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Iisa, K., Johansson, A.-C., Pettersson, E., French, R., Orton, K. & Wiinikka, H. (2019). Chemical and physical characterization of aerosols from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical and physical characterization of aerosols from fast pyrolysis of biomass
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250XArticle in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Biomass fast pyrolysis vapors contain a significant quantity of persistent aerosols, which can impact downstream processing by e.g. fouling of surfaces and deposition on downstream catalysts. In this study, aerosol concentrations and size distributions were measured by an impactor in two pyrolysis systems, a bench-scale fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and a pilot-scale cyclone pyrolyzer. In both units, the mass-based mode aerosol diameter was approximately 1 μm before aerosol collection devices in cooled vapors of 300–370 K but the number-based median was < 0.1 μm. Aerosols < 1 μm were formed and aerosols > 1 μm deposited during cooling of pyrolysis vapors from 620 to 370 K in the fluidized-bed pyrolysis system. The oil fraction collected from the aerosols constituted approximately 40 wt% of the total oils collected in both systems. Compared to the total collected oil, the oil fraction from the aerosols was enriched in lignin-derived components and anhydrosugars and had lower concentrations of low molecular weight cellulose derived oxygenates, such as hydroxyketones. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Aerosols, Biomass, Fast pyrolysis, Size distribution, Fluidized beds, Ketones, Pyrolysis, Storms, Aerosol concentration, Bench-scale fluidized bed, Downstream-processing, Fluidized-bed pyrolysis, Fouling of surfaces, Low molecular weight, Physical characterization
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38910 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2019.04.022 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065927023 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Funding details: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding details: U.S. Department of Energy; Funding text 1: This work was authored in part by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), operated by Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Funding was provided by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office and the Swedish Energy Agency . Scott Palmer, Calle Ylipää, Mathias Lundgren, Daniel Svensson and Jimmy Narvesjö are acknowledged for their contributions to the operation of the pyrolyzers, and Renee Happs and Steve Deutch for analytical work. The views expressed in the article do not necessarily represent the views of the DOE or the U.S. Government.

Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Wiinikka, H., Sepman, A., Ögren, Y., Lindblom, B. & Nordin, L.-O. (2019). Combustion Evaluation of Renewable Fuels for Iron-Ore Pellet Induration. Energy & Fuels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combustion Evaluation of Renewable Fuels for Iron-Ore Pellet Induration
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2019 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Induration (or sintering) of iron-ore pellets requires high temperature (∼1300 °C), which today is generated by burning fuel oil in the firing zone of the straight-grate plant (SG) or coal in the rotary kiln of grate-kiln (GK) plants. In this study, ∼150 kWth combustion experiments were used to investigate the opportunity of totally replacing fuel oil with H2 or pyrolysis oil and replacing coal with wood pellets or black pellets powder. For SG plants, the fuel oil can probably be replaced with either H2 or pyrolysis oil without any major concerns, except for slightly or much higher NOx emissions in the case of pyrolysis oil and H2, respectively. For GK induration machines, it is probably challenging to replace coal entirely with biomass since the temperature profile will be different, and there is a risk for increased ash related operational problems. For both SG and GK plants, the slightly lower O2 concentration in the flue gas observed during biomass combustion (pyrolysis oil, wood pellets, and black pellets) may, however, be negative for the induration process, and this needs to be clarified in future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2019
Keywords
Coal, Fuel oils, Gas plants, Iron ore pellets, Iron ores, Pelletizing, Pyrolysis, Sintering, Biomass combustion, Combustion experiments, High temperature, Operational problems, Pellet induration, Renewable fuels, Straight grate, Temperature profiles, Coal combustion
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39850 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b01356 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070712552 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text 1: This work has been conducted as part of the HYBRIT research project RP1. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Swedish Energy Agency. HYBRIT (Hydrogen Breakthrough Ironmaking Technology) is a joint initiative of the three companies SSAB, LKAB, and Vattenfall with the aim of developing the world’s first fossil-free ore-based steelmaking route. Therese Vikström at RISE ETC is highly acknowledged for performing SEM/EDS analysis of impactor particles and the initial drawings of the experimental facility. Dr. Roger Molinder at RISE ETC is highly acknowledged for the linguistic improvement of the manuscript.

Available from: 2019-08-30 Created: 2019-08-30 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Sefidari, H., Wiinikka, H., Lindblom, B., Nordin, L. O., Wu, G., Yazhenskikh, E., . . . Öhman, M. (2019). Comparison of high-rank coals with respect to slagging/deposition tendency at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants: A pilot-scale experimental study accompanied by thermochemical equilibrium modeling and viscosity estimations. Fuel processing technology, 193, 244-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of high-rank coals with respect to slagging/deposition tendency at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants: A pilot-scale experimental study accompanied by thermochemical equilibrium modeling and viscosity estimations
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2019 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 193, p. 244-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iron-ore pelletizing plants use high-rank coals to supply the heat necessary to process ores. Ash material from coal, in combination with iron-ore dust originating from the disintegration of the pellets, can cause deposition/slagging which often leads to severe production losses and damage. Deposition/slagging is most prominent in the hot areas of the grate-kiln setup and is more severe at the inlet of the rotary-kiln, i.e., the transfer-chute. Following on from our previous work, high-rank bituminous coals with potential for use in the pelletizing process were combusted in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) pulverized-coal fired experimental combustion furnace (ECF). The fly-ash particles and short-term deposits were characterized to shed light on the observed difference in slagging/deposition tendencies of the coals. Global thermodynamic equilibrium modeling, in combination with viscosity estimates, was used to interpret the experimental findings and investigate the effect of the coal-ash composition upon deposition/slagging. This approach was carried out with and without the presence of Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust under oxidizing conditions within the temperature range at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing rotary-kilns. Based on the findings, a Qualitative Slagging Indicator (QSI) was proposed that can help pre-screen new solid fuels for potential slagging issues. The proposed QSI highlights the following: (1) an inverse relationship between viscosity and slagging/deposition tendency of the coals was observed (2) as viscosity decreases (either with increasing temperature or due to the change in the coal-ash composition), stronger deposits will form that will complicate the mechanical removal of the deposited layer. It was therefore inferred that low viscosity molten phases facilitate deposition/slagging, which is exacerbated by the presence of fluxing agents (e.g., CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O, and Fe2O3) in the deposits. The low viscosity coal-ash-induced molten phases are also more likely to interact with the Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust that results in further decreases in viscosity, thereby intensifying depositions. The results from this work complement the on-going research by our group to elucidate and alleviate ash-related problems in industrial grate kilns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Coal-ash, Deposition (slagging), Iron-ore pelletizing, Pellet-dust, Thermochemical equilibrium calculations, Viscosity estimations
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38954 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.05.026 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066109318 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Luleå Tekniska Universitet, 93_2014; Funding text 1: LKAB (Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag) and Luleå University of Technology are acknowledged for their financial support of this study ( Dnr 93_2014 ). Many thanks to the supportive personnel at RISE-ETC (Piteå, Sweden) and Swerea MEFOS (Luleå, Sweden) for their efforts and dedication to the project.

Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Toth, P., Brackmann, C., Ögren, Y., Mannazhi, M., Simonsson, J., Sepman, A., . . . Wiinikka, H. (2019). Experimental and numerical study of biomass fast pyrolysis oil spray combustion: Advanced laser diagnostics and emission spectrometry. Fuel, 252, 125-134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and numerical study of biomass fast pyrolysis oil spray combustion: Advanced laser diagnostics and emission spectrometry
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2019 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 252, p. 125-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this work was to move towards developing a comprehensible Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to facilitate the predictive modeling of Fast Pyrolysis Oil (FPO) spray combustion. A CFD model was implemented from the literature and results were compared to 2D data from non-intrusive optical diagnostics involving Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence of the OH radical, Mie scattering imaging and two-color pyrometry using a laboratory-scale, CH 4 /air flat-flame with an air-assist atomizer. Furthermore, flame radiation and contributions from graybody sources, chemiluminescence and soot were studied experimentally using emission spectroscopy and Laser Induced Incandescence (LII). Reasonable qualitative agreement was found between experimental and model results in terms of flame structure and temperature. Emission spectroscopy and LII results revealed and confirmed earlier observations regarding the low soot concentration of FPO spray flames; furthermore, it was shown that a significant portion of flame radiation originated from graybody char radiation and chemiluminescence from the Na-content of the FPO. These suggest that the treatment of soot formation might not be important in future computational models; however, the description of char formation and Na chemiluminescence will be important for accurately predicting temperature and radiation profiles, important from the point of e.g., large-scale power applications. Confirmed low soot concentrations are promising from an environmental point of view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Biomass fast pyrolysis oil, Emission spectroscopy, Laser diagnostics, Spray combustion, Two-color pyrometry
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38347 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2019.04.043 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064487596 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency through projects 41895-1 and 44110-1 and through the Centre of Combustion Science and Technology (CECOST), incentive project 215.

Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Toth, P., Jacobsson, D., Ek, M. & Wiinikka, H. (2019). Real-time, in situ, atomic scale observation of soot oxidation. Carbon, 145, 149-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time, in situ, atomic scale observation of soot oxidation
2019 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 145, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The oxidation of soot is a complex process due to the heterogeneous structure of the material. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized based on ex situ studies, but need confirmation from in situ observation; furthermore, deeper insight is needed to develop and validate structure-dependent reaction mechanisms. In this work, soot oxidation was for the first time observed at atomic scale in situ, in real-time, using a spherical aberration-corrected Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope. The transformation of individual soot particles was followed through from initiation to complete conversion. Observations clearly showed the existence of different burning modes and particle fragmentation previously hypothesized in the literature. Furthermore, transitioning between the modes—affected by temperature and O2 pressure—was unambiguously observed, explaining previous observations regarding structure-dependent and time-varying oxidation rates. A new mode of burning in which oxidation happens rapidly in the bulk phase with the disruption of long-range lamellar order was observed and is suspected to be dominant at practically relevant conditions. The ability to unambiguously relate different burning modes in terms of nanostructure will be of importance for optimizing both soot emission abatement and properties of nanoparticulate carbon products.

Keywords
Aberrations, Oxidation, Soot, Transmission electron microscopy, Environmental transmission electron microscopes, Heterogeneous structures, In-situ observations, Nano particulates, Particle fragmentation, Reaction mechanism, Spherical aberrations, Structure dependent, Dust
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37328 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2019.01.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059824929 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR, 2017-04902; Funding details: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, MTA, BO/00333/16; Funding details: Kempestiftelserna, SMK-1641.2; Funding details: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Funding text 1: The work has been financed by the Swedish government trough both Bio4Energy, a strategic research platform and via the strategic-competence model for RISE ETC. The high temperature reactor used in this work to produce the GCB has been financed by the Kempe Foundation (grant SMK-1641.2 ) and the foundation Energy Technology Center in Piteå, Sweden . P. Toth is grateful for the kind support of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences through the Bolyai Scholarship (grant no. BO/00333/16 ). Therese Vikström and Yngve Ögren (RISE Energy Technology Center) are gratefully acknowledged for their help in soot sampling. Martin Ek and Daniel Jacobsson are grateful to the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation and NanoLund. Martin Ek was supported by the Swedish Research Council (grant 2017-04902 ).

Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Toth, P., Ögren, Y., Sepman, A., Vikström, T., Gren, P. & Wiinikka, H. (2019). Spray combustion of biomass fast pyrolysis oil: Experiments and modeling. Fuel, 237, 580-591
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spray combustion of biomass fast pyrolysis oil: Experiments and modeling
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2019 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 237, p. 580-591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we are the first to report a detailed comparison between the predictions of a current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for describing Fast Pyrolysis Oil (FPO) spray combustion and results from a laboratory-scale experiment. The objectives were to assess the predictive power of the CFD model, evaluate its usefulness in a numerical optimization scenario and characterize the spray flame. The spray flame was produced by using an air-assist atomizer piloted by a CH4/air flat-flame. Pyrolysis oil from a cyclone fast pyrolysis plant was combusted. The flame was characterized by using two-color pyrometry, Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy and high-magnification shadowgraphy. Overall, the assessed model correctly predicted flame structure and seemed appropriate for engineering applications, but lacked predictive power in estimating droplet size distributions. Numerical results were the most sensitive to variations in the initial droplet size distribution; however, seemed robust to changes in the multicomponent fuel formulation. Several conclusions were drawn regarding FPO spray combustion itself; e.g., the amount of produced soot in the flames was very low and droplets exhibited microexplosion behavior in a characteristic size-shape regime. 

Keywords
biomass fast pyrolysis oil, spray combustion, computational fluid dynamics, optical diagnostics
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35530 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2018.10.031 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054708357 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41985-1Swedish Energy Agency, 44110-1
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Lestander, T. A., Sandström, L., Wiinikka, H., Öhrman, O. & Thyrel, M. (2018). Characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by near-infrared spectroscopic data. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 133, 9-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by near-infrared spectroscopic data
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 133, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pyrolysis transforms bulky and heterogeneous lignocellulosic biomass into more easily-handled oils that can be upgraded into bio-based transportation fuels. Existing systems for monitoring pyrolysis processes and characterizing their products rely on slow and time-consuming wet chemical analyses. On-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could potentially replace such analyses, providing real-time data and reducing costs. To test the usefulness of NIR methods in characterizing pyrolysis oils and processes, biomass from conifers, Salix, and reed canary grass was milled and pyrolyzed at 675, 750, and 775 °C. Two separate pyrolytic fractions (aerosol and condensed) were produced in each experiment, and NIR spectra were collected for each fraction. Multivariate modelling of the resulting data clearly showed that the samples’ NIR spectra could be used to accurately predict important properties of the pyrolysis oils such as their energy values, main organic element (C, H and O) contents, and water content. The spectra also contained predictive information on the samples’ origins, fraction, and temperature treatment, demonstrating the potential of on-line NIR techniques for monitoring pyrolytic production processes and characterizing important properties of pyrolytic oils from lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords
OPLS-DA, PCA, Prediction, Pyrolysis cyclone, Reed canary grass, Wood-based biomass, Biomass, Chemical analysis, Cracking (chemical), Forecasting, Water content, Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, Lignocellulosic biomass, Predictive information, Temperature treatments, Transportation fuels, Wet chemical analysis, Infrared devices
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34000 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2018.05.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047194810 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 39449-1, Energimyndigheten; Funding details: www.bio4energy.se; A

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Ögren, Y., Toth, P., Garami, A., Sepman, A. & Wiinikka, H. (2018). Development of a vision-based soft sensor for estimating equivalence ratio and major species concentration in entrained flow biomass gasification reactors. Applied Energy, 226, 450-460
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a vision-based soft sensor for estimating equivalence ratio and major species concentration in entrained flow biomass gasification reactors
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 450-460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A combination of image processing techniques and regression models was evaluated for predicting equivalence ratio and major species concentration (H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) based on real-time image data from the luminous reaction zone in conditions and reactors relevant to biomass gasification. Two simple image pre-processing routines were tested: reduction to statistical moments and pixel binning (subsampling). Image features obtained by using these two pre-processing methods were then used as inputs for two regression algorithms: Gaussian Process Regression and Artificial Neural Networks. The methods were evaluated by using a laboratory-scale flat-flame burner and a pilot-scale entrained flow biomass gasifier. For the flat-flame burner, the root mean square error (RMSE) were on the order of the uncertainty of the experimental measurements. For the gasifier, the RMSE was approximately three times higher than the experimental uncertainty – however, the main source of the error was the quantization of the training dataset. The accuracy of the predictions was found to be sufficient for process monitoring purposes. As a feature extraction step, reduction to statistical moments proved to be superior compared to pixel binning.

Keywords
AI, Gasification diagnostics, Gaussian process regression, Image processing, Machine learning, Neural network, Process monitoring
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33999 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048807165 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Carlborg, M., Weiland, F., Ma, C., Backman, R., Landälv, I. & Winikka, H. (2018). Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 38(2), 777-787
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture
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2018 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 777-787Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Finding resilient refractory materials for slagging gasification systems have the potential to reduce costs and improve the overall plant availability by extending the service life. In this study, different refractory materials were evaluated under slagging gasification conditions. Refractory probes were continuously exposed for up to 27 h in an atmospheric, oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier fired with a mixture of bark and peat powder. Slag infiltration depth and microstructure were studied using SEM EDS. Crystalline phases were identified with powder XRD. Increased levels of Al, originating from refractory materials, were seen in all slags. The fused cast materials were least affected, even though dissolution and slag penetration could still be observed. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were done for mixtures of refractory and slag, from which phase assemblages were predicted and viscosities for the liquid parts were estimated. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords
Biomass, Entrained flow, Gasification, Oxygen blown, Refractory, Slag, Mixtures, Peat, Slags, Crystalline phasis, Entrained flow gasifiers, High-temperature gasification, Oxygen-blown, Phase assemblages, Plant availability, Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation, Refractory materials
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33235 (URN)10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.09.016 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029532285 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Bio4Gasification, Energimyndigheten; Funding text: This work has been founded by the Swedish Energy Agency through Bio4Gasification.

Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Ögren, Y., Gullberg, M., Wennebro, J., Sepman, A., Toth, P. & Wiinikka, H. (2018). Influence of oxidizer injection angle on the entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood powder. Fuel processing technology, 181, 8-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of oxidizer injection angle on the entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood powder
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2018 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 181, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, 5 different axisymmetric burners with different directions of the oxidizer inlets were experimentally tested during oxygen blown gasification of torrefied wood powder. The burners were evaluated under two different O2/fuel ratios at a thermal power of 135 kWth, based on the heating value of torrefied wood powder. The evaluation was based on both conventional methods such as gas chromatography measurements and thermocouples and in-situ measurements using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. It was shown that changes in the near burner region influence the process efficiency significantly. Changing the injection angle of the oxidizer stream to form a converging oxidizer jet increased process efficiency by 20%. Besides increased process efficiency, it was shown that improvements in burner design also influence carbon conversion and hydrocarbon production. The burner with the best performance also produced less CH4 and achieved the highest carbon conversion. The effect of generating swirl via rotating the oxidizer jet axes was also investigated. Swirl broadened or removed the impingement area between the fuel and oxidizer jets, however resulting in differences in performance within the measurement uncertainty.

Keywords
Biomass, Burner design, Entrained flow gasification, Process optimization, Syngas, TDLAS, Absorption spectroscopy, Carbon, Efficiency, Gas chromatography, Gasification, Optimization, Thermocouples, Conventional methods, Hydrocarbon production, Measurement uncertainty, Syn-gas, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, Uncertainty analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35577 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2018.09.005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053436599 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text: This work was performed within the platform for entrained-flow gasification (Bio4Gasification) at the Swedish Gasification Centre financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the member companies.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9395-9928

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