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Cernencu, A., Lungu, A., Stancu, I., Serafim, A., Heggset, E. B., Syverud, K. & Iovu, H. (2019). Bioinspired 3D printable pectin-nanocellulose ink formulations. Carbohydrate Polymers, 220, 12-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioinspired 3D printable pectin-nanocellulose ink formulations
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2019 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 220, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The assessment of several ink formulations for 3D printing based on two natural macromolecular compounds is presented. In the current research we have exploited the fast crosslinking potential of pectin and the remarkable shear-thinning properties of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils, which is known to induce a desired viscoelastic behavior. Prior to 3D printing, the viscoelastic properties of the polysaccharide inks were evaluated by rheological measurements and injectability tests. The reliance of the printing parameters on the ink composition was established through one-dimensional lines printing, the base units of 3D-structures. The performance of the 3D-printed structures after ionic cross-linking was evaluated in terms of mechanical properties and rehydration behavior. MicroCT was also used to evaluate the morphology of the 3D-printed objects regarding the effect of pectin/nanocellulose ratio on the geometrical features of scaffolds. The proportionality between the two polymers proved to be the determining factor for the firmness and strength of the printed objects. © 2019

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
3D printing, Cellulose nanofibrils, Hydrogels, Pectin, Polysaccharide, Cellulose, Computerized tomography, Nanocellulose, Nanofibers, Polysaccharides, Shear flow, Shear thinning, Viscoelasticity, 3-D printing, Macromolecular compounds, Rehydration behavior, Rheological measurements, Visco-elastic behaviors, Viscoelastic properties, 3D printers
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38922 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.05.026 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065922721 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 228147; Funding details: PN-III-P1-1.2-PCCDI-2017-0782; Funding text 1: The 3D printing experiments and MicroCT analysis were possible due to European Regional Development Fund through Competitiveness Operational Program 2014-2020, Priority axis 1, ID P_36_611, MySMIS code 107066, INOVABIOMED. A. Lungu would like to thank for the financial support provided by a grant of the Romanian Ministery of Research and Innovation, CCCDI – UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P1-1.2-PCCDI-2017-0782 /REGMED – project 4 TUMOR, within PNCDI III. The authors would like to acknowledge the helpful discussions with Claudiu Patrascu on matters regarding rheology. Parts of this work has also been funded by the Research Council of Norway through the NORCEL project (Grant no. 228147 ). Appendix A

Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Aadland, R., Jakobsen, T., Heggset, E. B., Long-Sanouiller, H., Simon, S., Paso, K., . . . Torsæter, O. (2019). High-temperature core flood investigation of nanocellulose as a green additive for enhanced oil recovery. Nanomaterials, 9(5), Article ID 665.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-temperature core flood investigation of nanocellulose as a green additive for enhanced oil recovery
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2019 (English)In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent studies have discovered a substantial viscosity increase of aqueous cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) dispersions upon heat aging at temperatures above 90 °C. This distinct change in material properties at very low concentrations in water has been proposed as an active mechanism for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), as highly viscous fluid may improve macroscopic sweep efficiencies and mitigate viscous fingering. A high-temperature (120 °C) core flood experiment was carried out with 1 wt.% CNC in low salinity brine on a 60 cm-long sandstone core outcrop initially saturated with crude oil. A flow rate corresponding to 24 h per pore volume was applied to ensure sufficient viscosification time within the porous media. The total oil recovery was 62.2%, including 1.2% oil being produced during CNC flooding. Creation of local log-jams inside the porous media appears to be the dominant mechanism for additional oil recovery during nano flooding. The permeability was reduced by 89.5% during the core flood, and a thin layer of nanocellulose film was observed at the inlet of the core plug. CNC fluid and core flood effluent was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle size analysis, and shear rheology. The effluent was largely unchanged after passing through the core over a time period of 24 h. After the core outcrop was rinsed, a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to examine heterogeneity of the core. The core was found to be homogeneous. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Cellulose nanocrystals, CNC, Core flood, Crude oil, Enhanced oil recovery, Heat aging, High temperature, Nanocellulose, Nanoparticle, Petroleum, Rheology modification, Tertiary recovery
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39051 (URN)10.3390/nano9050665 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066947377 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Norges Forskningsråd, 244615/E30, 262644; Funding details: 245963/F50; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was funded by Research Council of Norway through grant 244615/E30 in the Petromaks2. Program and through the Centres of Excellence funding scheme, project number 262644.; Funding text 2: Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank the Research Council of Norway for their financial support through the GreenEOR project (grant 244615/E30) in the Petromaks2 program, and through the Centres of Excellence funding scheme, project number 262644. The authors would also like to thank Per Olav Johnsen and Birgitte H. McDonagh for acquiring the AFM images. A big thank you to Martin Raphaug and Torleif Holt at SINTEF Petroleum for guidance and help during the core flood experiment. Thanks to Ole Tore Buset from the department of physics at NTNU for obtaining the micro-CT images at their X-ray laboratory. Lastly, the authors would like to thank Amin Hossein Zavieh at NTNU Nanolab/NorFab for acquiring the SEM images. The Research Council of Norway is acknowledged for the support to the Norwegian Micro-and Nano-Fabrication Facility, NorFab, project number 245963/F50.

Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Rashad, A., Suliman, S., Mustafa, M., Pedersen, T., Campodoni, E., Sandri, M., . . . Mustafa, K. (2019). Inflammatory responses and tissue reactions to wood-Based nanocellulose scaffolds. Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, 97, 208-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammatory responses and tissue reactions to wood-Based nanocellulose scaffolds
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2019 (English)In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 97, p. 208-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two wood-derived cellulose nanofibril (CNF) porous scaffolds were prepared by TEMPO-oxidation and carboxymethylation. The effects of these scaffolds on the production of inflammatory cytokines by human macrophage-like cells (U937) was profiled in vitro after 1 and 3 days and in subcutaneous tissues of rats after 4 and 30 days, using PCR and Multiplex arrays. Tissue culture plates (TCP) and gelatin scaffolds served as controls in vitro and in vivo respectively. After 3 days in vitro, there was no significant difference between the effects of CNF scaffolds and TCP on the production of chemokines/growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. At day 4 in vivo there was significantly higher gene expression of the anti-inflammatory IL-1Ra in the CNF scaffolds than the gelatin scaffold. Production of IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP-1α CXCL-1 and M-CSF was significantly less than in the gelatin, demonstrating an early mild inflammatory response. At day 30, both CNF scaffolds significantly stimulated the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Unlike gelatin, neither CNF scaffold had degraded 180 days post-implantation. The slow degradation of CNF scaffolds resulted in a foreign body reaction, with high production of IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-ϒ, MCP-1, MIP-1α, M-CSF, VEGF cytokines and expression of MMP-9 gene. The surface chemistry of the CNF scaffolds elicited a modest effect on cytokine production and did not shift the inflammatory profile in vitro or in vivo. The decisive role in development of the foreign body reaction was the slow degradation of the CNF scaffolds.

Keywords
Cellulose, Degradation, Gene expression, Image storage tubes, Macrophages, Nanocellulose, Nanofibers, Surface chemistry, Tissue, Tissue culture, Transmission control protocol, Wood, Cellulose nanofibrils, Cytokines, Foreign body reactions, Inflammation, Inflammatory cytokines, Inflammatory response
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37040 (URN)10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.068 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058385582 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-07-31Bibliographically approved
Ottesen, V., Larsson, P. T., Chinga-Carrasco, G., Syverud, K. & Gregersen, Ö. (2019). Mechanical properties of cellulose nanofibril films: effects of crystallinity and its modification by treatment with liquid anhydrous ammonia. Cellulose (London), 26(11), 6615-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical properties of cellulose nanofibril films: effects of crystallinity and its modification by treatment with liquid anhydrous ammonia
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2019 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 6615-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of cellulose crystallinity on mechanical properties of cellulose nano-fibrils (CNF) was investigated. Degree of crystallinity (DoC) was modified using liquid anhydrous ammonia. Such treatment changes crystal allomorph from cellulose I to cellulose III, a change which was reversed by subsequent boiling in water. DoC was measured using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Crystalline index (CI) was also measured using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Cotton linters were used as the raw material. The cotton linter was ammonia treated prior to fibrillation. Reduced DoC is seen to associate with an increased yield point and decreased Young modulus. Young modulus is here defined as the maximal slope of the stress–strain curves. The association between DoC and Young modulus or DoC and yield point are both statistically significant. We cannot conclude there has been an effect on strainability. While mechanical properties were affected, we found no indication that ammonia treatment affected degree of fibrillation. CNF was also studied in air and liquid using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Swelling of the nanofibers was observed, with a mean diameter increase of 48.9%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2019
Keywords
Cellulose nanofibrils, Degree of crystallinity, Mechanical properties, Swelling, Ammonia, Atomic force microscopy, Cellulose, Cellulose films, Chromium compounds, Cotton, Crystallinity, Liquids, Nanofibers, Nuclear magnetic resonance, X ray scattering, Ammonia treatment, Anhydrous ammonia, Cellulose crystallinity, Cotton linters, Crystalline index, Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39277 (URN)10.1007/s10570-019-02546-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067190175 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-03 Created: 2019-07-03 Last updated: 2019-07-03Bibliographically approved
Aaen, R., Brodin, F. W., Simon, S., Heggset, E. B. & Syverud, K. (2019). Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Cellulose Nanofibrils-The Effects of Ionic Strength and pH.. Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 9(2), Article ID E259.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Cellulose Nanofibrils-The Effects of Ionic Strength and pH.
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2019 (English)In: Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 2, article id E259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pickering o/w emulsions prepared with 40 wt % rapeseed oil were stabilized with the use of low charged enzymatically treated cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and highly charged 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized CNFs. The emulsion-forming abilities and storage stability of the two qualities were tested in the presence of NaCl and acetic acid, at concentrations relevant to food applications. Food emulsions may be an important future application area for CNFs due to their availability and excellent viscosifying abilities. The emulsion characterization was carried out by visual inspection, light microscopy, viscosity measurements, dynamic light scattering and mild centrifugation, which showed that stable emulsions could be obtained for both CNF qualities in the absence of salt and acid. In addition, the enzymatically stabilized CNFs were able to stabilize emulsions in the presence of acid and NaCl, with little change in the appearance or droplet size distribution over one month of storage at room temperature. The work showed that enzymatically treated CNFs could be suitable for use in food systems where NaCl and acid are present, while the more highly charged TEMPO-CNFs might be more suited for other applications, where they can contribute to a high emulsion viscosity even at low concentrations.

Keywords
TEMPO-oxidation, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), emulsion stability, enzymatical treatment, nanocelluloses, o/w emulsions
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37818 (URN)10.3390/nano9020259 (DOI)30769791 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Campodoni, E., Heggset, E. B., Rashad, A., Ramírez-Rodríguez, G. B., Mustafa, K., Syverud, K., . . . Sandri, M. (2019). Polymeric 3D scaffolds for tissue regeneration: Evaluation of biopolymer nanocomposite reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils. Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, 94, 867-878
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymeric 3D scaffolds for tissue regeneration: Evaluation of biopolymer nanocomposite reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils
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2019 (English)In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 94, p. 867-878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biopolymers such as gelatin (Gel) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have many of the essential requirements for being used as scaffolding materials in tissue regeneration; biocompatibility, surface chemistry, ability to generate homogeneous hydrogels and 3D structures with suitable pore size and interconnection, which allows cell colonization and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the mechanical behaviour of the Gel matrix can be improved by means of functionalization with cellulose nanofibrils and proper cross-linking treatments. Blending processes were developed to achieve a polymer nanocomposite incorporating the best features of both biopolymers: biomimicry of the Gel and structural reinforcement by the CNF. The designed 3D structures underline interconnected porosity achieved by freeze-drying process, improved mechanical properties and chemical stability that are tailored by CNF addition and different cross-linking approaches. In vitro evaluations reveal the preservation of the biocompatibility of Gel and its good interaction with cells by promoting cell colonization and proliferation. The results support the addition of cellulose nanofibrils to improve the mechanical behaviour of 3D porous structures suitable as scaffolding for tissue regeneration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Cross-linking, Nanoreinforcement, Polymer blend, Soft tissues, Biocompatibility, Biomechanics, Biomimetics, Biomolecules, Biopolymers, Blending, Cellulose, Chemical stability, Crosslinking, Mechanical properties, Nanocomposites, Nanofibers, Polymer blends, Pore size, Reinforcement, Scaffolds (biology), Surface chemistry, Tissue, Cellulose nanofibrils, Freeze-drying process, Interconnected porosity, Polymer nanocomposite, Scaffolding materials, Soft tissue, Structural reinforcement, Tissue regeneration
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35568 (URN)10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.026 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054676906 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding text: The authors would like to thank the grant no. 228147 - NORCEL project “The NORwegian nanoCELlulose Technology Platform”

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Torstensen, J., Helberg, R. M. L., Deng, L., Gregersen, Ö. W. & Syverud, K. (2019). PVA/nanocellulose nanocomposite membranes for CO2 separation from flue gas. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 81, 93-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PVA/nanocellulose nanocomposite membranes for CO2 separation from flue gas
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 81, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we explore the use of nanocelluloses as an additive to poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes for CO2/N2 mixed-gas separation. Our findings are that several types of nanocellulose can be used to improve membrane performance. PVA/cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) nanocomposite membranes have the most promising performance, with increased CO2 permeance (127.8 ± 5.5 GPU) and increased CO2/N2 separation factor (39 ± 0.4) compared to PVA composite membranes, with permeance 105.5 ± 1.9 GPU and separation factor 36 ± 0.5. The performance of PVA/CNC membranes is similar compared to PVA/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) membranes shown earlier. Thus, CNTs can be replaced by CNC that is biodegradable and non-toxic. Investigating several different nanocellulose types reveal that a high nanocellulose charge and small nanocellulose particles are important nanocellulose traits that improve membrane performance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Carbon dioxide, Carbon nanotubes, Cellulose, Composite membranes, Nanocellulose, Nanocomposites, Polyvinyl alcohols, PVA
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37041 (URN)10.1016/j.ijggc.2018.10.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059097291 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Aaen, R., Simon, S., Wernersson Brodin, F. & Syverud, K. (2019). The potential of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils as rheology modifiers in food systems. Cellulose (London), 26(9), 5483-5496
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils as rheology modifiers in food systems
2019 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 5483-5496Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract: Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have been proposed for use in low-fat food products due to their availability and excellent viscosifying and gel forming abilities. As the CNFs are negatively charged, the presence of other components in foods, such as electrolytes and food additives such as xanthan gum is likely to affect their rheological properties. Hence, the study of these interactions can contribute valuable information of the suitability of CNFs as rheology modifiers and fat replacers. Rheological measurements on aqueous dispersions of TEMPO-oxidized CNFs were performed with variations in concentration of CNFs, concentration of electrolytes and with varying CNF/xanthan ratios. UV–Vis Spectroscopy was used to evaluate the onset of CNF flocculation/aggregation in the presence of electrolytes. The CNF dispersions followed a power-law dependency for viscosity and moduli on CNF concentration. Low electrolyte additions strengthened the CNF network by allowing for stronger interactions, while higher additions led to fibril aggregation, and loss of viscosity, especially under shear. The CNF/xanthan ratio, as well as the presence of electrolytes were shown to be key factors in determining whether the viscosity and storage modulus of CNF dispersions increased or decreased when xanthan was added. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2019
Keywords
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), Food additives, Ionic strength, Nanocellulose, Rheology, TEMPO-mediated oxidation, Cellulose, Dispersions, Elasticity, Nanofibers, Oxidation, Viscosity, Aqueous dispersions, Fibril aggregations, Gel-forming ability, Oxidized cellulose, Rheological measurements, Rheological property, Electrolytes
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38925 (URN)10.1007/s10570-019-02448-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065452608 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Heggset, E. B., Strand, B. L., Sundby, K. W., Simon, S., Chinga-Carrasco, G. & Syverud, K. (2019). Viscoelastic properties of nanocellulose based inks for 3D printing and mechanical properties of CNF/alginate biocomposite gels. Cellulose (London) (1), 581-595
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Viscoelastic properties of nanocellulose based inks for 3D printing and mechanical properties of CNF/alginate biocomposite gels
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2019 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 1, p. 581-595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inks for 3D printing based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) or mixtures of CNFs and either cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or alginate were assessed by determining their viscoelastic properties i.e. complex viscosity and storage and loss moduli (G′ and G″). Two types of alginates were used, i.e. from Laminaria hyperborea stipe and Macrocystis pyrifera. Shape fidelity of 3D printed grids were qualitatively evaluated and compared to the viscoelastic properties of the inks. The biocomposite gels containing alginate were post stabilized by crosslinking with Ca2+. Mechanical properties of the crosslinked biocomposite gels were assessed. The complex viscosity, G′ and G″ of CNF suspensions increased when the solid content was increased from 3.5 to 4.0 wt%, but levelled off by further increase in CNF solid content. The complex viscosity at low angular frequency at 4 wt% was as high as 104 Pa·s. This seemed to be the necessary viscosity level for obtaining good shape fidelity of the printed structures for the studied systems. By replacing part of the CNFs with CNCs, the complex viscosity, G′ and G″ were reduced and so was also the shape fidelity of the printed grids. The changes in complex viscosity and moduli when CNFs was replaced with alginate depended on the relative amounts of CNFs/alginate. The type of alginate (from either L. hyp. stipe or M. pyr.) did not play a role for the viscoelastic properties of the inks, nor for the printed grids before post stabilization. Replacing CNFs with up to 1.5 wt% alginate gave satisfactory shape fidelity. The effect of adding alginate and subsequent crosslinking with Ca2+, strongly affected the strength properties of the gels. By appropriate choice of relative amounts of CNFs and alginate and type of alginate, the Young’s modulus and rupture strength could be controlled within the range of 30–150 kPa and 1.5–6 kg, respectively. The deformation at rupture was around 55%. The alginate from L. hyp. stipe yields higher Young’s modulus and lower syneresis compared to M. pyr. This shows that the choice of alginate plays a significant role for the mechanical properties of the final product, although it does not influence on the viscoelastic properties of the ink. The choice of alginate should be L. hyp. stipe if high strength is desired.

Keywords
Alginate, Cellulose, Cellulose derivatives, Composite materials, Hydrogels, Mechanical properties, Nanocellulose, Rheology, Suspensions, Viscoelasticity, Viscosity, 3-D printing
National Category
Nano Technology Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36660 (URN)10.1007/s10570-018-2142-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057032463 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Ojansivu, M., Rashad, A., Ahlinder, A. E., Massera, J., Mishra, A., Syverud, K., . . . Mustafa, K. (2019). Wood-based nanocellulose and bioactive glass modified gelatin-alginate bioinks for 3D bioprinting of bone cells. Biofabrication, 11(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood-based nanocellulose and bioactive glass modified gelatin-alginate bioinks for 3D bioprinting of bone cells
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2019 (English)In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A challenge in the extrusion-based bioprinting is to find a bioink with optimal biological and physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and bioactive glass on the rheological properties of gelatin-alginate bioinks and the initial responses of bone cells embedded in these inks. CNF modulated the flow behavior of the hydrogels, thus improving their printability. Chemical characterization by SEM-EDX and ion release analysis confirmed the reactivity of the BaG in the hydrogels. The cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was shown to be good, as evidenced by the viability of human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) in cast hydrogels. For bioprinting, 4-layer structures were printed from cell-containing gels and crosslinked with CaCl2. Viability, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were monitored over 14 days. In the BaG-free gels, Saos-2 cells remained viable, but in the presence of BaG the viability and proliferation decreased in correlation with the increased viscosity. Still, there was a constant increase in the ALP activity in all the hydrogels. Further bioprinting experiments were conducted using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), a clinically relevant cell type. Interestingly, hBMSCs tolerated the printing process better than Saos-2 cells and the ALP indicated BaG-stimulated early osteogenic commitment. The addition of CNF and BaG to gelatin-alginate bioinks hold great potential for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords
Saos-2, bioink, bioprinting, bone tissue engineering, cellulose nanofibril, mesenchymal stem cell, viscosity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37819 (URN)10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692 (DOI)30754034 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2271-3637

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