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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Tiloca, M., Dini, G., Rizki, K. & Raza, S. (2019). Group rekeying based on member join history. International Journal of Information Security
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group rekeying based on member join history
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Information Security, ISSN 1615-5262, E-ISSN 1615-5270Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper presents GREP, a novel group rekeying scheme that leverages the history of join events in order to achieve efficiency and high scalability. GREP rekeys the group with only two broadcast messages, hence displaying an overhead which is small, constant and independent of the group size. Also, GREP efficiently recovers the group from collusion attack with no recourse to total member reinitialization. Even in the very unlikely worst case, collusion recovery displays a smooth impact on performance that gradually increases with the attack severity. We implemented GREP for the Contiki OS and tested it on different resource-constrained platforms. Our analytical and experimental evaluation confirms that GREP is efficient, highly scalable and deployable also on constrained nodes. The paper extends a previous version of this work, especially through additional security analysis, treatise of probabilities for worst case collusion, and experimental evaluation of performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2019
Keywords
Group key management, Join history, Rekeying, Secure group communication, Security, Computer networks, Software engineering, Broadcast messages, Experimental evaluation, High scalabilities, Re-keying, Secure group communications, Security analysis, Network security
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39677 (URN)10.1007/s10207-019-00451-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068966622 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 607109; Funding details: Università di Pisa, UniPi; Funding details: VINNOVA; Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding details: Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca, MIUR; Funding text 1: The authors sincerely thank the anonymous referees and the associate editor for their insightful comments and suggestions. This work has been partially supported by: the European Commission under the 7-th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No. 607109), for research, technological development and demonstration; VINNOVA and the Celtic-Next project CRITISEC; the EIT-Digital High Impact Initiative ACTIVE; the Italian Ministry of Education and Research (MIUR) in the framework of the CrossLab project (Departments of Excellence); the University of Pisa in the framework of PRA 2019. The authors also thank Rikard Höglund for his help during the implementation phase of this work.; Funding text 2: This research received funding from: the European Commission under the 7-th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No. 607109), for research, technological development and demonstration; VINNOVA and the Celtic-Next project CRITISEC; the EIT-Digital High Impact Initiative ACTIVE; the Italian Ministry of Education and Research (MIUR) in the framework of the CrossLab project (Departments of Excellence); the University of Pisa in the framework of PRA 2019.

Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Tiloca, M., Dini, G., Rizki, K. & Raza, S. (2019). Group rekeying based on member join history. International Journal of Information Security
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group rekeying based on member join history
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Information Security, ISSN 1615-5262, E-ISSN 1615-5270Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper presents GREP, a novel group rekeying scheme that leverages the history of join events in order to achieve efficiency and high scalability. GREP rekeys thegroup with only two broadcast messages, hence displaying an overhead which is small, constant and independent of the group size. Also, GREP efficiently recovers the group from collusion attack with no recourse to total member reinitialization. Even in the very unlikely worst case, collusion recovery displays a smooth impact on performance that gradually increases with the attack severity. We implemented GREP for the Contiki OS and tested it on different resource-constrained platforms. Our analytical and experimental evaluation confirm that GREP is efficient, highly scalable and deployable also on constrained nodes. The paper extends a previous version of this work, especially through additional security analysis, treatise of probabilities for worst case collusion, and experimental evaluation of performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
Keywords
Security, Group key management, Rekeying, Join history, Secure group communication
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Communication Systems Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39284 (URN)0.1007/s10207-019-00451-0 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-29 Created: 2019-06-29 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Rizki, K., Lamproudi, A., Tiloca, M. & Raza, S. (2019). Group-IKEv2 for multicast IPsec in the internet of things. International Journal of Security and Networks (IJSN), 14(1), 10-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group-IKEv2 for multicast IPsec in the internet of things
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Security and Networks (IJSN), ISSN 1747-8405, E-ISSN 1747-8413, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents Group-IKEv2, a group key management protocol supporting secure group communication based on multicast IPsec. Group-IKEv2 is an adaptation of the IKEv2 protocol for the IPsec suite, and is especially designed to address internet of things (IoT) scenarios composed of resource-constrained devices. Compared to static approaches, Group-IKEv2 enables dynamic and flexible establishment of IPsec group security associations as well as group key material. Also, it integrates the management and renewal of group key material, both on a periodical fashion and upon group membership changes. We have implemented Group-IKEv2 for the Contiki OS and tested it on the OpenMote resource-constrained platform. Our experimental performance evaluation confirms that Group-IKEv2 is affordable and deployable also on constrained IoT devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2019
Keywords
Group communication, Group-IKEv2, Internet of things, Key management, Multicast IPsec, Secure communication, Security, Multicasting, Security of data, Experimental performance evaluations, Group communications, Group key management protocols, Resourceconstrained devices, Secure group communications
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38462 (URN)10.1504/IJSN.2019.098908 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064263362 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
Tiloca, M., Dini, G., Racciatti, F. & Stagkopoulou, A. (2019). SEA++: A Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Security Attacks in OMNeT++/INET. In: A. Virdis and M. Kirsche (Ed.), Recent Advances in Network Simulation: The OMNeT++ Environment and its Ecosystem: (pp. 253-278). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SEA++: A Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Security Attacks in OMNeT++/INET
2019 (English)In: Recent Advances in Network Simulation: The OMNeT++ Environment and its Ecosystem / [ed] A. Virdis and M. Kirsche, Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 253-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents SEA++, a simulation framework that extends OMNeT++ and the INET Framework for evaluating the impact of security attacks on networks and applications in a flexible and user-friendly way. To this end, SEA++ relies on two fundamental building blocks. First, the user describes the attacks to be evaluated by using a high-level Attack Specification Language (ASL). In particular, only the final effects of such attacks are described, rather than their actual performance. Second, the Attack Simulation Engine (ASE) takes these high-level descriptions as input and accordingly injects attack events at runtime, by means of additional software modules that seamlessly and transparently operate with the other INET modules. This allows the user to quantitatively assess the impact of cyber/physical attacks in simulated network scenarios, and hence rank them according to their severity as a support to risk assessment and selection of countermeasures. As a further advantage, the user is not required to alter any software module or application, or to implement any adversary model for the actual execution of security attacks. Finally, this chapter also includes a step-by-step explicative example showing how to set up and use SEA++ for describing attacks and assessing their impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2019
Series
EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing
Keywords
Security; attacks; simulation; impact; INET; OMNeT++
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38933 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-12842-5_7 (DOI)978-3-030-12842-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-30 Created: 2019-05-30 Last updated: 2019-06-03Bibliographically approved
Aragon, S., Tiloca, M., Maass, M., Hollick, M. & Raza, S. (2018). ACE of Spades in the IoT Security Game: A Flexible IPsec Security Profile for Access Control. In: : . Paper presented at 6th IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security, CNS 2018; Beijing; China; 30 May 2018 through 1 June 2018. , Article ID 8433209.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ACE of Spades in the IoT Security Game: A Flexible IPsec Security Profile for Access Control
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Authentication and Authorization for ConstrainedEnvironments (ACE) framework provides fine-grainedaccess control in the Internet of Things, where devices areresource-constrained and with limited connectivity. The ACEframework defines separate profiles to specify how exactlyentities interact and what security and communication protocolsto use. This paper presents the novel ACE IPsec profile, whichspecifies how a client establishes a secure IPsec channel witha resource server, contextually using the ACE framework toenforce authorized access to remote resources. The profilemakes it possible to establish IPsec Security Associations, eitherthrough their direct provisioning or through the standardIKEv2 protocol. We provide the first Open Source implementationof the ACE IPsec profile for the Contiki OS and testit on the resource-constrained Zolertia Firefly platform. Ourexperimental performance evaluation confirms that the IPsecprofile and its operating modes are affordable and deployablealso on constrained IoT platforms.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35112 (URN)10.1109/CNS.2018.8433209 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052561250 (Scopus ID)9781538645864 (ISBN)
Conference
6th IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security, CNS 2018; Beijing; China; 30 May 2018 through 1 June 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Tiloca, M., De Guglielmo, D., Dini, G., Anastasi, G. & Das, S. K. (2018). DISH: DIstributed SHuffling against selective jamming attack in IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH networks. ACM transactions on sensor networks, 15(1), Article ID a3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DISH: DIstributed SHuffling against selective jamming attack in IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH networks
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2018 (English)In: ACM transactions on sensor networks, ISSN 1550-4867, E-ISSN 1550-4859, Vol. 15, no 1, article id a3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The MAC standard amendment IEEE 802.15.4e is designed to meet the requirements of industrial and critical applications. In particular, the Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode divides time into periodic, equally-sized, slotframes composed of transmission timeslots. Then, it combines timeslotted access with multi-channel and channel hopping capabilities, providing large network capacity, high reliability and predictable latency, while ensuring energy efficiency. Since every network node considers the same timeslots at each sloframe and selects physical channels according to a periodic function, TSCH produces a steady channel utilization pattern. This can be exploited by a selective jammer to entirely thwart communications of a victim node, in a way that is stealthy, effective and extremely energy efficient. This paper shows how a selective jamming attack can be successfully performed even though TSCH uses the IEEE 802.15.4e security services. Furthermore, we propose DISH, a countermeasure which randomly permutes the timeslot and channel utilization patterns at every slotframe in a consistent and completely distributed way, without requiring any additional message exchange. We have implemented DISH for the Contiki OS and tested its effectiveness onTelosB sensor nodes. Quantitative analysis for different network configurations shows that DISH effectively contrasts selective jamming with negligible performance penalty.

Keywords
IEEE 802.15.4e, TSCH, Security, Selective Jamming, Denial of Service, Secure Schedule Permutation
National Category
Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33956 (URN)10.1145/3241052 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058779592 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-02 Created: 2018-07-02 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Tiloca, M., Höglund, R. & Al Atiiq, S. (2018). SARDOS: Self-Adaptive Reaction against Denial of Service in the Internet of Things. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE 2018 Fifth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IoTSMS 2018) (pp. 54-61). Valencia (Spain)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SARDOS: Self-Adaptive Reaction against Denial of Service in the Internet of Things
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Denial of Service (DoS) is a common and severe security issue in computer networks. Typical DoS attacks overload servers with bogus requests, induce them to worthlessly commit resources, and even make them unable to serve legitimate clients. This is especially relevant in Internet of Things scenarios, where servers are particularly exposed and often equipped with limited resources. Although most countermeasures focus on detection and mitigation, they do not react to dynamically adapt victims' behavior, while at the same time preserving service availability. This paper presents SARDOS, a reactive security service that leverages detection mechanisms from different communication layers, and adaptively changes the operative behavior of victim servers while preserving service availability. We experimentally evaluated SARDOS with a prototype implementation running on an underclocked Raspberry Pi server. Our results show that, when running SARDOS, a server under attack displays considerably lower memory and CPU usage, while still ensuring (best-effort) fulfillment of legitimate requests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Valencia (Spain): , 2018
Keywords
Servers, Security, Protocols, Internet of Things, Reliability, Standards
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Communication Systems Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36553 (URN)10.1109/IoTSMS.2018.8554819 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059987216 (Scopus ID)9781538695852 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 2018 Fifth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IoTSMS 2018)
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Tiloca, M., Nikitin, K. & Raza, S. (2017). Axiom - DTLS-based secure IoT group communication. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, 16(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Axiom - DTLS-based secure IoT group communication
2017 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 16, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents Axiom, a DTLS-based approach to efficiently secure multicast group communication among IoT-constrained devices. Axiom provides an adaptation of the DTLS record layer, relies on key material commonly shared among the group members, and does not require one to perform any DTLS handshake. We made a proof-of-concept implementation of Axiom based on the tinyDTLS library for the Contiki OS and used it to experimentally evaluate performance of our approach on real IoT hardware. Results show that Axiom is affordable on resource-constrained platforms and performs significantly better than related alternative approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2017
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30112 (URN)10.1145/3047413 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019542588 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-21 Created: 2017-07-21 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Tiloca, M., Gehrmann, C. & Seitz, L. (2017). On improving resistance to Denial of Service and key provisioning scalability of the DTLS handshake. International Journal of Information Security, 16(2), 173-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On improving resistance to Denial of Service and key provisioning scalability of the DTLS handshake
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Information Security, ISSN 1615-5262, E-ISSN 1615-5270, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 173-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

DTLS is a transport layer security protocol designed to provide secure communication over unreliable datagram protocols. Before starting to communicate, a DTLS client and server perform a specific handshake in order to establish a secure session and agree on a common security context. However, the DTLS handshake is affected by two relevant issues. First, the DTLS server is vulnerable to a specific Denial of Service (DoS) attack aimed at forcing the establishment of several half-open sessions. This may exhaust memory and network resources on the server, so making it less responsive or even unavailable to legitimate clients. Second, although it is one of the most efficient key provisioning approaches adopted in DTLS, the pre-shared key provisioning mode does not scale well with the number of clients, it may result in scalability issues on the server side, and it complicates key re-provisioning in dynamic scenarios. This paper presents a single and efficient security architecture which addresses both issues, by substantially limiting the impact of DoS, and reducing the number of keys stored on the server side to one unit only. Our approach does not break the existing standard and does not require any additional message exchange between DTLS client and server. Our experimental results show that our approach requires a shorter amount of time to complete a handshake execution and consistently reduces the time a DTLS server is exposed to a DoS instance. We also show that it considerably improves a DTLS server in terms of service availability and robustness against DoS attack.

Keywords
Denial of Service, DTLS, Key provisioning, Security, Scalability, Transmission control protocol, Security Architecture, Terms of services, Transport layer security protocols, Unreliable datagram, Denial-of-service attack
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30975 (URN)10.1007/s10207-016-0326-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-84961634159 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Tiloca, M. & Dini, G. (2016). GREP: a Group REkeying Protocol Based on Member Join History (9ed.). In: 2016 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC): . Paper presented at Twenty-first IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC 2016), June 27-30, 2016, Messina, Italy (pp. 326-333). IEEE, Article ID 7543761.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GREP: a Group REkeying Protocol Based on Member Join History
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC), IEEE, 2016, 9, p. 326-333, article id 7543761Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents GREP, a highly scalable and efficient group rekeying protocol with the following merits. First, it rekeys the group with only two messages, introducing an overhead which is small, constant, and independent of the group size. Second, GREP considers collusion as a first-class attack. Third, GREP efficiently recovers the group from a collusion attack without recourse to a total member reinitialization. The recovery cost smoothly grows with the group size, and gradually increases with the attack severity. GREP achieves these results by organizing nodes into logical subgroups and exploiting the history of node joining events. This allows GREP to establish a total ordering among subgroups and among nodes in each subgroup, so making collusion recovery highly scalable and efficient. We evaluate performance from several standpoints, and show that GREP is deployable in large-scale networks of customary, even resource constrained, platforms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016 Edition: 9
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-20966 (URN)10.1109/ISCC.2016.7543761 (DOI)
Conference
Twenty-first IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC 2016), June 27-30, 2016, Messina, Italy
Projects
EU FP7 SEGRIDEIT Digital ACTIVE
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8842-9810

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