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Benison, K. C., Siljeström, S. & Yanchilina, A. (2024). Depositional and Diagenetic Sulfates of Hogwallow Flats and Yori Pass, Jezero Crater: Evaluating Preservation Potential of Environmental Indicators and Possible Biosignatures From Past Martian Surface Waters and Groundwaters. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 129(2), Article ID e2023JE008155.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depositional and Diagenetic Sulfates of Hogwallow Flats and Yori Pass, Jezero Crater: Evaluating Preservation Potential of Environmental Indicators and Possible Biosignatures From Past Martian Surface Waters and Groundwaters
2024 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 129, no 2, article id e2023JE008155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover has examined and sampled sulfate-rich clastic rocks from the Hogwallow Flats member at Hawksbill Gap and the Yori Pass member at Cape Nukshak. Both strata are located on the Jezero crater western fan front, are lithologically and stratigraphically similar, and have been assigned to the Shenandoah formation. In situ analyses demonstrate that these are fine-grained sandstones composed of phyllosilicates, hematite, Ca-sulfates, Fe-Mg-sulfates, ferric sulfates, and possibly chloride salts. Sulfate minerals are found both as depositional grains and diagenetic features, including intergranular cement and vein- and vug-cements. Here, we describe the possibility of various sulfate phases to preserve potential biosignatures and the record of paleoenvironmental conditions in fluid and solid inclusions, based on findings from analog sulfate-rich rocks on Earth. The samples collected from these outcrops, Hazeltop and Bearwallow from Hogwallow Flats, and Kukaklek from Yori Pass, should be examined for such potential biosignatures and environmental indicators upon return to Earth. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2024
Keywords
biosignatures, cements, fluid inclusions, Mars, petrography, sulfates, cement (sedimentology), deposition, diagenesis, environmental indicator, fluid inclusion, groundwater, preservation, sulfate, surface water
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71981 (URN)10.1029/2023JE008155 (DOI)2-s2.0-85184453696 (Scopus ID)
Note

We thank the entire Mars 2020 science, engineering, and leadership team. K. C. Benison and K. K. Gill acknowledge funding from National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant 80NSSC20K0235 to K.C.B. T. Bosak is supported by NASA Grant 80NSSC20K0234 and the Simons Foundation Collaboration on the Origins of Life #327126. E. A. Cloutis acknowledges funding from the Canadian Space Agency (Grants 15FASTA05 and 22EXPCOI4), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Grants RGPIN‐2015‐0452, RTI‐2020‐00157, and RGPIN‐2023‐03413), the Canada Foundation for Innovation and Research Manitoba (Grants CFI1504 and CFI‐2450). F. Fornaro was funded through the ASI/INAF Agreement n. 2023‐3‐HH. C. D. K. Herd and N. Randazzo acknowledge funding from the Canadian Space Agency (20EXPMARS), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Grant RGPIN‐2018‐04902 to C.D.K.H.). J. M. Madariaga and J. M. Frias acknowledge funding from the Spanish Agency for Research AEI/MCIN/FEDER Grant PID2022‐142750OB‐I00. M. Nachon was funded by NASA M2020 Participating Scientist Grant 80NSSC21K0329. S. Sharma, K. Hand, and K. Uckert acknowledge funding from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004) to support research that was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. S. Siljeström acknowledges funding from the Swedish National Space Agency, contract 2021‐00092. A. Williams acknowledges funding from NASA 80NSSC21K0332.

Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Siljeström, S. & Zorzano, M. (2024). Evidence of Sulfate-Rich Fluid Alteration in Jezero Crater Floor, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 129(1), Article ID e2023JE007989.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of Sulfate-Rich Fluid Alteration in Jezero Crater Floor, Mars
2024 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 129, no 1, article id e2023JE007989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sulfur plays a major role in martian geochemistry and sulfate minerals are important repositories of water. However, their hydration states on Mars are poorly constrained. Therefore, understanding the hydration and distribution of sulfate minerals on Mars is important for understanding its geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric evolution as well as its habitability potential. NASA's Perseverance rover is currently exploring the Noachian-age Jezero crater, which hosts a fan-delta system associated with a paleolake. The crater floor includes two igneous units (the Séítah and Máaz formations), both of which contain evidence of later alteration by fluids including sulfate minerals. Results from the rover instruments Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemistry and Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry reveal the presence of a mix of crystalline and amorphous hydrated Mg-sulfate minerals (both MgSO4·[3–5]H2O and possible MgSO4·H2O), and anhydrous Ca-sulfate minerals. The sulfate phases within each outcrop may have formed from single or multiple episodes of water activity, although several depositional events seem likely for the different units in the crater floor. Textural and chemical evidence suggest that the sulfate minerals most likely precipitated from a low temperature sulfate-rich fluid of moderate pH. The identification of approximately four waters puts a lower constraint on the hydration state of sulfate minerals in the shallow subsurface, which has implications for the martian hydrological budget. These sulfate minerals are key samples for future Mars sample return.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2024
Keywords
hydration, Mars, Perseverance, PIXL, SHERLOC, sulfate, crater, outcrop, precipitation (chemistry), sulfate group
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71986 (URN)10.1029/2023JE007989 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182815554 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address: S. Siljeström; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden; email: sandra.siljestrom@ri.se; 

Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Hausrath, E. M. & Siljeström, S. (2023). An Examination of Soil Crusts on the Floor of Jezero Crater, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Examination of Soil Crusts on the Floor of Jezero Crater, Mars
2023 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research: PlanetsArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Martian soils are critically important for understanding the history of Mars, past potentially habitable environments, returned samples, and future human exploration. This paper examines soil crusts on the floor of Jezero crater encountered during initial phases of the Mars 2020 mission. Soil surface crusts have been observed on Mars at other locations, starting with the two Viking Lander missions. Rover observations show that soil crusts are also common across the floor of Jezero crater, revealed in 45 of 101 locations where rover wheels disturbed the soil surface, 2 out of 7 helicopter flights that crossed the wheel tracks, and 4 of 8 abrasion/drilling sites. Most soils measured by the SuperCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument show high hydrogen content at the surface, and fine-grained soils also show a visible/near infrared (VISIR) 1.9 µm H2O absorption feature. The Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL) and SuperCam observations suggest the presence of salts at the surface of rocks and soils. The correlation of S and Cl contents with H contents in SuperCam LIBS measurements suggests that the salts present are likely hydrated. On the “Naltsos” target, magnesium and sulfur are correlated in PIXL measurements, and Mg is tightly correlated with H at the SuperCam points, suggesting hydrated Mg-sulfates. Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) observations indicate possible frost events and potential changes in the hydration of Mg-sulfate salts. Jezero crater soil crusts may therefore form by salts that are hydrated by changes in relative humidity and frost events, cementing the soil surface together.

National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66838 (URN)10.1029/2022je007433 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-09-20 Created: 2023-09-20 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Jakubek, R. S., Bhartia, R., Uckert, K., Asher, S. A., Czaja, A. D., Fries, M. D., . . . Siljeström, S. (2023). Calibration of Raman Bandwidths on the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) Deep Ultraviolet Raman and Fluorescence Instrument Aboard the Perseverance Rover. Applied Spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration of Raman Bandwidths on the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) Deep Ultraviolet Raman and Fluorescence Instrument Aboard the Perseverance Rover
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2023 (English)In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this work, we derive a simple method for calibrating Raman bandwidths for the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument onboard NASA’s Perseverance rover. Raman bandwidths and shapes reported by an instrument contain contributions from both the intrinsic Raman band (IRB) and instrumental artifacts. To directly correlate bandwidth to sample properties and to compare bandwidths across instruments, the IRB width needs to be separated from instrumental effects. Here, we use the ubiquitous bandwidth calibration method of modeling the observed Raman bands as a convolution of a Lorentzian IRB and a Gaussian instrument slit function. Using calibration target data, we calculate that SHERLOC has a slit function width of 34.1 cm–1. With a measure of the instrument slit function, we can deconvolve the IRB from the observed band, providing the width of the Raman band unobscured by instrumental artifact. We present the correlation between observed Raman bandwidth and intrinsic Raman bandwidth in table form for the quick estimation of SHERLOC Raman intrinsic bandwidths. We discuss the limitations of using this model to calibrate Raman bandwidth and derive a quantitative method for calculating the errors associated with the calibration. We demonstrate the utility of this method of bandwidth calibration by examining the intrinsic bandwidths of SHERLOC sulfate spectra and by modeling the SHERLOC spectrum of olivine. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications Inc., 2023
Keywords
Bandwidth; Luminescence; NASA; Silicate minerals; Sulfur compounds; Chemical instruments; Deep ultraviolet Raman; Mars; Organics; Property; Raman; Raman bands; Raman bandwidths; SIMPLE method; Ultraviolet fluorescence; Calibration
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68107 (URN)10.1177/00037028231210885 (DOI)2-s2.0-85176961539 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Funding for Ryan S. Jakubek was provided as an Advanced Curation project run by the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office, Johnson Space Center. Andrew, D. Czaja was supported by the Mars 2020 Returned Sample Science Participating Scientist Program (NASA award number 80NSSC20K0237). Sandra Siljeström was funded by the Swedish National Space Agency (contract 2021-00092). Nikole C. Haney and Ryan S. Jakubek was supported by the JETS II contract with Johnson Space Center. Michelle Minitti was supported by a contract with NASA/JPL (1685477). Kyle Uckert, Kevin Hand, and Sunanda Sharma research efforts carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology were funded under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). Shiv K. Sharma is supported by a subcontract from JPL to participate as a co-principal investigator of the SuperCam Instrument.

Available from: 2023-12-07 Created: 2023-12-07 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
Ai, J., Siljeström, S., Zhong, N., Chen, J., Wang, T., Qiu, N. & George, S. (2023). Co-existing two distinct formation mechanisms of micro-scale ooid-like manganese carbonates hosted in Cryogenian organic-rich black shales in South China. Precambrian Research, 393, Article ID 107091.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-existing two distinct formation mechanisms of micro-scale ooid-like manganese carbonates hosted in Cryogenian organic-rich black shales in South China
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2023 (English)In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 393, article id 107091Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manganese-rich deposits in the lower member of the Datangpo Formation (DTP) (ca. 663–654 Ma) in South China formed in the aftermath of the Cryogenian Sturtian glaciation. The Mn in the DTP occurs dominantly as rhodochrosite and Ca-rhodochrosite. A hydrothermal origin of the Mn2+ is shown by the rare earth element distribution and significantly high Mn/Fe ratios (3–19, average = 10.1). Previous studies suggested a microbially-mediated process for controlling the DTP black-shale hosted Mn carbonate deposits. However, detailed reports on the formation mechanisms of micro-scale (<2–5 μm) ooid-like Mn carbonates in the DTP have rarely been published. Systematic petrography and geochemical analyses in this study demonstrate the coexistence of two types of micro-scale ooidal-like Mn carbonates formed through two distinct mechanisms, either dominated by microbially-mediated or physiochemically-forced pathways. The Type I Mn carbonate has relatively larger grain size of 2–5 μm and exhibits a radial-concentric microfabric that shows signs of growth banding in the form of alternating light and dark laminae, which mainly express variation in Ca and Mn concentrations. The initial precipitation phase of the Type I Mn carbonate is interpreted to be Mn oxide/hydroxide, based on positive Ce anomalies and selective enrichments of particular trace elements. Novel evidence indicates that the capture of Mn as a carbonate phase directly from the water column by primarily precipitated calcite, which is referred to as the Type II Mn carbonate, has also contributed to the DTP Mn-rich deposits. Multiple roles of organic matter in Mn carbonate formation have been established: (1) catalysed Mn-redox cycling; (2) trapping and transportation of initial mineral precipitates to sediments; (3) serving as a carbon source; (4) regulating the morphology of the Mn carbonate. As a key link for understanding Cryogenian carbon and Mn cycling, specific formation pathways for the DTP Mn-carbonates are likely to have been controlled by given atmospheric-oceanic compositions (including oxygen level, pCO2, and redox conditions) in response to major geological and biological events during the interglacial period. In turn, massive storage of inorganic carbon and phosphorous in Mn carbonate phases would have had a substantial influence on biogeochemical carbon cycling during the Cryogenian. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Black shale, Carbon cycle, Cryogenian, Manganese deposit, Microbial mediation, Physiochemical pathway
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64933 (URN)10.1016/j.precamres.2023.107091 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160555141 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Macquarie University; Funding details: Swedish National Space Agency, SNSA, 137/19, 198/15; Funding details: Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS; Funding details: China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, 2022M713457; Funding details: China University of Petroleum, Beijing, CUP; Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR, 2015-04129; Funding details: Science Foundation of China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 2462022XKBH004; Funding details: National Key Research and Development Program of China, NKRDPC, 2017YFC0603100; Funding text 1: This project was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC0603100). We thank the Chongqing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, and Yu Zhang and Lipeng Yao at the China University of Petroleum-Beijing for assistance in the field. Professor Ruizhong Hu at the Institute of Geochemistry (Chinese Academy of Sciences) in Guiyang is thanked for analysing the major and trace elements. Yanru Zhang at the China University of Petroleum-Beijing is thanked for producing the element distribution maps. Jiayi Ai was supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2022M713457), Science Foundation of China University of Petroleum-Beijing (No. 2462022XKBH004), and a Macquarie University Research Excellence Scholarship. Sandra Siljeström was funded by the Swedish Research Council (contract 2015-04129) and Swedish National Space Agency (contracts 198/15 and 137/19). We much appreciate the valuable comments from editor Dr. Frances Westall, reviewer Dr. Bertus Smith and one anonymous reviewer, which have much improved the content and structure of this manuscript.; Funding text 2: This project was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China ( 2017YFC0603100 ). We thank the Chongqing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, and Yu Zhang and Lipeng Yao at the China University of Petroleum-Beijing for assistance in the field. Professor Ruizhong Hu at the Institute of Geochemistry (Chinese Academy of Sciences) in Guiyang is thanked for analysing the major and trace elements. Yanru Zhang at the China University of Petroleum-Beijing is thanked for producing the element distribution maps. Jiayi Ai was supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation ( 2022M713457 ), Science Foundation of China University of Petroleum-Beijing (No. 2462022XKBH004 ), and a Macquarie University Research Excellence Scholarship . Sandra Siljeström was funded by the Swedish Research Council (contract 2015-04129 ) and Swedish National Space Agency (contracts 198/15 and 137/19). 

Available from: 2023-06-12 Created: 2023-06-12 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Sharma, S., Siljeström, S. & Yanchilina, A. (2023). Diverse organic-mineral associations in Jezero crater, Mars. Nature, 619(7971), 724-732
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diverse organic-mineral associations in Jezero crater, Mars
2023 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 619, no 7971, p. 724-732Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence and distribution of preserved organic matter on the surface of Mars can provide key information about the Martian carbon cycle and the potential of the planet to host life throughout its history. Several types of organic molecules have been previously detected in Martian meteorites1 and at Gale crater, Mars2–4. Evaluating the diversity and detectability of organic matter elsewhere on Mars is important for understanding the extent and diversity of Martian surface processes and the potential availability of carbon sources1,5,6. Here we report the detection of Raman and fluorescence spectra consistent with several species of aromatic organic molecules in the Máaz and Séítah formations within the Crater Floor sequences of Jezero crater, Mars. We report specific fluorescence-mineral associations consistent with many classes of organic molecules occurring in different spatial patterns within these compositionally distinct formations, potentially indicating different fates of carbon across environments. Our findings suggest there may be a diversity of aromatic molecules prevalent on the Martian surface, and these materials persist despite exposure to surface conditions. These potential organic molecules are largely found within minerals linked to aqueous processes, indicating that these processes may have had a key role in organic synthesis, transport or preservation. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Research, 2023
Keywords
carbon cycle, fluorescence, Mars, organic matter, planetary atmosphere, planetary surface
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65725 (URN)10.1038/s41586-023-06143-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85164522216 (Scopus ID)
Note

We acknowledge the entire Mars 2020 Perseverance rover team. The research described in this paper was partially carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant award no. 80NM0018D0004. The SHERLOC team is supported by the NASA Mars 2020 Phase E funds to the SHERLOC investigation. S. Siljeström acknowledges funding from the Swedish National Space Agency (contract nos. 137/19 and 2021-00092). T.F. acknowledges funding from Italian Space Agency (ASI) grant agreement no. ASI/INAF no. 2017-48-H-0. S. Shkolyar acknowledges support from NASA under grant award no. 80GSFC21M0002.

Available from: 2023-08-08 Created: 2023-08-08 Last updated: 2023-08-08Bibliographically approved
Hornung, K., Mellado, E. M., Stenzel, O. J., Langevin, Y., Merouane, S., Fray, N., . . . Hilchenbach, M. (2023). On structural properties of Comet 67/P dust particles collected in situ by ROSETTA/COSIMA from observations of electrical fragmentation. Planetary and Space Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On structural properties of Comet 67/P dust particles collected in situ by ROSETTA/COSIMA from observations of electrical fragmentation
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2023 (English)In: Planetary and Space ScienceArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

During ESA’s Rosetta science mission, the COSIMA instrument collected dust particles in the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during two years near the comet’s nucleus. The largest particles are about 1 m m in size. The collection process involved a low velocity impact on porous gold-black surfaces, often resulting in breakup, from which information on structural properties has previously been derived (Langevin et al., 2016). However, some of the particles were collected with little damage, but fragmented due to charging during subsequent secondary ion mass spectrometry. This report shows that the details of this electrical fragmentation support the concept of the existence of stable units with sizes of tens of ÎŒ m within the incoming cometary dust particles prior to collection, possibly representing remnants of the early accretion processes.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66325 (URN)10.1016/j.pss.2023.105747 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-11 Last updated: 2023-09-11Bibliographically approved
Sun, V., Siljeström, S. & Wogsland, B. (2023). Overview and Results From the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover's First Science Campaign on the Jezero Crater Floor. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 128(6), Article ID e2022JE007613.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overview and Results From the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover's First Science Campaign on the Jezero Crater Floor
2023 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 128, no 6, article id e2022JE007613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover landed in Jezero crater on 18 February 2021. After a 100-sol period of commissioning and the Ingenuity Helicopter technology demonstration, Perseverance began its first science campaign to explore the enigmatic Jezero crater floor, whose igneous or sedimentary origins have been much debated in the scientific community. This paper describes the campaign plan developed to explore the crater floor's Máaz and Séítah formations and summarizes the results of the campaign between sols 100–379. By the end of the campaign, Perseverance had traversed more than 5 km, created seven abrasion patches, and sealed nine samples and a witness tube. Analysis of remote and proximity science observations show that the Máaz and Séítah formations are igneous in origin and composed of five and two geologic members, respectively. The Séítah formation represents the olivine-rich cumulate formed from differentiation of a slowly cooling melt or magma body, and the Máaz formation likely represents a separate series of lava flows emplaced after Séítah. The Máaz and Séítah rocks also preserve evidence of multiple episodes of aqueous alteration in secondary minerals like carbonate, Fe/Mg phyllosilicates, sulfates, and perchlorate, and surficial coatings. Post-emplacement processes tilted the rocks near the Máaz-Séítah contact and substantial erosion modified the crater floor rocks to their present-day expressions. Results from this crater floor campaign, including those obtained upon return of the collected samples, will help to build the geologic history of events that occurred in Jezero crater and provide time constraints on the formation of the Jezero delta.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
Jezero, Mars, Perseverance, rover, crater, emplacement, erosion, exploration
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65699 (URN)10.1029/2022JE007613 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163299408 (Scopus ID)
Note

 This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). TF acknowledges the Italian Space Agency (ASI) grant agreement ASI/INAF n. 2017-48-H-0. SA acknowledges the Swedish Research Council (Grant 2017-06388). KK acknowledges the Carslberg Foundation Grant CF19-0023. SS acknowledges Swedish National Space Board (contracts 137/19 and 2021-00092).

Available from: 2023-08-09 Created: 2023-08-09 Last updated: 2023-08-09Bibliographically approved
Hurowitz, J., Siljeström, S. & YANCHILINA, A. (2023). Provenance and Diagenesis of Martian Sedimentary Rocks in the Jezero Crater Delta Front from Microscale Observations by the Mars 2020 PIXL Instrument. In: Goldschmidt 2023 abstracts: . Paper presented at Goldschmidt 2023. European Association of Geochemistry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Provenance and Diagenesis of Martian Sedimentary Rocks in the Jezero Crater Delta Front from Microscale Observations by the Mars 2020 PIXL Instrument
2023 (English)In: Goldschmidt 2023 abstracts, European Association of Geochemistry , 2023Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Association of Geochemistry, 2023
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71247 (URN)10.7185/gold2023.18487 (DOI)
Conference
Goldschmidt 2023
Available from: 2024-01-24 Created: 2024-01-24 Last updated: 2024-01-24Bibliographically approved
Vaughan, A., Minitti, M. E., Cardarelli, E. L., Johnson, J. R., Kah, L. C., Pilleri, P., . . . St. Clair, M. (2023). Regolith of the Crater Floor Units, Jezero Crater, Mars: Textures, Composition, and Implications for Provenance. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 128(3), Article ID e2022JE007437.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regolith of the Crater Floor Units, Jezero Crater, Mars: Textures, Composition, and Implications for Provenance
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 128, no 3, article id e2022JE007437Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multi-instrument study of the regolith of Jezero crater floor units by the Perseverance rover has identified three types of regolith: fine-grained, coarse-grained, and mixed-type. Mastcam-Z, Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering, and SuperCam Remote Micro Imager were used to characterize the regolith texture, particle size, and roundedness where possible. Mastcam-Z multispectral and SuperCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data were used to constrain the composition of the regolith types. Fine-grained regolith is found surrounding bedrock and boulders, comprising bedforms, and accumulating on top of rocks in erosional depressions. Spectral and chemical data show it is compositionally consistent with pyroxene and a ferric-oxide phase. Coarse-grained regolith consists of 1–2 mm well-sorted gray grains that are found concentrated around the base of boulders and bedrock, and armoring bedforms. Its chemistry and spectra indicate it is olivine-bearing, and its spatial distribution and roundedness indicate it has been transported, likely by saltation-induced creep. Coarse grains share similarities with the olivine grains observed in the Séítah formation bedrock, making that unit a possible source for these grains. Mixed-type regolith contains fine- and coarse-grained regolith components and larger rock fragments. The rock fragments are texturally and spectrally similar to bedrock within the Máaz and Séítah formations, indicating origins by erosion from those units, although they could also be a lag deposit from erosion of an overlying unit. The fine- and coarse-grained types are compared to their counterparts at other landing sites to inform global, regional, and local inputs to regolith formation within Jezero crater. The regolith characterization presented here informs the regolith sampling efforts underway by Perseverance. © 2023. The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64325 (URN)10.1029/2022JE007437 (DOI)2-s2.0-85151268354 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, 1668585, 80HQTR20T0096, 80NM0018D0004; Funding details: Arizona State University, ASU; Funding details: H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, MSCA, 801199; Funding details: Carlsbergfondet, CF19‐0023; Funding text 1: The authors would like to thank the Mars 2020 science and engineering teams for their work in the daily operations of the rover ensuring its safety and enabling the exploration of Jezero crater that has led to the collection of data presented here. The authors thank the regolith working group for helpful discussions and support of our work. Thanks to Alex Hayes, Kjartan Kinch, and Marco Merusi for their work in calibrating the Mastcam-Z image and multispectral data. The authors gratefully acknowledge all the instrument PULs and PDLs whose work to acquire, calibrate, process, and provide the highest quality instrument data enables scientific research. The authors would also like to thank the Arizona State University for funding a portion of this work. This research was supported by the NASA with contracts through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Ken Herkenhoff (80HQTR20T0096) and MEM (#1668585), and a portion of the research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 80NM0018D0004. Kjartan Kinch was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation Grant CF19-0023. M. Merusi received funding from the E.U.’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant 801199. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.; Funding text 2: The authors would like to thank the Mars 2020 science and engineering teams for their work in the daily operations of the rover ensuring its safety and enabling the exploration of Jezero crater that has led to the collection of data presented here. The authors thank the regolith working group for helpful discussions and support of our work. Thanks to Alex Hayes, Kjartan Kinch, and Marco Merusi for their work in calibrating the Mastcam‐Z image and multispectral data. The authors gratefully acknowledge all the instrument PULs and PDLs whose work to acquire, calibrate, process, and provide the highest quality instrument data enables scientific research. The authors would also like to thank the Arizona State University for funding a portion of this work. This research was supported by the NASA with contracts through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Ken Herkenhoff (80HQTR20T0096) and MEM (#1668585), and a portion of the research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 80NM0018D0004. Kjartan Kinch was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation Grant CF19‐0023. M. Merusi received funding from the E.U.’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska‐Curie Grant 801199. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4975-6074

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