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Lestander, T. A., Sandström, L., Wiinikka, H., Öhrman, O. & Thyrel, M. (2018). Characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by near-infrared spectroscopic data. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 133, 9-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by near-infrared spectroscopic data
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 133, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pyrolysis transforms bulky and heterogeneous lignocellulosic biomass into more easily-handled oils that can be upgraded into bio-based transportation fuels. Existing systems for monitoring pyrolysis processes and characterizing their products rely on slow and time-consuming wet chemical analyses. On-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could potentially replace such analyses, providing real-time data and reducing costs. To test the usefulness of NIR methods in characterizing pyrolysis oils and processes, biomass from conifers, Salix, and reed canary grass was milled and pyrolyzed at 675, 750, and 775 °C. Two separate pyrolytic fractions (aerosol and condensed) were produced in each experiment, and NIR spectra were collected for each fraction. Multivariate modelling of the resulting data clearly showed that the samples’ NIR spectra could be used to accurately predict important properties of the pyrolysis oils such as their energy values, main organic element (C, H and O) contents, and water content. The spectra also contained predictive information on the samples’ origins, fraction, and temperature treatment, demonstrating the potential of on-line NIR techniques for monitoring pyrolytic production processes and characterizing important properties of pyrolytic oils from lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords
OPLS-DA, PCA, Prediction, Pyrolysis cyclone, Reed canary grass, Wood-based biomass, Biomass, Chemical analysis, Cracking (chemical), Forecasting, Water content, Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, Lignocellulosic biomass, Predictive information, Temperature treatments, Transportation fuels, Wet chemical analysis, Infrared devices
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34000 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2018.05.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047194810 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 39449-1, Energimyndigheten; Funding details: www.bio4energy.se; A

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Ögren, Y., Toth, P., Garami, A., Sepman, A. & Wiinikka, H. (2018). Development of a vision-based soft sensor for estimating equivalence ratio and major species concentration in entrained flow biomass gasification reactors. Applied Energy, 226, 450-460
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a vision-based soft sensor for estimating equivalence ratio and major species concentration in entrained flow biomass gasification reactors
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 450-460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A combination of image processing techniques and regression models was evaluated for predicting equivalence ratio and major species concentration (H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) based on real-time image data from the luminous reaction zone in conditions and reactors relevant to biomass gasification. Two simple image pre-processing routines were tested: reduction to statistical moments and pixel binning (subsampling). Image features obtained by using these two pre-processing methods were then used as inputs for two regression algorithms: Gaussian Process Regression and Artificial Neural Networks. The methods were evaluated by using a laboratory-scale flat-flame burner and a pilot-scale entrained flow biomass gasifier. For the flat-flame burner, the root mean square error (RMSE) were on the order of the uncertainty of the experimental measurements. For the gasifier, the RMSE was approximately three times higher than the experimental uncertainty – however, the main source of the error was the quantization of the training dataset. The accuracy of the predictions was found to be sufficient for process monitoring purposes. As a feature extraction step, reduction to statistical moments proved to be superior compared to pixel binning.

Keywords
AI, Gasification diagnostics, Gaussian process regression, Image processing, Machine learning, Neural network, Process monitoring
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33999 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048807165 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2018-07-11Bibliographically approved
Carlborg, M., Weiland, F., Ma, C., Backman, R., Landälv, I. & Winikka, H. (2018). Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 38(2), 777-787
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure of refractory materials during high-temperature gasification of a woody biomass and peat mixture
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2018 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 777-787Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Finding resilient refractory materials for slagging gasification systems have the potential to reduce costs and improve the overall plant availability by extending the service life. In this study, different refractory materials were evaluated under slagging gasification conditions. Refractory probes were continuously exposed for up to 27 h in an atmospheric, oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier fired with a mixture of bark and peat powder. Slag infiltration depth and microstructure were studied using SEM EDS. Crystalline phases were identified with powder XRD. Increased levels of Al, originating from refractory materials, were seen in all slags. The fused cast materials were least affected, even though dissolution and slag penetration could still be observed. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were done for mixtures of refractory and slag, from which phase assemblages were predicted and viscosities for the liquid parts were estimated. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords
Biomass, Entrained flow, Gasification, Oxygen blown, Refractory, Slag, Mixtures, Peat, Slags, Crystalline phasis, Entrained flow gasifiers, High-temperature gasification, Oxygen-blown, Phase assemblages, Plant availability, Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation, Refractory materials
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33235 (URN)10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.09.016 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029532285 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Bio4Gasification, Energimyndigheten; Funding text: This work has been founded by the Swedish Energy Agency through Bio4Gasification.

Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Winikka, H., Toth, P., Jansson, K., Molinder, R., Broström, M., Sandström, L., . . . Weiland, F. (2018). Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity. Combustion and Flame, 189, 1339-1351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity
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2018 (English)In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 189, p. 1339-1351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of operating condition on particle formation during pressurized, oxygen blown gasification of wood powder with an ash content of 0.4 wt% was investigated. The investigation was performed with a pilot scale gasifier operated at 7 bar(a). Two loads, 400 and 600 kW were tested, with the oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) varied between 0.25 and 0.50. Particle concentration and mass size distribution was analyzed with a low pressure cascade impactor and the collected particles were characterized for morphology, elemental composition, nanostructure, and reactivity using scanning electron microscopy/high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to quantify the nanostructure of the particles and identify prevalent sub-structures, a novel image analysis framework was used. It was found that the process temperature, affected both by λ and the load of the gasifier, had a significant influence on the particle formation processes. At low temperature (1060 °C), the formed soot particles seemed to be resistant to the oxidation process; however, when the oxidation process started at 1119 °C, the internal burning of the more reactive particle core began. A further increase in temperature (> 1313 °C) lead to the oxidation of the less reactive particle shell. When the shell finally collapsed due to severe oxidation, the original soot particle shape and nanostructure also disappeared and the resulting particle could not be considered as a soot anymore. Instead, the particle shape and nanostructure at the highest temperatures (> 1430 °C) were a function of the inorganic content and of the inorganic elements the individual particle consisted of. All of these effects together lead to the soot particles in the real gasifier environment having less and less ordered nanostructure and higher and higher reactivity as the temperature increased; i.e., they followed the opposite trend of what is observed during laboratory-scale studies with fuels not containing any ash-forming elements and where the temperature was not controlled by λ.

Keywords
Biomass, Gasification, HRTEM, Nanostructure, Soot, Dust, Electron microscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Internal oxidation, Meteorological instruments, Nanostructures, Oxidation, Oxidation resistance, Scanning electron microscopy, Temperature, Thermogravimetric analysis, Transmission electron microscopy, Elemental compositions, Mass size distribution, Ordered nanostructures, Particle concentrations, Particle formation process, Pressurized entrained flow gasification, Reactive particle shells, Particle size analysis, fuel, inorganic compound, nanomaterial, oxygen, Article, ash, chemical composition, chemical structure, combustion, crystallization, gas flow, heat loss, high temperature, image analysis, partial pressure, particle size, particulate matter, powder, priority journal, solid, thermal analysis, thermodynamics, thermostability, wood
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33230 (URN)10.1016/j.combustflame.2017.10.025 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034087389 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: LTU, Luleå Tekniska Universitet; Funding details: Bio4Energy, Energimyndigheten; Funding details: NSF, National Science Foundation; Funding details: MTA, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia; Funding details: SU, Stockholms Universitet; Funding details: Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Funding text: The authors wish to acknowledge the PEBG project financed by the Swedish Energy Agency , IVAB , Sveaskog and Smurfit Kappa Kraftliner . The Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish goverment. The Swedish Center for Gasification financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the member companies. Pal Toth is thankful for the support of the Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and Kjell Jansson to the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation for support to the electron microscope facility at MMK, Stockholm University. Prof. Marcus Öhman, Luleå University of Technology is also acknowledged for discussions regarding the inorganic phase of the particles and Esbjörn Pettersson, RISE ETC AB is acknowledged for sampling of the particles during the experiments. This material is based upon work while Dr. Lighty served at the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Sefidari, H., Lindblom, B., Wiinikka, H., Nordin, L.-O., Mouzon, J., Bhuiyan, I. U. & Öhman, M. (2018). The effect of disintegrated iron-ore pellet dust on deposit formation in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace. Part I: Characterization of process gas particles and deposits. Fuel processing technology, 177, 283-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of disintegrated iron-ore pellet dust on deposit formation in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace. Part I: Characterization of process gas particles and deposits
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2018 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 177, p. 283-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To initiate the elucidation of deposit formation during the iron-ore pelletization process, a comprehensive set of experiments was conducted in a 0.4 MW pilot-scale pulverized-coal-fired furnace where three different scenarios were considered as follows; Case 1 (reference case): Coal was combusted without the presence of pellet dust. Case 2: Natural gas was combusted together with simultaneous addition of pellet dust to the gas stream. Case 3: Coal was combusted together with the addition of pellet dust simulating the situation in the large-scale grate-kiln setup. Particles and deposits were sampled from 3 positions of different temperature via a water-cooled sampling probe. Three distinct fragmentation modes were identified based on the aerodynamic particle diameter (Dp). The fine mode: Particles with 0.03 < Dp < 0.06 μm. The first fragmentation mode: Particles with 1 < Dp < 10 μm. The second fragmentation mode: Coarse particles (cyclone particles, Dp > 10 μm). A transition from a bimodal PSD (particle size distribution) to a trimodal PSD was observed when pellet dust was added (Case 3) and consequently the elemental bulk composition of the abovementioned modes was changed. The most extensive interaction between pellet dust and coal-ash particles was observed in the coarse mode where a significant number of coal ash globules were found attached to the surface of the hematite particles. The morphology of the sharp-edged hematite particles was changed to smooth-edged round particles which proved that hematite particles must have interacted with the surrounding aluminosilicate glassy phase originating from the coal ash. The short-term deposits collected during coal combustion (Case 1) were highly porous in contrast to the high degree of sintering observed in the experiments with pellet dust addition (Case 3) which is attributed to the dissolution of hematite particles in the aluminosilicate glassy phase. The results suggest that pellet dust itself (Case 2) has low slagging tendency, independent of temperature. However, when coal-ash is present (Case 3), auxiliary phases are added such that tenacious particles are formed and slagging occurs.

Keywords
Coal combustion, Coal-ash, Deposition (slagging), Iron-ore pellet dust, Iron-ore pelletizing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34424 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2018.05.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046802389 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding text: LKAB (Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag) and Luleå University of Technology are acknowledged for their financial support of this study ( Dnr 93_2014 ). Many thanks to the supportive personnel at RISE-ETC (Piteå, Sweden) and Swerea MEFOS (Luleå, Sweden) for their efforts and dedication to the project.

Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, A., Holmgren, P., Wagner, D. R., Molinder, R., Wiinikka, H., Umeki, K. & Broström, M. (2017). Effects of Pyrolysis Conditions and Ash Formation on Gasification Rates of Biomass Char. Energy & Fuels, 31(6), 6507-6514
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Pyrolysis Conditions and Ash Formation on Gasification Rates of Biomass Char
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2017 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 6507-6514Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pyrolysis conditions and the presence of ash-forming elements significantly influence char properties and its oxidation or gasification reactivity. In this study, intrinsic gasification rates of char from high heating rate pyrolysis were analyzed with isothermal thermogravimetry. The char particles were prepared from two biomasses at three size ranges and at two temperatures. Reactivity dependence on original particle size was found only for small wood particles that had higher intrinsic char gasification rates. Pyrolysis temperature had no significant effect on char reactivity within the range tested. Observations of ash formation highlighted that reactivity was influenced by the presence of ash-forming elements, not only at the active char sites but also through prohibition of contact between char and gasification agent by ash layer formation with properties highly depending on ash composition.

Keywords
Pyrolysis, Thermogravimetric analysis, Ash composition, Ash-forming elements, Char gasification, Char reactivity, Gasification reactivity, High heating rates, Isothermal thermogravimetry, Pyrolysis temperature, Gasification
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30874 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b00688 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021216054 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text: We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Swedish Gasification Centre, SFC, funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, and from the Kempe foundations. We also thank Bio4Energy, a strategic research environment appointed by the Swedish government, for supporting this work.

Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Wiinikka, H., Johansson, A.-C., Sandström, L. & Öhrman, O. G. .. (2017). Fate of inorganic elements during fast pyrolysis of biomass in a cyclone reactor. Fuel, 203, 537-547
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate of inorganic elements during fast pyrolysis of biomass in a cyclone reactor
2017 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 203, p. 537-547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to reduce ash related operational problem and particle emissions during pyrolysis oil combustion it is important to produce pyrolysis oil with very low concentration of inorganics. In this paper, the distribution of all major inorganic elements (S, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Ti and Zn) in the pyrolysis products (solid residue and two fractions of pyrolysis oil) was investigated during pyrolysis of stem wood, bark, forest residue, salix and reed canary grass. The raw materials were pyrolysed in a cyclone reactor and the produced pyrolysis oils were recovered as two oil fractions, a condensed fraction and an aerosol fraction. The inorganic composition of the ingoing raw material, the solid residue and the two pyrolysis oil fractions were analysed with inductively coupled plasma spectrometry techniques. All major inorganic elements, except sulphur, were concentrated in the solid residue. A significant amount of sulphur was released to the gas phase during pyrolysis. For zinc, potassium and iron about 1–10 wt% of the ingoing amount, depending on the raw material, was found in the pyrolysis oil. For the rest of the inorganics, generally less than 1 wt% of the ingoing amount was found in the pyrolysis oil. There were also differences in distribution of inorganics between the condensed and the aerosol oil fractions. The easily volatilized inorganic elements such as sulphur and potassium were found to a larger extent in the aerosol fraction, whereas the refractory elements were found to a larger extent in the condensed fraction. This implies that oil fractionation can be a method to produce oil fractions with different inorganic concentrations which thereafter can be used in different technical applications depending on their demand on the inorganic composition of the pyrolysis oil.

Keywords
Ash, Biomass, Inorganic elements, Pyrolysis oil
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30806 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2017.04.129 (DOI)2-s2.0-85018376034 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Johansson, A.-C., Iisa, K., Sandström, L., Ben, H., Pilath, H., Deutch, S., . . . Öhrman, O. G. .. (2017). Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 123, 244-254
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 123, p. 244-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture of different chemical compounds with a wide range of molecular weights and boiling points. Due to its complexity, an efficient fractionation of the oil may be a more promising approach of producing liquid fuels and chemicals than treating the whole oil. In this work a sampling system based on fractional condensation was attached to a cyclone pyrolysis pilot plant to enable separation of the produced pyrolysis vapors into five oil fractions. The sampling system was composed of cyclonic condensers and coalescing filters arranged in series. The objective was to characterize the oil fractions produced from three different Nordic feedstocks and suggest possible applications. The oil fractions were thoroughly characterized using several analytical techniques including water content; elemental composition; heating value, and chemical compound group analysis using solvent fractionation, quantitative 13C NMR and 1H NMR and GC x GC − TOFMS. The results show that the oil fractions significantly differ from each other both in chemical and physical properties. The first fractions and the fraction composed of aerosols were highly viscous and contained larger energy-rich compounds of mainly lignin-derived material. The middle fraction contained medium-size compounds with relatively high concentration of water, sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbonyls and acids and finally the last fraction contained smaller molecules such as water, aldehydes, ketones and acids. However, the properties of the respective fractions seem independent on the studied feedstock types, i.e. the respective fractions produced from different feedstock are rather similar. This promotes the possibility to vary the feedstock depending on availability while retaining the oil properties. Possible applications of the five fractions vary from oil for combustion and extraction of the pyrolytic lignin in the early fractions to extraction of sugars from the early and middle fractions, and extraction of acids and aldehydes in the later fractions.

Keywords
Cyclone pyrolysis, Fractional condensation, Nordic feedstock, Oil characterization, Pyrolysis, Aldehydes, Chemical analysis, Chemical compounds, Condensation, Cracking (chemical), Extraction, Feedstocks, Flocculation, Ketones, Lignin, Pilot plants, Sugars, Chemical and physical properties, Derived materials, Elemental compositions, Middle fractions, Oil characterizations, Pyrolytic lignins, Sampling systems, Solvent fractionation
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29203 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2016.11.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85008392059 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 3 April 2017; Article; CODEN: JAAPD

Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Wiinikka, H., Wennebro, J., Gullberg, M., Pettersson, E. & Weiland, F. (2017). Pure oxygen fixed-bed gasification of wood under high temperature (>1000 °C) freeboard conditions. Applied Energy, 191, 153-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pure oxygen fixed-bed gasification of wood under high temperature (>1000 °C) freeboard conditions
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2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 191, p. 153-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the performance (syngas composition, syngas production and gasification efficiency) of an 18 kW atmospheric fixed bed oxygen blown gasifier (FOXBG) with a high temperature (>1000 °C) freeboard section was compared to that of a pressurized (2–7 bar) oxygen blown entrained flow biomass gasifier (PEBG). Stem wood in the form of pellets (FOXBG) or powder (PEBG) was used as fuel. The experimentally obtained syngas compositions, syngas production rates and gasification efficiencies for both gasification technologies were similar. Efficient generation of high quality syngas (in terms of high concentration and yield of CO and H2 and low concentration and yield of CH4, heavier hydrocarbons and soot) is therefore not specific to the PEBG. Instead, efficient gasification seems to be linked to high reactor process temperatures that can also be obtained in a FOXBG. The high quality of the syngas produced in the FOXBG from fuel pellets is promising, as it suggests that in the future, much of the cost associated with milling the fuel to a fine powder will be avoidable. Furthermore, it is also implied that feedstocks that are nearly impossible to pulverize can be used as un-pretreated fuels in the FOXBG.

Keywords
Biomass, Entrained flow, Fixed bed, Gasification, Oxygen blown
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29180 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.01.054 (DOI)2-s2.0-85012306104 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, P., Wagner, D. R., Strandberg, A., Molinder, R., Wiinikka, H., Umeki, K. & Broström, M. (2017). Size, shape, and density changes of biomass particles during rapid devolatilization. Fuel, 206, 342-351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Size, shape, and density changes of biomass particles during rapid devolatilization
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2017 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 206, p. 342-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Particle properties such as size, shape and density play significant roles on particle flow and flame propagation in pulverized fuel combustion and gasification. A drop tube furnace allows for experiments at high heating rates similar to those found in large-scale appliances, and was used in this study to carry out experiments on pulverized biomass devolatilization, i.e. detailing the first stage of fuel conversion. The objective of this study was to develop a particle conversion model based on optical information on particle size and shape transformation. Pine stem wood and wheat straw were milled and sieved to three narrow size ranges, rapidly heated in a drop tube setup, and solid residues were characterized using optical methods. Different shape descriptors were evaluated and a shape descriptor based on particle perimeter was found to give significant information for accurate estimation of particle volume. The optical conversion model developed was proven useful and showed good agreement with conversion measured using a reference method based on chemical analysis of non-volatilized ash forming elements. The particle conversion model presented can be implemented as a non-intrusive method for in-situ monitoring of particle conversion, provided density data has been calibrated.

Keywords
Biomass conversion, DTR, PIV, Pyrolysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30788 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020711254 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9395-9928

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