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Mayers, J., Dahl, L., Thalén, E., Cliffordson, Å., Wassén, S. & Höglund, E. (2023). Influence of Swedish bilberry preprocessing technique on juice yield and quality. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Wildberry Conference. Umeå, Sweden. 7-8 September, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Swedish bilberry preprocessing technique on juice yield and quality
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bilberries represent a valuable northern European wild berry crop, well regarded for their high content of bioactive compounds and perceived health benefits. In Sweden, other than consumption of fresh whole berries, processing into juice is the most common route. To optimise the extraction of juice from bilberries and to investigate the impact on juice quality, fresh berries were pre treated using a range of techniques prior to pressing. Blanching the berries or treating them with pectinase enzymes gave the highest juice yield with 74 and 83% recovery (%, w/w), respectively (approx. 3.4 to 3.8 times the control). Freezing the berries prior to pressing was as effective as grinding + heating and resulted in a 2.8 fold increase in yield. Use of a screw press instead of a hydraulic press increased the yield 3.4 fold with no other pre treatment. Freezing prior to screw press only resulted in a modest increase in yield from 75 to 78% when using t he screw press. but was still an improvement versus freezing prior to hydraulic press. In terms of the quality of the juices, blanching, grinding and heating, and pectinase treatment had the highest phenolic content, but pectinase treatment resulted in the highest overall extraction yield from the berries. Again screw press increased the con tent of phenolic compounds in the juice and had higher extractive yields from the berries. The antioxidant content of juices (measured as ferric reducing antioxidant potential) followed the same trend as the phenolic content. Overall, use of a screw press increased the juice yield versus a hydraulic press, but the use of pectinase enzymes still appears to be the most effective treatment for maximising the juice yield when using the hydraulic press. Freezing and blanching berrie s prior to processing has a positive impact on juice yield, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity, especially for hydraulic pressing. The use of pectinase enzymes increased the extractive yields of juice and phenolic compounds extracted from the berri es, but the composition of the juices themselves were very similar when blanching, freezing, or grinding and heating were used, suggesting the use of expensive enzymes may not be necessary to produce juices rich in antioxidant compounds on a cost benefit l evel. Future work should investigate the combination of enzyme treatment followed by screw press as well as the cost and life cycle implications of the different processing conditions.

National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-73078 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Wildberry Conference. Umeå, Sweden. 7-8 September, 2023
Available from: 2024-04-18 Created: 2024-04-18 Last updated: 2024-04-18Bibliographically approved
Niimi, J., Ahlinder, A., Nilsson Pingel, T., Niimi, C., Höglund, E., Öhgren, C., . . . Nielsen, T. (2023). Saltiness enhancement: Impact of acid added to bread with heterogeneously distributed sodium chloride. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 176, Article ID 114557.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Saltiness enhancement: Impact of acid added to bread with heterogeneously distributed sodium chloride
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2023 (English)In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 176, article id 114557Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current global sodium consumption exceeds recommended daily intakes and there is a great need to reduce the sodium content in foods for a healthier society. The current study investigated the effect of combining sensory interaction principles and heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in bread on sensory properties, structure, and NaCl distribution. Breads were prepared in three different arrangements of NaCl distribution: homogenous, layered, and layered with lactic acid. Within each arrangement, four NaCl levels were tested. The breads were evaluated by a sensory panel for perceived saltiness, sourness, and qualitative texture, measured for stiffness, and the NaCl distribution was determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Perceived saltiness was significantly enhanced in breads beyond heterogeneous NaCl distribution when lactic acid was added. Stiffness measurements were affected by layering of bread, the layers without NaCl were stiffer with an increase in overall salt concentration. The heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in layered breads could be visualised by XFM and textural consequences of layering bread are discussed. The current study demonstrates the potential of combining principles of pulsation of taste and sensory interactions together to enhance salt perception, and hence suggesting the approach as a possible further strategy for NaCl reduction in bread.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2023
Keywords
Heterogeneous salt distribution, Perception, Pulsation, Salt, Sensory interactions, Fluorescence microscopy, Food products, Lactic acid, Sensory perception, Stiffness, Textures, 'current, Heterogeneous distributions, Recommended daily intakes, Sensory panels, Sensory properties, Stiffness measurements, X-ray fluorescence microscopy, Sodium chloride
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63980 (URN)10.1016/j.lwt.2023.114557 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147538587 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Niimi J, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden. Funding details: Västra Götalandsregionen, RUN 2020–00378; Funding details: VINNOVA, 2020–01824; Funding text 1: The measurements indicated only a little NaCl migration after baking, freezing, storage and thawing, since sharp changes in the chlorine signals were not observed, but rather a gradual transition between the layers (Fig. S6). Also, the signal did not drop to zero in the centre of the layers with no added NaCl. The amount of NaCl migration appeared to be so small that it is not expected to have a significant impact on the perceived saltiness of the breads. Additional measurements were performed using ICP-OES and IC to investigate if the migration of sodium is larger than the observed chlorine migration in the XFM measurements. The migration of sodium was similar or less to that of chlorine, which supported the conclusions drawn from the XFM results (for methodology and a summary of the ICP-OES/IC results see S2.0 and Table S2 in the supplementary material). Given that the ICP-OES/IC measurements showed that chlorine migrated in a similarly strong manner to sodium, it is reasonable to assume that the sodium distribution was adequately represented by chlorine. These measurements with XFM demonstrated its applicability in measuring chlorine ions in bread. Previous applications of XFM were on plant materials such as leaves, seedlings, barley grains, and rice kernels to measure distribution of ions such as zinc, calcium, potassium, and manganese among others. The results demonstrate that XFM can be a useful tool in confirming heterogenous distribution of chlorine ions of NaCl in processed food stuffs, such as breads.This study was performed under the project ReduSalt – Salt Reduction in Foods, a project funded by Sweden's Innovation Agency (Vinnova), grant number 2020–01824. The financial support by Region Västra Götaland, Sweden, grant number RUN 2020–00378, is also gratefully acknowledged.  Funding text 2: This study was performed under the project ReduSalt – Salt Reduction in Foods, a project funded by Sweden's Innovation Agency (Vinnova) , grant number 2020–01824 . The financial support by Region Västra Götaland, Sweden , grant number RUN 2020–00378 

Available from: 2023-02-22 Created: 2023-02-22 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Loren, N., Niimi, J., Höglund, E., Albin, R., Rytter, E., Bjerre, K. & Nielsen, T. (2023). Sodium reduction in foods: Challenges and strategies for technical solutions. Journal of Food Science, 88(3), 885
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sodium reduction in foods: Challenges and strategies for technical solutions
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 885-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many parts of the world, sodium consumption is higher than recommended levels, representing one of the most important food-related health challenges and leading to considerable economical costs for society. Therefore, there is a need to find technical solutions for sodium reduction that can be implemented by food producers and within food services. The aims of this review are to discuss the barriers related to sodium reduction and to highlight a variety of technical solutions. The barriers relate to consumer perception, microbiology, processing, and physicochemistry. Existing technical solutions include inhomogeneous salt distribution, coated salt particles, changing particle sizes and forms, surface coating, multisensory combinations, sodium replacements, double emulsions, adapted serum release by microstructure design, and adapted brittleness by microstructure design. These solutions, their implementation and the associated challenges, and applicable product categories are described. Some of these solutions are ready for use or are in their early development stages. Many solutions are promising, but in most cases, some form of adaptation or optimization is needed before application in specific products, and care must always be taken to ensure food safety. For instance, further research and innovation are required in the dynamic evolution of saltiness perception, consumer acceptance, the binding and migration of sodium, juiciness, microbiological safety, and the timing of salt addition during processing. Once implemented, these solutions will undoubtedly support food producers and food services in reducing sodium content and extend the application of the solutions to different foods. © 2022 Research Institutes of Sweden, Swedish Food Federation and Lyckeby Culinar AB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
food, inhomogeneous salt distribution, multisensory, safety, sodium reduction, technical solutions
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63988 (URN)10.1111/1750-3841.16433 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147016942 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address: Lorén, N. RISE Agriculture and Food, Sweden; email: niklas.loren@ri.se;

Funding details: VINNOVA, 2020‐01824; Funding text 1: This review has been compiled within ReduSalt – Salt Reduction in Foods, a project funded by Sweden's Innovation Agency (Vinnova), grant number 2020‐01824.

Available from: 2023-02-15 Created: 2023-02-15 Last updated: 2023-07-03Bibliographically approved
Ahlinder, A., Höglund, E., Öhgren, C., Miljkovic, A. & Stading, M. (2023). Towards attractive texture modified foods with increased fiber content for dysphagia via 3D printing and 3D scanning. Frontiers in Food Science and Technology, 2, Article ID 1058641.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards attractive texture modified foods with increased fiber content for dysphagia via 3D printing and 3D scanning
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Food Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2674-1121, Vol. 2, article id 1058641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As life expectancy increases so do age related problems such as swallowing disorders, dysphagia, which affects 10%–30% of people over 65 years old. For dysphagia patients the texture and rheological properties of the food, and the bolus, is critical to avoid choking and pneumonia. Texture modified foods, timbals, are often served to these patients due to their ease of swallowing. The main concern with these foods is that they do not look visually alike the food they replace, which can decrease the patient’s appetite and lead to reduced food intake and frailty. This study aims to improve both the visual appearance of texturized food as well as the energy density and fiber content of the timbal formulation. 3D scanning and additive manufacturing (3D Printing) were used to produce meals more reminiscent of original food items, increasing their visual appeal. Rheology was used to ensure the original flow profile was maintained as the timbal was reformulated by reducing starch contents and partially replacing with dietary fibers. The amount of starch was reduced from 8.7 wt% in the original formulation to 3.5 wt% and partially replaced with 3 wt% citrus fiber, while maintaining properties suitable for both swallowing and 3D printing. The resulting formulation has improved nutritional properties, while remaining suitable for constructing visually appealing meals, as demonstrated by 3Dprinting a chicken drumstick from a model generated with 3D scanning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66381 (URN)10.3389/frfst.2022.1058641 (DOI)
Note

This study was supported by the Sweden’s Innovation Agency Vinnova.

Available from: 2023-09-05 Created: 2023-09-05 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, L., Oliveira, G., Maria, E., Höglund, E. & Alminger, M. (2019). Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through preprocessing and drying.. Food science & nutrition, 7(4), 1379-1386
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through preprocessing and drying.
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2019 (English)In: Food science & nutrition, ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1379-1386Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Berry powders are popular as ingredients in a range of food products, where they naturally provide flavor, color, texture, polyphenols, fiber, and other nutrients. The choices regarding processing techniques and conditions influence the quality attributes of berry powders. The aim of this study was to study the effects on bilberry powder functionalities of applying different preprocessing techniques (purée mixing and juice pressing vs. untreated whole berries) prior to hot air drying and milling. Drying of press cake reduced the drying time by 72% and increased the total apparent phenolic content of the final powder by 44%, as compared to the powder of dried whole berries. The press cake powder showed an easier flowing behavior than the powders from whole berries and puréed berries. Dispersibility (in water and dairy cream) was 60% higher for powders from whole berries and puréed berries, as compared to press cake. The total phenolic content of the dispersed powders was highest for whole berries and puréed berries. Bilberry powder functionality can be modulated through the selection of an appropriate preprocessing technique before drying and milling. This tailors the powder properties into food ingredients ready for different applications, without the need for additives.

Keywords
bilberry, dispersibility, drying, flowability, polyphenols, processing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38664 (URN)10.1002/fsn3.972 (DOI)31024711 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064843960 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Oliveira, G., Eliasson, L., Maria, E., Höglund, E., Andlid, T. & Alminger, M. (2019). Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through processing: Effects of drying and fractionation on the stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins. Food Science & Nutrition, 7(3), 1017-1026
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through processing: Effects of drying and fractionation on the stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins
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2019 (English)In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1017-1026Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bilberries are a rich natural source of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. The press cake obtained during the processing of bilberry juice is a potential source of phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate different drying techniques and the fractionation of bilberry press cake powder toward obtaining phenolic-rich ingredients for incorporation into value-added food products. The derived powders were dispersed in water and dairy cream, to investigate the effects of drying and fractionation on the dispersibility and solubility of phenolic compounds. The drying techniques, hot air drying and microwave drying, applied on bilberry press cake reduced the content of total phenolics and anthocyanins. The degradation was, however, consistently small and similar for both techniques. The major anthocyanins detected in the samples were stable during drying and fractionation treatments. Fractionation of the press cake powder affected the total apparent phenolic content and composition of the different fractions. The highest phenolic content (55.33 +/- 0.06 mg g(-1) DW) and highest anthocyanin content (28.15 +/- 0.47 mg g(-1) DW) were found in the fractions with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), with delphinidin-3-O-galactoside being the most abundant anthocyanin. Dispersibility of all dried powder samples was higher in dairy cream than water, and the highest level of anthocyanins was measured in samples from the powder with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), dispersed in cream. The application of drying, milling and fractionation was found to be a promising approach to transform bilberry press cake into stable and deliverable ingredients that can be used for fortification of food products with high levels of phenolic compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43328 (URN)10.1002/fsn3.972 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064843960 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-20 Created: 2020-01-20 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Höglund, E., Ekman, S., Stuhr-Olsson, G., Lundgren, C., Albinsson, B., Signäs, M., . . . Wendin, K. (2018). A meal concept designed for older adults - Small, enriched meals including dessert.. Food & nutrition research, 62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A meal concept designed for older adults - Small, enriched meals including dessert.
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2018 (English)In: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The population of older adults is growing and many are at risk of disease-related malnutrition. This is a serious condition which increases the risk for other diseases and distress, human suffering and puts a high load on health care costs. Meal concepts tailored to suit the needs of older adults are required to decrease the incidence of disease-related malnutrition.

Objective: To evaluate sensory perception regarding a concept of small, protein and energy-enriched multi-component meals designed according to the nutritional needs of older adults.

Design: A meal concept of small main courses with complementary desserts and protein and energy-enriched products was evaluated using triangle tests, hedonic evaluation and focus group discussion. Enriched sauces and meals were compared to corresponding commercial products regarding appearance, taste, consistency and overall acceptance.

Results: The concept of a small main course with a complementary dessert was generally perceived as positive by the target group. The acceptance scores for the enriched meals were generally lower than for the commercial meals, mainly owing to the packaging of the enriched meals which required covering the food in sauce. Enriched sauces contained approximately 90% more protein than the commercial sauces. However, protein enrichment affected the sensory properties of the sauces and they were perceived as thicker, creamier and less flavour-intensive.

Conclusions: A concept based on small, protein and energy-enriched meals supplemented with a dessert was considered suitable for increasing the energy and protein intakes of older adults provided that the method of enrichment ensures attractive sensorial properties.

Keywords
energy, malnutrition, meal concept, meals, older adults, protein
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37509 (URN)10.29219/fnr.v62.1572 (DOI)30574052 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068449571 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Höglund, E., Eliasson, L., Oliveira, G., Almli, V. L., Sozer, N. & Alminger, M. (2018). Effect of drying and extrusion processing on physical and nutritional characteristics of bilberry press cake extrudates. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 92, 422-428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of drying and extrusion processing on physical and nutritional characteristics of bilberry press cake extrudates
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2018 (English)In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 92, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mild drying and extrusion processing of side streams from berry juice production can enable retention of valuable compounds in the food chain and reduce waste production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of using hot air (HA) and microwave assisted hot air (MWHA) drying combined with extrusion for conversion of bilberry press cake into value-added extruded food products. Bilberry press cake was dried at 40 °C by HA and MWHA drying to a moisture content of 17 g/100 g. A twin screw extruder (average feed rate 72 g/min, temperature profile 135-128-89-69 °C) was used to extrude products containing organic wholegrain rye flour and 10% or 25% dried bilberry press cake powder. A consumer panel (n = 15) evaluated four extrudates on hedonic and Just-About-Right (JAR) scales, with a main focus on texture properties. The results indicate that different drying techniques implied a difference in processing time (40% reduction with MWHA drying). However, the retention of total phenolics and physical characteristics of extruded snacks containing bilberry powders were independent of drying techniques. In sum, powder of bilberry press cake can be incorporated in cereal based extruded snacks with enhanced phenolic content and potential for palatable sensory properties.

Keywords
Extrusion, Food products, Fruit juices, Presses (machine tools), Thermal processing (foods), Extrusion processing, Microwave assisted, Nutritional characteristics, Physical characteristics, Sensory properties, Temperature profiles, Texture properties, Twin screw extruders, Drying
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33985 (URN)10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.042 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042705722 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Core; Funding details: EC, European Commission;

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Wendin, K., Höglund, E., Andersson, M. & Rothenberg, E. (2017). Protein enriched foods and healthy ageing Effects of protein fortification on muffin characteristics. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 28(5), 16-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein enriched foods and healthy ageing Effects of protein fortification on muffin characteristics
2017 (English)In: Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, ISSN 1722-6996, E-ISSN 2035-4606, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 16-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sarcopenia is a common problem among elderly. To maintain muscle mass, strength and function adequate dietary protein intake is of importance. The aim is to enable the development of high-quality fortified foods to improve protein status in elderly. Current study aimed to investigate how sensory and physical characteristics of a popular snack in the form of muffins change when increasing protein content. A reference muffin was compared to muffins fortified with soy flour, almond flour or whey protein, respectively. A focus group evaluated the sensory properties. Physical properties included colour measurement, water activity, weight and heights. All fortifiers affected the muffins differently, sensory as well as physical characteristics, showing the complexity of adding different fortifiers to muffins.

Keywords
Acceptance, Elderly, Muffin, Protein fortification, Sensory characteristics, Sensory perception, Colour measurement, Dietary proteins, Physical characteristics, Sensory properties, Proteins
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33178 (URN)2-s2.0-85033676815 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Tibäck, E., Langton, M., Oliveira, J. & Ahrné, L. (2014). Mathematical modeling of the viscosity of tomato, broccoli and carrot purees under dynamic conditions (ed.). Journal of Food Engineering, 124, 35-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical modeling of the viscosity of tomato, broccoli and carrot purees under dynamic conditions
2014 (English)In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 124, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different viscosity models were developed to describe the viscosity of unprocessed fruit and vegetable purees under dynamic conditions. Temperature hysteresis cycles were carried out for three purees with different structural characteristics (tomato, carrot, and broccoli), with heating and cooling phases from 10 to 80°C with isothermal (holding) phases at 10, 30, 60 or 80°C. The apparent viscosity was measured continuously with a rotational rheometer and the data was analyzed with time-independent and time-dependent models (quantifying rheopexy, thixotropy, or both). The results revealed clear thixotropic behavior in tomato puree, attributed to shearing effects, and rheopectic in broccoli puree, attributed to gel formation at the higher temperatures. Although carrot puree data from the isothermal periods could be quantified satisfactorily with no time dependency, analysis of the nonisothermal periods proved that rheopectic effects also needed to be included.

Keywords
Food Engineering, Livsmedelsteknik
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-8875 (URN)10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.09.031 (DOI)2-s2.0-84886710709 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8266-0528

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