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Kohne, T., Fahlkrans, J., Stormvinter, A., Maawad, E., Winkelmann, A., Hedström, P. & Borgenstam, A. (2023). Evolution of Martensite Tetragonality in High-Carbon Steels Revealed by In Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, 54(4), 1083-1100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of Martensite Tetragonality in High-Carbon Steels Revealed by In Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction
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2023 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1083-1100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The martensitic transformation was studied by in situ and ex situ experiments in two high-carbon, 0.54 and 0.74 wt pct C, steels applying three different cooling rates, 15 °C/s, 5 °C/s, and 0.5 °C/s, in the temperature range around Ms, to improve the understanding of the evolution of martensite tetragonality c/a and phase fraction formed during the transformation. The combination of in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during controlled cooling and spatially resolved tetragonality c/a determination by electron backscatter diffraction pattern matching was used to study the transformation behavior. The cooling rate and the different Ms for the steels had a clear impact on the martensitic transformation with a decrease in average tetragonality due to stronger autotempering for a decreasing cooling rate and higher Ms. A slower cooling rate also resulted in a lower fraction of martensite at room temperature, but with an increase in fraction of autotempered martensite. Additionally, a heterogeneous distribution of martensite tetragonality was observed for all cooling rates. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Carbon, Cooling, Diffraction patterns, Martensitic transformations, Pattern matching, X ray diffraction, C-steel, Cooling rates, Ex situ, High carbon steels, High carbons, High energy X ray, Situ experiments, Temperature range, Tetragonality, X- ray diffractions, Martensite
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64683 (URN)10.1007/s11661-022-06948-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85147558305 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Fellowships Fund Incorporated, FFI; Funding details: VINNOVA; Funding details: Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH; Funding details: Narodowe Centrum Nauki, NCN, 2020/37/B/ST5/03669; Funding details: Helmholtz Association; Funding text 1: We acknowledge the members of the Vinnova ‘Controlled quenching at case hardening for optimal performance -QuenchCool’ project for their help with sample manufacturing and homogenization. Furthermore, we acknowledge DESY (Hamburg, Germany), a member of the Helmholtz Association HGF, for the provision of experimental facilities. Parts of this research were carried out at the beamline P07b, and we would like to thank Dr. Norbert Schell for assistance. Open access funding provided by Royal Institute of Technology. This work was supported by the Vinnova project ‘Controlled quenching at case hardening for optimal performance -QuenchCool’ within the programme ‘Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation’ (FFI) of which this research was part of. A.W. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (NCN) grant number 2020/37/B/ST5/03669. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.; Funding text 2: This work was supported by the Vinnova project ‘Controlled quenching at case hardening for optimal performance -QuenchCool’ within the programme ‘Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation’ (FFI) of which this research was part of. A.W. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (NCN) grant number 2020/37/B/ST5/03669.

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-05-15Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J., Berglund, J., Stormvinter, A., Andersson, P. & Lundin, P. (2023). Influence of Local Electropolishing Conditions on Ferritic–Pearlitic Steel on X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Profiling. Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Local Electropolishing Conditions on Ferritic–Pearlitic Steel on X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Profiling
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2023 (English)In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Layer removal with electropolishing is a well-established method when measuring residual stress profiles with lab-XRD. This is done to measure the depth impact from processes such as shot peening, heat treatment, or machining. Electropolishing is used to minimize the influence on the inherent residual stresses of the material during layer removal, performed successively in incremental steps to specific depths followed by measurement. Great control of the material removal is critical for the measured stresses at each depth. Therefore, the selection of size of the measurement spot and electropolishing parameters is essential. The main objective in this work is to investigate how different electrolytes and electropolishing equipment affect the resulting surface roughness, geometry, microstructure, and consequently the measured residual stress. A second objective has been to establish a methodology of assessing the acquired electropolished depth. The aim has been to get a better understanding of the influence of the layer removal method on the accuracy of the acquired depth. Evaluation has been done by electropolishing one ground and one shot peened sample of a low-alloy carbon steel, grade 1.1730, with different methods. The results showed a difference in stresses depending on the electrolyte used where the perchloric acid had better ability to retain the stresses compared to the saturated salt. Electropolishing with saturated salt is fast and results in evenly distributed material removal but has high surface roughness, which is due to a difference in electropolishing of the two phases, ferrite, and pearlite. Perchloric acid electropolishing is slower but generates a smooth surface as both ferrite and pearlite have the same material removal rates but may cause an increased material removal for the center of the electropolished area. In this work, it is suggested to use perchloric acid electropolishing for the final layer removal step. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
electrolytical polishing, perchloric acid, profile, residual stress, saturated salt, Electrolytes, Electrolytic polishing, Ferrite, Pearlite, Salt removal, Shot peening, Surface roughness, Condition, Electropolished, Ferritic, Layer removal, Material removal, Pearlitic steels, Perchloric acids, Saturated salts, Residual stresses
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65665 (URN)10.1007/s11665-023-08525-w (DOI)2-s2.0-85165702085 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: J. Holmberg; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden; email: jonas.holmberg@ri.se; 

The authors would like to thank RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB and Stresstech OY for the support of this study.

Available from: 2023-08-09 Created: 2023-08-09 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Kohne, T., Fahlkrans, J., Haglund, S., Stormvinter, A., Troell, E., Hedström, P. & Borgenstam, A. (2022). Impact of Cooling Rate during High-Pressure Gas Quenching on Fatigue Performance of Low Pressure Carburized Gears. Metals, 12(11), Article ID 1917.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Cooling Rate during High-Pressure Gas Quenching on Fatigue Performance of Low Pressure Carburized Gears
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2022 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 1917Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of cooling rate during high-pressure gas quenching on the fatigue performance of low-pressure carburized spur gears was studied for steel grades 20MnCr5 and 17NiCrMo6-4. The results show an increased fatigue limit by 10 to 11% when applying a slower cooling rate for both steel grades. Moreover, for 20MnCr5 the slower cooled gears show an increase in compressive residual stresses by 130 MPa compared to the faster cooling, although no significant difference was observed for 17NiCrMo6-4. It is also seen that the cooling rate affects the core hardness for both steel grades, while other properties like surface hardness, case-hardness depth and martensite variant pairing were unaffected. The results for the retained austenite content and average martensite unit size show no clear effect of the cooling rate. The possible influence of different carbon distributions after quenching for the two used cooling rates on the carbide precipitation and fatigue limit is discussed. © 2022 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
case-hardened gears, fatigue, high-pressure gas quenching, low pressure carburizing, Martensite transformation
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61200 (URN)10.3390/met12111917 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141694705 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Fellowships Fund Incorporated, FFI; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Vinnova project “Controlled quenching at case hardening for optimal performance—QuenchCool” within the programme “Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation” (FFI) of which this research was part of.

Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Hoier, P., Azarhoushang, B., Lundin, P., Malakizadi, A., Badger, J., Stormvinter, A., . . . Krajnik, P. (2022). Influence of batch-to-batch material variations on grindability of a medium‑carbon steel. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 73, 463-470
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of batch-to-batch material variations on grindability of a medium‑carbon steel
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 73, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study addresses the influence of material variations on the grindability of crankshaft steel. Most previous studies on the effect of material microstructure on grindability involve comparisons of significantly different steel grades. This study, in contrast, is focused on batch-to-batch grindability variations for one steel grade, a scenario frequently occurring in industry where batches from different steel makers are fed into a production line. For this purpose, a batch made of recycled steel and a batch made of ore-based steel were compared with regards to microstructure and grindability under identical grinding and dressing conditions. Although both batches met the same material specifications, microstructural variations were identified in terms of grain size and micro-constituents (inclusions, carbonitrides). While specific grinding energy, residual stress and full-width at half-maximum profiles of ground surfaces were the same for both batches, the recycled batch showed different and unfavorable variation in wheel wear and Barkhausen noise (BN) response. Larger fractions of oxide inclusions and larger grain sizes (affected by carbonitrides) were present in the recycled batch, which were the likely reasons for the differences in wheel wear and BN response, respectively. These findings may aid grindability improvement by steel-grade adjustments, e.g. modification of the distribution and type of inclusions and/or amount of elements forming carbonitrides. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of understanding and controlling material microstructure, as existing in-line quality by BN control may not always be able to correctly indicate surface integrity, which could lead to misinterpretations (e.g. false part-rejection on the assumption of grinding burn). © 2021 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Grindability, Grinding, Surface integrity, Carbon nitride, Crankshafts, Microstructure, Quality control, Recycling, Wear of materials, Wheels, Barkhausen noise, Effects of materials, Grindabilities, In-wheel, Material microstructures, Material variation, Medium-carbon steels, Steel grades, Wheel wears, Grinding (machining)
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57330 (URN)10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.11.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85119434755 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 2017-02908; Funding text 1: The authors thank Robert Bösinger for dedicated experimental work and Nastja Mačerol and Fredrik de Geer for valuable discussions. Members of the International Grinding Centre (IGC) belonging to Chalmers Centre for Metal Cutting Research (MCR) are acknowledged. This work has been performed with the financial support from Sweden's Innovation Agency (CRANK-STEEL project; grant no. 2017-02908 ).

Available from: 2021-12-28 Created: 2021-12-28 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Stormvinter, A., Goldsteinas, A. & Rink, M. (2017). DoE – Interrupted Gas Quenching in a Single Chamber Vacuum Furnace. In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering: . Paper presented at 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, Nice, June 26-29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DoE – Interrupted Gas Quenching in a Single Chamber Vacuum Furnace
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34205 (URN)
Conference
24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, Nice, June 26-29
Available from: 2018-07-17 Created: 2018-07-17 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Stormvinter, A., Senaneuch, J., Makander, G. & Kristoffersen, H. (2017). Induction hardening: Effect of Bainite in the Case Layer on Fatigue Strength. In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering: . Paper presented at 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, Nice, June 26-29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Induction hardening: Effect of Bainite in the Case Layer on Fatigue Strength
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34206 (URN)
Conference
24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, Nice, June 26-29
Available from: 2018-07-17 Created: 2018-07-17 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J., Steuwer, A., Stormvinter, A., Kristoffersen, H., Haakanen, M. & Berglund, J. (2016). Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD. Materials Science & Engineering: A, 667, 199-207
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD
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2016 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 667, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

Keywords
Residual stress measurement, Lab-XRD, Synchrotron diffraction, Neutron diffraction, Induction hardening, Steel, Martensite, Martensitic transformation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29145 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2016.04.075 (DOI)2-s2.0-84964955994 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-22 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Stormvinter, A., Olofsson, A., Kristoffersen, H. & Troell, E. (2015). Effects of Hardenability and Quenching on Distortion of Steel Components. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Distortion Engineering (IDE 2015): . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Distortion Engineering (IDE 2015), September 23-25, 2015, Bremen, Germany (pp. 39-46).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Hardenability and Quenching on Distortion of Steel Components
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Distortion Engineering (IDE 2015), 2015, p. 39-46Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Distortion is a major concern for industrial production of case-hardened steel-components. Carriers of distortion have been identified at all stages in the production chain. Often recognized is the effect of steel hardenability, which is defined as “susceptibility to hardening by rapid cooling”. Hardenability is often represented by Jominy- or Grossman numbers, which are determined by experimental testing or calculation. Hardenability is derived from the steel ability to delay diffusion-controlled phase transformations, i.e. being dependent on alloying content and austenite grain-size. Hence, it may be of interest to investigate effects of individual alloying elements on distortion. Here we make an attempt to investigate the effect of hardenability (and alloying content) of case-hardening steel-grade 16NiCrS4 on distortion of ring- and c-shaped steel-components. The steel components are machined from tubes of three 16NiCrS4 heats, being dissimilar in alloying content and hardenability. After stress relief annealing, the steel-components were measured using either 3D-scanner or coordinate measuring machine. Subsequently, they were hardened, without carburization, using oil, gas or salt as quenchant. The components were measured in their hardened state and their distortion determined. The results clearly show the effects of hardenability and quenching on distortion. Moreover, these results are discussed in relation to production follow-up in industrial heat-treatment workshops. It is realized that to effectively handle distortion originating from hardenability; material, processing and component design has to be associated.

Keywords
Distortion, Hardenability, Case-hardening, Heat treatment
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30345 (URN)978-3-88722-749-4 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Distortion Engineering (IDE 2015), September 23-25, 2015, Bremen, Germany
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Stormvinter, A., Kristoffersen, H., Troell, E., Senaneuch, J. & Haglund, S. (2015). Impact of Internal Oxidation and Quenching Path on Fatigue of Powertrain Components. In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference. Paper presented at 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference and Exhibition (ASM 2015), October 20-22, 2015, Detroit, US (pp. 504-509).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Internal Oxidation and Quenching Path on Fatigue of Powertrain Components
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2015 (English)In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, 2015, p. 504-509Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Atmospheric case hardening of powertrain components may cause internal oxidation and thus reduce hardenability at the surface zone. This may affect the fatigue strength, which restricts the maximum cyclic load on steel components and hence is a major impediment for powertrain development and design. Here we have investigated the effect of furnace gas atmosphere composition and quenching path on fatigue properties of powertrain components. The results show that the detrimental effect of internal oxidation on fatigue may be compensated for by altering of the furnace atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the quenching path below the martensite start temperature also has an impact on the fatigue properties. These experiments were done in a full-scale industrial furnace on steel bars in 16MnCr5 and 20NiMo9-7F.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30348 (URN)2-s2.0-84965098652 (Scopus ID)978-1-62708-105-4 (ISBN)
Conference
28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference and Exhibition (ASM 2015), October 20-22, 2015, Detroit, US
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Stormvinter, A., Kristoffersen, H., Troell, E., Senaneuch, J. & Haglund, S. (2015). Impact of internal oxidation and quenching path on fatigue of powertrain components. In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference. Paper presented at 28th Heat Treating Society Conference (HEAT TREATING 2015), October 20-22, 2015, Detroit, US (pp. 498-503).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of internal oxidation and quenching path on fatigue of powertrain components
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2015 (English)In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, 2015, p. 498-503Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Atmospheric case hardening of powertrain components may cause internal oxidation and thus reduce hardenability at the surface zone. This may affect the fatigue strength, which restricts the maximum cyclic load on steel components and hence is a major impediment for powertrain development and design. Here we have investigated the effect of furnace gas atmosphere composition and quenching path on fatigue properties of powertrain components. The results show that the detrimental effect of internal oxidation on fatigue may be compensated for by altering of the furnace atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the quenching path below the martensite start temperature also has an impact on the fatigue properties. These experiments were done in a full-scale industrial furnace on steel bars in l6MnCr5 and 2ONiMo9-7F. 

Keywords
Case hardening, Fatigue of materials, Heat treating furnaces, Heat treatment, Oxidation, Powertrains, Quenching, Fatigue properties, Fatigue strength, Furnace atmosphere, Gas atmosphere, Hardenability, Martensite start temperature, Powertrain components, Steel components, Internal oxidation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30346 (URN)2-s2.0-84965098652 (Scopus ID)978-1-62708-105-4 (ISBN)
Conference
28th Heat Treating Society Conference (HEAT TREATING 2015), October 20-22, 2015, Detroit, US
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1677-1064

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