly employed measurement techniques. The survey on the modelling approaches includes key topics such as level of detail and cost, and reports strategies to model the wall and blast scenario. The review provides a thematic analysis of the available literature, aimed to assist the analyst in selecting a suitable tool for the investigation of masonry in the field of blast engineering. Furthermore, the findings presented herein can support amendments of existing codes and guidelines pertaining to the design of protective masonry structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Masonry, Blast, Out-of-plane actions, Testing, Modelling
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52977 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2021.112328 (DOI)
Note

The presented research was made possible with the support of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and Swedish Fortifications Agency (FORTV), working jointly in the Centrum för fortifikatorisk kompetens (Centre of excellence for fortifications, CFORT).

Available from: 2021-04-21 Created: 2021-04-21 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Williams Portal, N., Godio, M., Flansbjer, M., Byggnevi, M. & Magnusson, J. (2021). Quasi-static out-of-plane testing of unreinforced masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements. In: : . Paper presented at 14T H CANADIAN MASONRY SYMPOSIUM MO N T R E A L , C A N A D A MAY 16TH – MAY 20TH , 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quasi-static out-of-plane testing of unreinforced masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements
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2021 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Masonry buildings have existed in Sweden since the Middle Ages. The use of brick masonry as a construction material was pivotal until the beginning of the 20th century. Unreinforced masonry walls (URM) are massive and act as a protective system, yet they have limited capacity against explosions. When exposed to blasts, they experience out-of-plane failure, which engenders flying debris inside the building and may affect the stability of the building. Knowledge pertaining to the design and strengthening of URM walls against blasts has been identified as insufficient, on a Swedish context, to answer the current threats. In this paper, the results from quasi-static out-ofplane tests performed on URM walls made of clay bricks and lime-based mortar are presented. The tests were performed at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden by applying an incremental outof-plane displacement, while applying an axial load at the wall’s top edge. RC slabs were affixed over and below the walls to simulate the contact condition of a typical system. Two different types of support were tested for the upper slab: a) where the slab could slide along the vertical direction, and b) where this was prevented, leading to an arching action inside the wall. The results were generated as a part of an initial experimental stage of a project investigating URM walls loaded laterally by static and blast loads with optical measurements. Ultimately, the results will be used to verify existing models and/or develop a new model for the load-deformation relationship.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56397 (URN)
Conference
14T H CANADIAN MASONRY SYMPOSIUM MO N T R E A L , C A N A D A MAY 16TH – MAY 20TH , 2021
Available from: 2021-09-09 Created: 2021-09-09 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Williams Portal, N., Flansbjer, M., Carró‐Lopez, D. & Fernandez, I. (2020). Analysis of tensile behavior of recycled aggregate concrete using acoustic emission technique. RILEM Technical Letters, 5, 131-140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of tensile behavior of recycled aggregate concrete using acoustic emission technique
2020 (English)In: RILEM Technical Letters, ISSN 2518-0231, Vol. 5, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was processed from reinforced concrete edge beams sourced from a demolished bridge in Sweden. This material replaced different ratios of coarse aggregate in a benchmark concrete. The tensile behavior of the developed concrete mixes was characterized via monotonic and cyclic uniaxial tensile tests performed on notched cylinders. Such tensile tests allow for the quantification of the fracture energy and softening behavior of the concrete. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) measurements were conducted in conjunction with the cyclic tests to characterize e.g. micro‐crack initiation and development, as well as crack localization. The tensile behavior of the various materials was found to be similar with minimal variation in the results. However, the softening behavior suggests that the RCA materials are slightly more brittle compared to both the mother and benchmark materials, which could be indicative of differences in the interface transition zones. The corresponding AE measurements also indicated similarities between the micro‐crack initiation and development for these mixes. It can be constituted that if the concrete used to produce RCA is of high quality and from one source, the resulting RAC will have adequate tensile properties with minimal variation, despite the aggregate replacement ratio. © The Author(s) 2020.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RILEM Publications SARL, 2020
Keywords
Acoustic emission, Recycled aggregate concrete, Recycled aggregates, Tensile behavior
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51964 (URN)10.21809/rilemtechlett.2020.121 (DOI)2-s2.0-85099143025 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: The presented research was made possible with the support of Vinnova Infrasweden 2030: a strategic innovation program (project no. 2017-02687) and ÅForsk foundation (project no. 18-429).

Available from: 2021-01-19 Created: 2021-01-19 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0033-1841

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