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Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Sæter Bøe, A., Glansberg, K., Sesseng, C., Storesund, K., Stolen, R. & Brandt, A. W. (2019). Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet
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2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 90
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:02
Keywords
Energy efficient buildings, fire safety, solar cells, photovoltaic installation, photovoltaic module, battery, battery room, battery system, extinguishing, firefighting, technical solutions, new materials, new construction methods., Energieffektive bygg, brannsikkerhet, solceller, solcelleinstallasjon, solcellemodul, batteri, batterirom, batterisystemer, slokking, brannvesen, energibesparende bygg, tekniske løsninger, nye materialer, nye konstruksjonsmetoder.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38296 (URN)978-91-88907-16-5 (ISBN)
Note

Fire safety in energy efficient buildingsBackgroundThere has been a lot of focus on energy efficient buildings recently, and there is a rapid development of new materials, construction methods and technologies on the market. Improvement of one product property may affect other aspects, for example the fire safety. Norwegian authorities want to get an overview of possible challenges associated with the fire safety of energy efficient buildings.ObjectiveThe main objective of this study has been to survey challenges associated with energy efficient buildings and fire safety, with a special focus on solar cells, batteries and fire extinguishment. The project is divided into different work packages. Sub-goals for each of these have been to:

• Study solar cell technology in the context of the total energy supply chain to uncover fire-related challenges.• Increase the understanding of safety challenges, solutions and regulations related to energy storage of batteries in buildings.• Increase the understanding of challenges associated with fire extinguishment in energy efficient buildings where solar cells and/or batteries are used.• Achieve an overall understanding of the interaction between different solutions in energy efficient buildings, and how these interactions affect the fire safety.

ConclusionsGeneral• The interaction between various new technical and energy efficient solutions could affect fire safety, with regard to ignition, fire development, fire dynamics, evacuation and firefighting efforts.• When it comes to fire safety, questions often arise regarding what should be considered as sufficient and adequate documentation. Here, industry guidelines and exchange of knowledge is important, until relevant regulations are in place.• It is important that fire safety is considered, and that responsibilities and tasks are coordinated when new solutions are implemented.• The industry often feels that regulations are adapted too slowly when new solutions are launched.• Our overall impression is that most professionals in the industry take fire safety seriously. Serious actors, good quality of design and installation are important to ensure a safe development.

Solar cells• No substantial difference has been found in fire engineering challenges for large photovoltaic (PV) installations compared to small ones.• Solar cells mounted on facades should be treated similarly to other facade claddings with cavities behind the cladding, with regard to fire testing and classification.• The European regulations for fire testing of roofing materials are not well suited for testing of roofs with building attached photovoltaics.• According to German statistics, building integrated photovoltaics have a significantly higher fire risk than building attached photovoltaics. However, this has not been thoroughly studied during recent years.• It is primarily the electrical voltage that the solar cells generate that can be problematic for firefighting, including re-ignition hazard, shock hazard due to direct contact with energized components and through extinguishing water.Batteries• It is relatively well known how a fire in a battery may start, and this knowledge is transferable to stationary batteries in buildings.• Lack of knowledge, experience and training within fire brigades with regard to large battery systems in buildings, may contribute to application of unfortunate extinguishing strategies.• It is important that the fire service is informed when large battery systems are installed in buildings, to ensure that an extinguishing strategy exist in case of fire.• In many cases, cooling with water is the best extinguishing method, but this can result in high water consumption as the battery itself supplies oxygen to the fire, and the battery encapsulation may prevent the water from reaching the fire zone.• Regulations for domestic battery systems should be better defined with regard to placement and adequate safety levels. Guidelines for people who are considering installing battery systems in their homes would be beneficial.

Airtight buildings• There is no substantial difference in the fire development in airtight and conventional buildings during the initial phases of the fire. According to fire modelling studies there are more pronounced differences at later stages of the fire.• The differences are mainly an increased pressure build-up and that the fire more rapidly becomes ventilation-controlled in airtight buildings.• There is also an increased risk of backdraft for fires in airtight buildings, which represents an increased risk for the firefighters.

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2019). Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The goal of this project has been to establish new knowledge and methods for testing the penetration of hazardous soot and smoke particles into fire clothing. The aim has been to provide the basis for the development of new fire-fighter clothing with better protection against particle penetration. In cooperation with fire services, authorities and protection clothing producers, needs, requirements and recommendations have been investigated. For the documentation and relevant classification of protective clothing, test set-ups in small and larger scale have been developed. The aim has been to be able to achieve representative and repeatable fire- and smoke exposure for accurate measurement of the particle penetration into clothing and trough clothing layers for screening materials and design solutions. With regard to the performance of the clothing, the small-scale tests give indications of the textiles’ ability to block gases and particles from penetrating into the clothing. The large-scale tests give indications to how the design of the clothing as a whole is able to prevent intrusion of gases and particles.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39344 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2019). Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39345 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Steen-Hansen, A., Amon, F., Haghighatpanah, S. & Larsson, I. (2019). Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing
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2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39343 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K. & Glansberg, K. (2019). Smoke alarm efficiency: Waking sleeping occupants. Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoke alarm efficiency: Waking sleeping occupants
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A literature survey was conducted to study the available research connected to wakening of sleeping people from the sound of a smoke alarm. The effect on the sound attenuation from typical building materials has also been studied.

While the common high frequency signal used in residential smoke alarms will wake up most unimpaired adults, is not the most efficient alarm type to awaken certain groups of the population. Children, elderly and people influenced by alcohol or medicines that affect sleep belong to the group at risk of not being awaken by the sound of the common smoke alarm.

A 520 Hz alarm signal have been shown to efficiently wake up the general population as well as people at risk. This signal has also been shown to maintain its sound level more efficiently when transmitted through and via ordinary building components in dwellings.

For this reason, it is recommended that product documentation related to the CE-marked smoke alarm should include both minimum sound output (dB(A)) as well as describing the tone (e.g. frequency) in order for the consumer to be able to make an informed choice that fits their needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, 2019. p. 28
Series
MSB rapport ; MSB1332
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39346 (URN)978-91-7383-905-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-07-08
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf. In: Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem (Ed.), Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World. Paper presented at Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway (pp. 1847-1854). , 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World / [ed] Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 1847-1854Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997 - 2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly in-volved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36548 (URN)2-s2.0-85058105023 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018: . Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 1847-1854).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 1847-1854Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997–2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly involved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

Keywords
Gasoline, Petroleum industry, Reliability, Risk assessment, Dangerous situations, False alarms, Fire accident, Fire incidents, Norwegian continental shelves, Oil and gas production, Petroleum sectors, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37462 (URN)2-s2.0-85058105023 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study. In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018: . Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 2837-2844).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 2837-2844Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Five-hundred-and-seventy-one fatalities were registered in the official fire statistics in Norway between 2005–2014. However, little is known about the victims. This study collected information from several sources to build a holistic database and gain more knowledge about the technical and social aspects of the incidents, forming a basis for more targeted measures. Human behaviour greatly affects the risk of fire, which supports why social aspects of incidents should be considered when identifying risk factors associated with the victims. The results showed a clear distinction between victims above and below the age of 67 with respect to risk factors. For the elderly, reduced mobility, impaired cognitive ability, mental disorders and smoking were observed risk factors. For the younger victims known substance abuse, mental illness, alcoholic influence and smoking were observed, mostly in combination. This shows that fire is a social problem, and should be prevented by initiating customised measures

Keywords
Behavioral research, Diseases, Economic and social effects, Reliability, Social aspects, Cognitive ability, Fire statistics, Human behaviours, Mental disorders, Mental illness, Observational study, Social problems, Substance abuse, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37461 (URN)2-s2.0-85058136726 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Steen-Hansen, A., Sesseng, C. & Hox, K. (2018). Assessment of the response time of Norwegian fire and rescue service. In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018: . Paper presented at Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018 (NFSD 2018), June 7-8, 2018, Trondheim, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the response time of Norwegian fire and rescue service
2018 (English)In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39347 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018 (NFSD 2018), June 7-8, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2017). Analyse av dødsbranner i Norge i perioden 2005 - 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyse av dødsbranner i Norge i perioden 2005 - 2014
2017 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [no]

I denne studien er informasjon fra brannstatistikk og andre kilder fra perioden 2005 – 2014 analysert, for å få mer detaljert kunnskap om hvem som omkommer i brann og hvorfor de omkommer. Dermed kan tiltak iverksettes mer målrettet for å redusere antall omkomne.  Følgende spørsmål er forsøkt besvart i studien: 1. Hvilke risikofaktorer forbindes med de som omkommer i branner i Norge? 2. Hva er årsakene til dødsbranner i Norge? 3. Hvordan kan dødsbranner best forebygges?  I den aktuelle perioden er det registrert 517 branner med 571 omkomne. Vi har kartlagt informasjon fra 347 politirapporter, identifisert 387 omkomne og trukket ut informasjon fra pasientjournalene til 248 av de omkomne.

Publisher
p. 75
Series
RISE rapport ; A17 20176:1
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33293 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2018-08-17
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3019-5510

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