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Nowak, A. P., Hagberg, J., Leijonmarck, S., Schweinebarth, H., Baker, D. A., Uhlin, A., . . . Lindbergh, G. (2018). Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes. Holzforschung, 72(2), 81-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes
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2018 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) from the renewable resource softwood kraft lignin were synthesized via oxidative thermostabilization of pure melt-spun lignin and carbonization at different temperatures from 1000°C to 1700°C. The resulting LCFs were characterized by tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The microstructure is mainly amorphous carbon with some nanocrystalline domains. The strength and stiffness are inversely proportional to the carbonization temperature, while the LCFs carbonized at 1000°C exhibit a strength of 628 MPa and a stiffness of 37 GPa. Furthermore, the application potential of LCFs was evaluated as negative electrodes in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) by electrochemical cycling at different current rates in a half-cell setup. The capacity drops with the carbonization temperature and the LCFs carbonized at 1000°C have a capacity of 335 mAh g-1. All LCFs showed good cycling stability. Because of the mechanical integrity and conductivity of the LCFs, there is no need to apply current collectors, conductive additives or binders. The advantage is an increased gravimetric energy density compared to graphite, which is the most common negative electrode material. LCFs show a promising multifunctional behavior, including good mechanical integrity, conductivity and an ability to intercalate lithium for LIBs.

Keywords
lignin-based carbon fibers, lithium-ion battery, melt-spinning, multifunctional, softwood kraft lignin
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33327 (URN)10.1515/hf-2017-0044 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041645591 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Hosseinaei, O., Åkerström, M., Uhlin, A., Tomani, P. & Danielsson, S. (2018). Melt spun lignin-based carbon fiber from softwood kraft lignin: effect of lignin pretreatment and fiber conversion conditions. In: Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica (Ed.), The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings. Paper presented at The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct. 2018 (pp. 157-163). Espoo: VTT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Melt spun lignin-based carbon fiber from softwood kraft lignin: effect of lignin pretreatment and fiber conversion conditions
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2018 (English)In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 157-163Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Espoo: VTT, 2018
Keywords
carbon fiber, lignin, melt spinning, ultrafiltration, solvent extraction, heat treatment, pelletizing, tensile properties
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35550 (URN)978-951-38-8672-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct. 2018
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Uhlin, A., Åkerström, M., Schweinebarth, H., Baker, D. A., Danielsson, S. & Tomani, P. (2017). Kraft lignin based carbon fibres. In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017. Paper presented at 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017 (pp. 258-259). Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kraft lignin based carbon fibres
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2017 (English)In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 258-259Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research has been carried out at RISE Bioeconomy into converting lignin to carbon fibres, focusing on melt spinning of kraft lignin to filaments, which were subsequently converted to carbon fibres. New equipment has been installed to improve the properties of the lignin based carbon fibres and now it is possible to produce carbon fibres with equal or even better properties compared with published data on lignin based carbon fibres. For a melt spun softwood kraft lignin that was converted to carbon fibres, the tensile strength had an average value of 952MPa, while the Young's modulus average value was 69GPa. A toy car demonstrator has been produced in a project financed by the Bioinnovation, a research programme by VINNOVA, Formas and the Swedish Energy Agency. The existing roof of the car was replaced with one consisting of a carbon fibre composite, in which the carbon fibres were made of 100% softwood kraft lignin. A lithium ion battery as also installed into the toy car, having a negative electrode containing lignin based carbon fibres

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi, 2017
Keywords
carbon fibre, company information, composite material, kraft lignin, melt spinning, research programme, softwood, tensile strength, Youngs modulus
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29755 (URN)9789186018207 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017
Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Anheden, M., Uhlin, A., Wolf, J., Hedberg, M., Berg, R., Ankner, T., . . . Andersson, S. (2017). Value chain for production of bio-oil from kraft lignin for use as bio-jet fuel. In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017. Paper presented at 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017 (pp. 104-109). Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Value chain for production of bio-oil from kraft lignin for use as bio-jet fuel
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2017 (English)In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 104-109Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The LignoJet project aimed to achieve an intermediate lignin-oil product miscible with fossil feedstock and with a significantly reduced oxygen content. A technical concept for production has been studied that involves combined catalysed depolymerisation and hydrodeoxygenation, so called hydrogenolytic depolymerisation, of kraft lignin. Kraft lignin was separated through membrane ultrafiltration from softwood and eucalyptus black liquor followed by precipitation through LignoBoost technology. A difference in lignin properties was observed between ultrafiltration of softwood and eucalyptus black liquor through 15 and 150kDa ceramic membranes. Lignin-oils with similar oxygen content were produced regardless of origin and fractionation technique. A lignin-oil with favourable properties as precursor for refinery integration for jet fuel production as produced in small-scale batch experiments using nickel-based catalyst. Stable pumpable oils with melting point of less than 25-50 deg C and with 20-30% lower oxygen content and aromatic content were obtained that would be suitable as jet fuel precursors. The estimated production cost was found to be competitive with that of other liquid biofuels, while additional revenues could potentially be achieved by also producing chemical and materials from suitable fractions of the lignin-oil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi, 2017
Keywords
biofuel, biorefinery, fractionation, hydrogenolysis, lignin, precipitation, research programme, ultrafiltration
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29749 (URN)9789186018207 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017
Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Salmen, L., Bergnor, E., Olsson, A.-M., Åkerström, M. & Uhlin, A. (2015). Extrusion of Softwood Kraft Lignins as Precursors for Carbon Fibres. BioResources, 10(4), Article ID 7544.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extrusion of Softwood Kraft Lignins as Precursors for Carbon Fibres
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2015 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 7544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is much interest in using less expensive raw materials as precursors for carbon fibre manufacture to increase the utilisation of strong, light-weight composite materials in the transportation sector. One such potential raw material is lignin. Most studies exploring melt spinning of lignin have used lignins from organosolv or hardwood kraft delignification processes. There has been little success reported in utilisation of the more commercially available softwood kraft lignins. In this study, lignins from different softwood kraft cooking processes were investigated with respect to their melt spinning performance and conversion to carbon fibres. The isolated lignins differed mainly in molecular weight, glass transition temperature, and softening temperature. All of the lignins produced from the laboratory cooks could be extruded without any plasticizer addition. However, the lignins contained volatiles that resulted in bubbles being formed along the length of the fibres. After vacuum drying, at elevated temperatures to remove volatiles, only the lignin originating from conventional kraft cooking was able to be melt extruded without plasticiser addition; this lignin had the lowest molecular weight amongst the samples. The stabilisation and carbonisation of these fibres gave carbon fibres with strengths comparable to those produced from lignins of other origins.

Keywords
carbon fibre, kraft lignin, kraft pulping, softwood, strengt properties
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12639 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2019-07-04Bibliographically approved
Uhlin, A., Danielsson, S., Johansson, T. & Sivert, Å. (2014). Membrane filtration of pulp mill effluents (ed.). In: : . Paper presented at 5th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 25-27 Mar. 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Membrane filtration of pulp mill effluents
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Publisher
p. 2
National Category
Other Environmental Biotechnology Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-9539 (URN)
Conference
5th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 25-27 Mar. 2014
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-12 Last updated: 2018-07-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3428-9573

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