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Publications (10 of 68) Show all publications
Sesseng, C., Reitan, N. K., Storesund, K., Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. & Hagen, B. (2020). Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study. Fire and Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study
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2020 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Fires in wood waste storages cause financial losses, are difficult to extinguish, and emit large amounts of fire effluents. The mechanisms related to fires in wood chip piles are not well elucidated. To find suitable preventive measures for handling such fires in wood waste, a better understanding of the physical properties of wood waste is needed. The present study investigates how granularity affects mechanisms of smoldering fire and transition to flaming in wood chip piles. Eighteen experiments with samples inside a top-ventilated, vertical cylinder were conducted. Heating from underneath the cylinder induced auto-ignition and smoldering fire, and temperatures and mass loss of the sample were measured. The results showed that granularity significantly affects the smoldering fire dynamics. Material containing larger wood chips (length 4-100 mm) demonstrated more irregular temperature development, higher temperatures, faster combustion, and higher mass losses than material of smaller wood chips (length <4 mm). The larger wood chips also underwent transition to flaming fires. Flaming fires were not observed for small wood chips, which instead demonstrated prolonged and steady smoldering propagation. The differences are assumed to be partly due to the different bulk densities of the samples of large and small wood chips affecting the ventilation conditions. Increased knowledge about these combustion processes and transition to flaming is vital to develop risk-reducing measures when storing wood chips made from wood waste in piles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2020
Keywords
fire, granularity, smoldering, transition to flaming, waste, wood chips
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44454 (URN)10.1002/fam.2812 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080871260 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2020-03-17Bibliographically approved
Steen-Hansen, A., Storesund, K. & Sesseng, C. (2020). Learning from fire investigations and research – A Norwegian perspective on moving from a reactive to a proactive fire safety management. Fire safety journal, Article ID 103047.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning from fire investigations and research – A Norwegian perspective on moving from a reactive to a proactive fire safety management
2020 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, article id 103047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Investigation of fires are useful tools for gathering experience and knowledge of how and why fires occur and why they develop as they do. Several tools for accident investigation that also are applicable for analysis of fires are available. Data from fires is valuable for different branches of the fire safety science and are also used in revisions of fire regulations. This paper describes the concept of accident investigation with focus on learning and presents how investigation from fires has been used as a valuable tool in Norwegian fire safety management. Examples of how learnings have improved the residential fire safety level in Norway over the last decades are described. Three different analyses of fatal fires over four decades have given knowledge about how and why residential fires start, and how the victims could be characterized. The fire fatality rate in Norway has decreased by 50% from 1970 until 2014, one of the reasons for this is believed to be implementation of several targeted fire safety measures over the years. Through fire investigations combined with research, new trends in society and their possible implications on fire safety can be uncovered and lead to a more proactive fire safety management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Fire investigation, Hazard evaluation, Human behaviour, Human factors, Learning, Regulations, Residential fire safety, Statistics, Accidents, Fire protection, Housing, Accident investigation, Fire fatalities, Fire regulations, Fire safety, Fire safety management, Fire safety science, Residential fires, Fires
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45007 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103047 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084445671 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 25 May 2020; Article; CODEN: FSJOD; Funding details: Norges ForskningsrÃ¥d, 294649; Funding text 1: This paper has been prepared within the Fire Research and Innovation Centre ( FRIC ) funded by the Research Council of Norway (project number 294649 ) and by partners of FRIC .

Available from: 2020-05-26 Created: 2020-05-26 Last updated: 2020-05-28Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Glansberg, K., Storesund, K. & Ranneklev, S. (2019). Branner i avfallsanlegg.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Branner i avfallsanlegg
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Fires in waste facilities
Abstract [en]

Waste facilities represent a vital function in society, but fires occur regularly. The aim of this study is to provide a knowledge base on risks associated with fires in waste facilities, and to identify measures that can prevent fire and limit the extent of fire damage and environmental impact.

Information was obtained through meetings with the waste industry, two inspections at waste facilities, a survey, a literature review and a review of the events registered in the fire and rescue services' reporting solution BRIS, as well as communication with other stakeholders. The project included land-based waste management; facilities for the reception and storage of waste (N=661), reception and storage of hazardous waste (N=250), and treatment facilities for hazardous waste (N=38). Waste treatment plants (such as biogas- or incinerator plants) as well as landfills are not included.

High-risk waste types have been found to be general, residual waste, batteries (especially batteries not correctly sorted), electrical and electronic (EE) waste, as well as paper, paperboard and cardboard. General, residual waste stands out as an important focus area for reducing the overall fire risk at Norwegian waste facilities, both based on reported frequency of fire ignition and potential consequences with regard to equipment, downtime, environment and health. Waste categorized as "Hazardous Waste" does

not stand out, and is not ranked in the highest risk category in this study, since many preventive and damage reducing measures have been implemented, and appear to work. Chapter 9 provides details on rating of fire risk.

In the period January 2016 - May 2019, 141 fires were reported in waste facilities in Norway in BRIS. The total number of fires (including small, medium and large fires) is unknown, but is believed to be far higher. Common sources of ignition have been found to be composting (self-ignition), thermal runaway in batteries, heat friction by grinding, human activity and unknown cause.

Regularly occurring fires outdoors, increased use of indoor storage and new types of waste such as lithium batteries lead to a risk that is difficult to manage, which can be a challenge with regard to insurance of waste facilities. Increased use of indoor storage is motivated by consideration for the environment and neighbours, but it may conflict with fire safety, especially because it restricts the access for the fire fighters and because of possible high heat stress on the load-bearing structure of the building housing the waste.

Any major fire, regardless of the type of waste burned, could potentially lead to the release of pollutants into the air, water or soil. All smoke from fires can be harmful to humans and exposure to it must be taken seriously. There is a need for more knowledge and expertise in assessing emissions and environmental consequences in connection with firefighting. The use of extinguishing foam can reduce the consumption of extinguishing water, but the foam itself can contribute to contamination if discharged into water. A more detailed list of chemical content in the foam product data sheet is needed in order to be able to assess environmental concerns during use.

2

© RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Measures have been proposed for the design of more firesafe facilities, for waste management and for limiting the environmental impact during and after a fire. Key measures that should be prioritized are detection and monitoring, limiting the amounts of waste, tidiness, sufficient training, reception control, available and properly dimensioned fire extinguishing equipment, as well as solutions to collect extinguishing water in order to prevent the release of environmental toxins. It has not been possible to verify the effect of individual measures based on available data and statistics. The industry’s own overall assessment has been found to be consistent with experience-based observations found in other studies, and this has been found to be the best available information on effective measures. The responsibility for most of the measures lies with the owner of the facility or the business, and the focus should be on the use of documented technical solutions and the assessment of whether measures are appropriate and practicable at each facility. A fire risk assessment, locally adapted to the respective facility is important, as there are large variations in the types of waste handled, the size and the design of facilities, as well as other local conditions that differ between waste facilities in Norway. The fire service should strive to achieve a close dialogue and cooperation with the waste facilities. The authorities should facilitate better knowledge transfer and learning after fires, between different fire departments. The authorities should also, in collaboration with the industry, develop a national attitude campaign to avoid faulty battery sorting.

Further work should study extinguishing techniques and extinguishing tactics that can limit the amount of water needed and that can be used during large-scale fires. Various detection and extinguishing solutions for use at waste facilities should be surveyed, assessed with regards to suitability and documented in cases where documentation is lacking. This should be made available on an openly accessible platform. There is also a need for further studies on the chemical composition of smoke from different types of waste fires, as well as studies on the extent and spread of fire smoke and environmental impacts from fires on water recipients.

Increased fire safety at waste facilities could facilitate a better dialogue between industry and insurance providers by reducing potential financial losses. Good handling of fire risk in waste facilities will not only affect the plants themselves, but will also limit potential societal costs and consequences for health and the environment.

Publisher
p. 116
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:61
Keywords
Fire safety, fire risks, fire ignition, consequences of fire, prevention, preparedness, waste, waste facilities, storage, treatment, waste fractions, types of waste, environmental impact, toxic emissions, industrial fires, self-ignition, auto-ignition, dangerous waste, industrial fire, battery, Brannsikkerhet, brannrisiko, brannstart, konsekvens av brann, forebygging, beredskap, håndtering, avfall, mottak, mellomlagring, behandling, avfallsfraksjon, miljøpåvirkning, miljøutslipp, industribrann, selvantenning, batteri, farlig avfall, industribrann, batteri
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40766 (URN)978-91-88907-88-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Sesseng, C. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2019). Brannsikkerhet i lek- og aktivitetssenter.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brannsikkerhet i lek- og aktivitetssenter
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fire safety in buildings used for play and recreational activity

This project has been carried out on behalf of the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK) and the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) as part of the research agreement between DSB and RISE Fire Research.

The aim of the project has been to determine whether activity centres (offering indoor activities for different age groups, e.g. indoor playgrounds, trampoline parks and gymnastics halls) are well equipped to reduce the risk of ignition, spread of fire, and smoke production, and for high heat release as well as to handle escape in case of fire. All with regard to the particular combination of the number and type of visitors, type of activity in the premises, as well as the large amount of combustible and potentially highly flammable furnishings present in the building.

In this report we have described fire engineering issues specifically related to the activity centres, partly based on a study of technical reports from the buildings’ planning phase and monitoring reports from the operational phase.

Our main findings are related to

• Lacking overall fire safety evaluation regarding the building and the safety plans of the responsible business owner with respect to:- The significance of the furnishing and use of material for personal safety.- Distribution of responsibility to evaluate the furnishing in a risk perspective.

• Ignition and early fire development:- There is not enough focus on ignition sources in the design and planning phase.- The fire performance of materials is not sufficiently taken into account during the design and planning phase and the requirements for documentation are insufficient and not relevant enough.

• Escape:- Children's behaviour during escape is not taken into account when planning.- The activity in activity centres is not taken into account during the planning phase.- The effect of the interior (both material properties, physical position in the room and geometry) on the escape routes and escape time is not taken into account when planning.- Deviations from the requirement for low-placed way guidance systems are made on an uncertain basis.

• Organizational measures:- Organizational measures are hardly mentioned in the fire concepts.- Deviations regarding organizational measures during the operational phase is the responsibility of business owners. This indicates uncertainty or lack of competence of regulations

Publisher
p. 38
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:01
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44755 (URN)
Available from: 2020-04-21 Created: 2020-04-21 Last updated: 2020-04-21
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Sæter Bøe, A., Glansberg, K., Sesseng, C., Storesund, K., Stolen, R. & Brandt, A. W. (2019). Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet
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2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 90
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:02
Keywords
Energy efficient buildings, fire safety, solar cells, photovoltaic installation, photovoltaic module, battery, battery room, battery system, extinguishing, firefighting, technical solutions, new materials, new construction methods., Energieffektive bygg, brannsikkerhet, solceller, solcelleinstallasjon, solcellemodul, batteri, batterirom, batterisystemer, slokking, brannvesen, energibesparende bygg, tekniske løsninger, nye materialer, nye konstruksjonsmetoder.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38296 (URN)978-91-88907-16-5 (ISBN)
Note

Fire safety in energy efficient buildingsBackgroundThere has been a lot of focus on energy efficient buildings recently, and there is a rapid development of new materials, construction methods and technologies on the market. Improvement of one product property may affect other aspects, for example the fire safety. Norwegian authorities want to get an overview of possible challenges associated with the fire safety of energy efficient buildings.ObjectiveThe main objective of this study has been to survey challenges associated with energy efficient buildings and fire safety, with a special focus on solar cells, batteries and fire extinguishment. The project is divided into different work packages. Sub-goals for each of these have been to:

• Study solar cell technology in the context of the total energy supply chain to uncover fire-related challenges.• Increase the understanding of safety challenges, solutions and regulations related to energy storage of batteries in buildings.• Increase the understanding of challenges associated with fire extinguishment in energy efficient buildings where solar cells and/or batteries are used.• Achieve an overall understanding of the interaction between different solutions in energy efficient buildings, and how these interactions affect the fire safety.

ConclusionsGeneral• The interaction between various new technical and energy efficient solutions could affect fire safety, with regard to ignition, fire development, fire dynamics, evacuation and firefighting efforts.• When it comes to fire safety, questions often arise regarding what should be considered as sufficient and adequate documentation. Here, industry guidelines and exchange of knowledge is important, until relevant regulations are in place.• It is important that fire safety is considered, and that responsibilities and tasks are coordinated when new solutions are implemented.• The industry often feels that regulations are adapted too slowly when new solutions are launched.• Our overall impression is that most professionals in the industry take fire safety seriously. Serious actors, good quality of design and installation are important to ensure a safe development.

Solar cells• No substantial difference has been found in fire engineering challenges for large photovoltaic (PV) installations compared to small ones.• Solar cells mounted on facades should be treated similarly to other facade claddings with cavities behind the cladding, with regard to fire testing and classification.• The European regulations for fire testing of roofing materials are not well suited for testing of roofs with building attached photovoltaics.• According to German statistics, building integrated photovoltaics have a significantly higher fire risk than building attached photovoltaics. However, this has not been thoroughly studied during recent years.• It is primarily the electrical voltage that the solar cells generate that can be problematic for firefighting, including re-ignition hazard, shock hazard due to direct contact with energized components and through extinguishing water.Batteries• It is relatively well known how a fire in a battery may start, and this knowledge is transferable to stationary batteries in buildings.• Lack of knowledge, experience and training within fire brigades with regard to large battery systems in buildings, may contribute to application of unfortunate extinguishing strategies.• It is important that the fire service is informed when large battery systems are installed in buildings, to ensure that an extinguishing strategy exist in case of fire.• In many cases, cooling with water is the best extinguishing method, but this can result in high water consumption as the battery itself supplies oxygen to the fire, and the battery encapsulation may prevent the water from reaching the fire zone.• Regulations for domestic battery systems should be better defined with regard to placement and adequate safety levels. Guidelines for people who are considering installing battery systems in their homes would be beneficial.

Airtight buildings• There is no substantial difference in the fire development in airtight and conventional buildings during the initial phases of the fire. According to fire modelling studies there are more pronounced differences at later stages of the fire.• The differences are mainly an increased pressure build-up and that the fire more rapidly becomes ventilation-controlled in airtight buildings.• There is also an increased risk of backdraft for fires in airtight buildings, which represents an increased risk for the firefighters.

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2019). Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The goal of this project has been to establish new knowledge and methods for testing the penetration of hazardous soot and smoke particles into fire clothing. The aim has been to provide the basis for the development of new fire-fighter clothing with better protection against particle penetration. In cooperation with fire services, authorities and protection clothing producers, needs, requirements and recommendations have been investigated. For the documentation and relevant classification of protective clothing, test set-ups in small and larger scale have been developed. The aim has been to be able to achieve representative and repeatable fire- and smoke exposure for accurate measurement of the particle penetration into clothing and trough clothing layers for screening materials and design solutions. With regard to the performance of the clothing, the small-scale tests give indications of the textiles’ ability to block gases and particles from penetrating into the clothing. The large-scale tests give indications to how the design of the clothing as a whole is able to prevent intrusion of gases and particles.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39344 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2019). Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39345 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Amon, F., Shayesteh, H., Steen-Hansen, A., Larsson, I. & Bergstrand, A. (2019). Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective. Trondheim
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Loose furnishings, such as upholstered furniture, mattresses and textiles, are very important for the early stages of fires. Such products can be easily ignited, contribute to rapid spread of fire and produce a lot of smoke and heat when they burn. This limits the time and opportunity for evacuation and fire rescue. The regulation of fire properties of interior textiles, armchairs, sofas and mattresses has been discussed nationally and internationally for many years, without resulting in more stringent requirements for such products, at least not on a harmonized level. Fire safety and environmental considerations are important factors that are often set against each other. It is therefore important to promote the development of safe and fireproof furnishings that are environmentally friendly throughout their life cycle, and which satisfy other requirements that are usually imposed on this product group. The main objective of this project has been to contribute to new knowledge about how fire safety associated with loose interior design can be improved through developing products that meet sustainability and circularity requirements. These new products shall have fire performance comparable to flame retarded reference products but will rely on construction techniques and materials containing small amounts or no flame retardants. The new products shall be safe while in use and shall be recyclable at the end of life. Sustainability and environmental impact analyses including life cycle analyses of furnishing materials have been performed, as well as fire tests for screening the fire performance of a selection of material combinations. Combining a requirement for both sustainable yet fire safe furnishing is a complex task to solve. The more complex the material combination, the more difficult to predict both factors in parallel. Slight variations in components can potentially change the overall scoring of their performance. Cotton, wool and polyester has been shown to have equally high sustainability scores, although cotton had relatively high environmental impact. Polyamide was identified as the fabric with the best environmental performer but scoring lower on sustainability. The cushion material has great impact on fire safety because it may contribute with large amounts of heat energy and smoke. Polyurethane is by far the most common cushion material and comes in many variations, some including chemical fire retardants (FR). FR’s have not been included in in the sustainability and environmental impact analyses in this study, instead focus has been on exploring alternative methods of achieving comparable fire performance. In the case of cushion material, latex was identified as performing much higher on both sustainability and environmental impact than polyurethane. Unfortunately, latex was not a part of the fire testing series and was therefore not explored with regard to fire performance. Future studies should explore the interaction of the fire performance properties of different materials identified as high sustainability and environmental impact performers, especially in full scale room fire experiments. Thorough knowledge about how different components (of high sustainability and low environmental impact) contribute to the fire performance and how these are maintained throughout the furniture’s lifetime, would improve the possibility of fire safe furniture to be part of a circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trondheim: , 2019. p. 125
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019-67
Keywords
Fire safety, furnishing, sustainability, life cycle analysis, environmental impact
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39962 (URN)978-91-88907-94-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 702-171
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Steen-Hansen, A., Amon, F., Haghighatpanah, S. & Larsson, I. (2019). Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing
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2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39343 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K. & Glansberg, K. (2019). Smoke alarm efficiency: Waking sleeping occupants. Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoke alarm efficiency: Waking sleeping occupants
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A literature survey was conducted to study the available research connected to wakening of sleeping people from the sound of a smoke alarm. The effect on the sound attenuation from typical building materials has also been studied.

While the common high frequency signal used in residential smoke alarms will wake up most unimpaired adults, is not the most efficient alarm type to awaken certain groups of the population. Children, elderly and people influenced by alcohol or medicines that affect sleep belong to the group at risk of not being awaken by the sound of the common smoke alarm.

A 520 Hz alarm signal have been shown to efficiently wake up the general population as well as people at risk. This signal has also been shown to maintain its sound level more efficiently when transmitted through and via ordinary building components in dwellings.

For this reason, it is recommended that product documentation related to the CE-marked smoke alarm should include both minimum sound output (dB(A)) as well as describing the tone (e.g. frequency) in order for the consumer to be able to make an informed choice that fits their needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, 2019. p. 28
Series
MSB rapport ; MSB1332
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39346 (URN)978-91-7383-905-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-07-08
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3019-5510

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