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Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Sæter Bøe, A., Glansberg, K., Sesseng, C., Storesund, K., Stolen, R. & Brandt, A. W. (2019). Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet
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2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 90
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:02
Keywords
Energy efficient buildings, fire safety, solar cells, photovoltaic installation, photovoltaic module, battery, battery room, battery system, extinguishing, firefighting, technical solutions, new materials, new construction methods., Energieffektive bygg, brannsikkerhet, solceller, solcelleinstallasjon, solcellemodul, batteri, batterirom, batterisystemer, slokking, brannvesen, energibesparende bygg, tekniske løsninger, nye materialer, nye konstruksjonsmetoder.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38296 (URN)978-91-88907-16-5 (ISBN)
Note

Fire safety in energy efficient buildingsBackgroundThere has been a lot of focus on energy efficient buildings recently, and there is a rapid development of new materials, construction methods and technologies on the market. Improvement of one product property may affect other aspects, for example the fire safety. Norwegian authorities want to get an overview of possible challenges associated with the fire safety of energy efficient buildings.ObjectiveThe main objective of this study has been to survey challenges associated with energy efficient buildings and fire safety, with a special focus on solar cells, batteries and fire extinguishment. The project is divided into different work packages. Sub-goals for each of these have been to:

• Study solar cell technology in the context of the total energy supply chain to uncover fire-related challenges.• Increase the understanding of safety challenges, solutions and regulations related to energy storage of batteries in buildings.• Increase the understanding of challenges associated with fire extinguishment in energy efficient buildings where solar cells and/or batteries are used.• Achieve an overall understanding of the interaction between different solutions in energy efficient buildings, and how these interactions affect the fire safety.

ConclusionsGeneral• The interaction between various new technical and energy efficient solutions could affect fire safety, with regard to ignition, fire development, fire dynamics, evacuation and firefighting efforts.• When it comes to fire safety, questions often arise regarding what should be considered as sufficient and adequate documentation. Here, industry guidelines and exchange of knowledge is important, until relevant regulations are in place.• It is important that fire safety is considered, and that responsibilities and tasks are coordinated when new solutions are implemented.• The industry often feels that regulations are adapted too slowly when new solutions are launched.• Our overall impression is that most professionals in the industry take fire safety seriously. Serious actors, good quality of design and installation are important to ensure a safe development.

Solar cells• No substantial difference has been found in fire engineering challenges for large photovoltaic (PV) installations compared to small ones.• Solar cells mounted on facades should be treated similarly to other facade claddings with cavities behind the cladding, with regard to fire testing and classification.• The European regulations for fire testing of roofing materials are not well suited for testing of roofs with building attached photovoltaics.• According to German statistics, building integrated photovoltaics have a significantly higher fire risk than building attached photovoltaics. However, this has not been thoroughly studied during recent years.• It is primarily the electrical voltage that the solar cells generate that can be problematic for firefighting, including re-ignition hazard, shock hazard due to direct contact with energized components and through extinguishing water.Batteries• It is relatively well known how a fire in a battery may start, and this knowledge is transferable to stationary batteries in buildings.• Lack of knowledge, experience and training within fire brigades with regard to large battery systems in buildings, may contribute to application of unfortunate extinguishing strategies.• It is important that the fire service is informed when large battery systems are installed in buildings, to ensure that an extinguishing strategy exist in case of fire.• In many cases, cooling with water is the best extinguishing method, but this can result in high water consumption as the battery itself supplies oxygen to the fire, and the battery encapsulation may prevent the water from reaching the fire zone.• Regulations for domestic battery systems should be better defined with regard to placement and adequate safety levels. Guidelines for people who are considering installing battery systems in their homes would be beneficial.

Airtight buildings• There is no substantial difference in the fire development in airtight and conventional buildings during the initial phases of the fire. According to fire modelling studies there are more pronounced differences at later stages of the fire.• The differences are mainly an increased pressure build-up and that the fire more rapidly becomes ventilation-controlled in airtight buildings.• There is also an increased risk of backdraft for fires in airtight buildings, which represents an increased risk for the firefighters.

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K. & Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R. (2019). Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The goal of this project has been to establish new knowledge and methods for testing the penetration of hazardous soot and smoke particles into fire clothing. The aim has been to provide the basis for the development of new fire-fighter clothing with better protection against particle penetration. In cooperation with fire services, authorities and protection clothing producers, needs, requirements and recommendations have been investigated. For the documentation and relevant classification of protective clothing, test set-ups in small and larger scale have been developed. The aim has been to be able to achieve representative and repeatable fire- and smoke exposure for accurate measurement of the particle penetration into clothing and trough clothing layers for screening materials and design solutions. With regard to the performance of the clothing, the small-scale tests give indications of the textiles’ ability to block gases and particles from penetrating into the clothing. The large-scale tests give indications to how the design of the clothing as a whole is able to prevent intrusion of gases and particles.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39344 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2019). Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39345 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Amon, F., Shayesteh, H., Steen-Hansen, A., Larsson, I. & Bergstrand, A. (2019). Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective. Trondheim
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Loose furnishings, such as upholstered furniture, mattresses and textiles, are very important for the early stages of fires. Such products can be easily ignited, contribute to rapid spread of fire and produce a lot of smoke and heat when they burn. This limits the time and opportunity for evacuation and fire rescue. The regulation of fire properties of interior textiles, armchairs, sofas and mattresses has been discussed nationally and internationally for many years, without resulting in more stringent requirements for such products, at least not on a harmonized level. Fire safety and environmental considerations are important factors that are often set against each other. It is therefore important to promote the development of safe and fireproof furnishings that are environmentally friendly throughout their life cycle, and which satisfy other requirements that are usually imposed on this product group. The main objective of this project has been to contribute to new knowledge about how fire safety associated with loose interior design can be improved through developing products that meet sustainability and circularity requirements. These new products shall have fire performance comparable to flame retarded reference products but will rely on construction techniques and materials containing small amounts or no flame retardants. The new products shall be safe while in use and shall be recyclable at the end of life. Sustainability and environmental impact analyses including life cycle analyses of furnishing materials have been performed, as well as fire tests for screening the fire performance of a selection of material combinations. Combining a requirement for both sustainable yet fire safe furnishing is a complex task to solve. The more complex the material combination, the more difficult to predict both factors in parallel. Slight variations in components can potentially change the overall scoring of their performance. Cotton, wool and polyester has been shown to have equally high sustainability scores, although cotton had relatively high environmental impact. Polyamide was identified as the fabric with the best environmental performer but scoring lower on sustainability. The cushion material has great impact on fire safety because it may contribute with large amounts of heat energy and smoke. Polyurethane is by far the most common cushion material and comes in many variations, some including chemical fire retardants (FR). FR’s have not been included in in the sustainability and environmental impact analyses in this study, instead focus has been on exploring alternative methods of achieving comparable fire performance. In the case of cushion material, latex was identified as performing much higher on both sustainability and environmental impact than polyurethane. Unfortunately, latex was not a part of the fire testing series and was therefore not explored with regard to fire performance. Future studies should explore the interaction of the fire performance properties of different materials identified as high sustainability and environmental impact performers, especially in full scale room fire experiments. Thorough knowledge about how different components (of high sustainability and low environmental impact) contribute to the fire performance and how these are maintained throughout the furniture’s lifetime, would improve the possibility of fire safe furniture to be part of a circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trondheim: , 2019. p. 125
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019-67
Keywords
Fire safety, furnishing, sustainability, life cycle analysis, environmental impact
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39962 (URN)978-91-88907-94-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 702-171
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Steen-Hansen, A., Amon, F., Haghighatpanah, S. & Larsson, I. (2019). Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing
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2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39343 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K. & Glansberg, K. (2019). Smoke alarm efficiency: Waking sleeping occupants. Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoke alarm efficiency: Waking sleeping occupants
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A literature survey was conducted to study the available research connected to wakening of sleeping people from the sound of a smoke alarm. The effect on the sound attenuation from typical building materials has also been studied.

While the common high frequency signal used in residential smoke alarms will wake up most unimpaired adults, is not the most efficient alarm type to awaken certain groups of the population. Children, elderly and people influenced by alcohol or medicines that affect sleep belong to the group at risk of not being awaken by the sound of the common smoke alarm.

A 520 Hz alarm signal have been shown to efficiently wake up the general population as well as people at risk. This signal has also been shown to maintain its sound level more efficiently when transmitted through and via ordinary building components in dwellings.

For this reason, it is recommended that product documentation related to the CE-marked smoke alarm should include both minimum sound output (dB(A)) as well as describing the tone (e.g. frequency) in order for the consumer to be able to make an informed choice that fits their needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, 2019. p. 28
Series
MSB rapport ; MSB1332
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39346 (URN)978-91-7383-905-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-07-08
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K., Meraner, C. & Säter Böe, A. (2019). Utvendig brannbekjempelse i Midtbykvartalet – En mulighetsstudie.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvendig brannbekjempelse i Midtbykvartalet – En mulighetsstudie
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

External fire-fighting in Midtbykvartalet – A feasibility study

The property developer E. C. Dahls Eiendom (ECDE) plans a building complex in a quarter in the city centre in Trondheim, the "Midtbykvartalet". The building will be enclosed by existing building blocks which to varying degrees hinder the fire service's access and efforts. Also, since the new building is intended for residential purposes, it will be necessary to install windows in fire rated walls against adjacent building. These factors result in deviations from a number of performance requirements in the guidelines to the regulations on technical requirements for construction works and there is therefore a need to find alternative solutions. It must be documented that these alternative solutions have at least as good an effect on fire safety as pre-accepted solutions would have. A potential side-effect of new, alternative solutions is that these can also, to some extent, protect the existing wooden buildings in the quarter.

The aim of this report has been to identify the state-of-the-art within active fire protection measures for external fire-fighting and to obtain an overview of existing solutions and manufacturers and to carry out an assessment of the potential of these solutions.

Risk scenarios

An overview of existing buildings in the Midtbykvartalet is presented as well as an overall description of the plans for development. Based on this, several scenarios have been identified to reveal the potential fire-spread hazard between the existing buildings and the planned building. Furthermore, a qualitative risk assessment has been carried out.

A literature study describes the state-of-the-art in water-based extinguishing systems for outdoor use. It deals with fixed extinguishers (facade sprinklers, water curtains), dynamic extinguishers, foam extinguishers, fire gels, as well as with sprinkler systems' effect and reliability. Furthermore, existing solutions (e.g. facade sprinklers, water curtains, water cannons and water mist turbines) have been surveyed, existing documentation described and assessed regarding suitability for use in the Midtbykvartalet.

From the identified scenarios, it appears that fires in existing buildings are more likely to spread to the new building than a fire from the new building to existing buildings. The greatest danger to the new building will be if a fire spreads in existing buildings, up through the roof, through windows or along the facade to the roof. In many cases, the fire service will have good access with their ladder trucks etc. to perform extinguishing efforts, at least in the early phase of the fire. But the risk of rapid internal fire spread, which may include several of the older buildings, can create a challenging situation for the fire service and a risk for the new building. In case of fire spread to the new building, the fire department will, due to the position and height of the building, have difficulty with aerial rescue and evacuation from the new building's higher floors.

Concept for the Midtbykvartalet

A combination of a static and a dynamic extinguishing system will provide the best balance between system robustness, extinguishing effect and flexibility for the Midtbykvartalet. Facade sprinklers are considered the most suitable static system solution. Facade sprinklers will primarily cool the facade of the new building and absorb heat radiation from a potential fire in the existing buildings, but will not be suitable for extinguishing or actively fighting a fire within the existing buildings. The design and planning of facade sprinklers shall take the design of windows, balconies and roof terraces into account, which have been identified as vulnerable points in the firewalls.

Dynamic systems such as water cannons and water mist turbines can be used to cool facades and to actively fight a fire over relatively long distances. In addition, such systems can be established so that the fire service can take over control of the extinguishing system as needed. This property is important, because of the height of the new building and because of how it is surrounded by existing buildings.

Both water cannons and water mist turbines can be combined with an automatic control that allows you to fight a fire at an early stage, even before the arrival of the fire service, as long as early detection is achieved. A fire that spreads within the existing buildings will not be possible to extinguish with permanently installed dynamic systems. Therefore, the cooling and extinguishing effect of such systems must be evaluated based on the scenario of a large fire in the neighbouring building, which has not been done before.

The cooling and extinguishing effects for both systems are largely dependent on their control system. The control system must be capable of aiming the water cannon or the water mist turbine at the fire, if required compensating for wind effects and selecting an appropriate water jet mode. Therefore, in order to adapt the control system to the Midtbykvartalet, it is necessary to quantify the cooling and extinguishing effect of such a system in advance and with regard to a potentially large fire in the adjacent existing buildings.

Selected water mist turbines have the option of operating in a full jet mode, like a water cannon. Therefore, such systems are considered more flexible than water cannons. However, water mist turbines set large amounts of air in motion and generate turbulence that can affect the fire. It is therefore important to investigate if and in which cases this can aggravate the fire and have a negative effect on other areas in the quarter.

Publisher
p. 70
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:81
Keywords
fire, extinguishing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39884 (URN)10.13140/RG.2.2.30680.85763 (DOI)978-91-89049-11-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf. In: Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem (Ed.), Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World. Paper presented at Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway (pp. 1847-1854). , 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World / [ed] Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 1847-1854Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997 - 2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly in-volved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36548 (URN)2-s2.0-85058105023 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018: . Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 1847-1854).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 1847-1854Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997–2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly involved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

Keywords
Gasoline, Petroleum industry, Reliability, Risk assessment, Dangerous situations, False alarms, Fire accident, Fire incidents, Norwegian continental shelves, Oil and gas production, Petroleum sectors, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37462 (URN)2-s2.0-85058105023 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study. In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018: . Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 2837-2844).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 2837-2844Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Five-hundred-and-seventy-one fatalities were registered in the official fire statistics in Norway between 2005–2014. However, little is known about the victims. This study collected information from several sources to build a holistic database and gain more knowledge about the technical and social aspects of the incidents, forming a basis for more targeted measures. Human behaviour greatly affects the risk of fire, which supports why social aspects of incidents should be considered when identifying risk factors associated with the victims. The results showed a clear distinction between victims above and below the age of 67 with respect to risk factors. For the elderly, reduced mobility, impaired cognitive ability, mental disorders and smoking were observed risk factors. For the younger victims known substance abuse, mental illness, alcoholic influence and smoking were observed, mostly in combination. This shows that fire is a social problem, and should be prevented by initiating customised measures

Keywords
Behavioral research, Diseases, Economic and social effects, Reliability, Social aspects, Cognitive ability, Fire statistics, Human behaviours, Mental disorders, Mental illness, Observational study, Social problems, Substance abuse, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37461 (URN)2-s2.0-85058136726 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3019-5510

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