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Säter Böe, A., Sesseng, C. & Stensaas, J. P. (2019). BRAVENT – Delrapport 1 : Teori- og kunnskapssammenstilling.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BRAVENT – Delrapport 1 : Teori- og kunnskapssammenstilling
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recently questions about whether spread of heat and smoke in ventilation ducts during a fire represent an increased risk for personal safety and loss of properties have been raised. The technical solutions currently used to fulfill the pre-accepted performance given in the guidelines to the building regulations with regard to fire protection of ventilation ducts are largely based on descriptions in SINTEF's Building Design Sheet 520.352 on fire- and smoke protection of ventilation systems, and in BV Netts Guide for fireproof ventilation, also known as the BVNett Guide. This topic was once again raised in connection with the revision of the 2017 edition of the building regulations, when it was pointed out in inquiry statements that the pre-accepted performances are insufficiently defined and that the solutions outlined in the Building Design Sheet and the BVNett Guide are not sufficiently documented.

In order to elucidate this topic and provide scientific documentation on the extent to which the spread of heat and smoke in ventilation ducts represents a risk to persons and properties, the BRAVENT project (Fire and smoke spread in ventilation ducts) was initiated.

The project investigates issues related to heat dissipation in ventilation ducts, clogging of filters in ventilation systems due to smoke, the effect of the seal-up strategy with respect to pressure build-up in the fire room and smoke spread through leakages in the construction.

The objective of the sub-task presented in this report was to:

Compile a theoretical basis for the experiments and analyzes to be carried out.

1. Map relevant regulations for fire protection of ventilation systems.

2. Map standards that are the basis for determining the fire resistance of components included in a ventilation system.

3. Map the state-of-the-art regarding a. the need to fire insulate ventilation ducts.

b. the need to install bypass channels to prevent the filter systems from being clogged by smoke particles.

c. the effect of installing fire dampers in all fire-partitions with respect to smoke spread.

d. how smoke can be spread via ventilation ducts and leaks in the building structure.

e. the pros and cons of seal-up and extraction strategies.

© RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

This is sub-report 1, which summarizes the relevant, fire-related theory and state-of-the-art in the focus area. The report serves as the theoretical basis for planning of experiments and for the other activities in the BRAVENT project.

Publisher
p. 73
Series
RISE Rapport ; 20119:11
Keywords
fire, ventilation, HVAC, insulation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37535 (URN)978-91-88695-97-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Säter Böe, A., Sesseng, C. & Hox, K. (2019). BRAVENT – Delrapport 2 ; Brannspredning i ventilasjonskanaler.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BRAVENT – Delrapport 2 ; Brannspredning i ventilasjonskanaler
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This is sub-report 2 of the BRAVENT project (Fire and smoke distribution in ventilation ducts) which presents results from experiments where the risk of spreading fire and heat in ventilation ducts has been investigated. In the experiments, the effect of fire insulation on the duct, and mixing hot smoke with air at room temperature in the duct (as from adjacent rooms) has been investigated. The ventilation duct was connected to a furnace at one end and a fan at the other end. The furnace was heated to the desired temperature, and hot smoke was drawn through the duct at a certain velocity. Thermocouples measured the temperature both inside the duct (smoke gas temperatures) and on the duct’s external surface at different distances from the furnace.

Publisher
p. 76
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:12
Keywords
VENTILATION, FIRE, INSULATION
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37536 (URN)978-91-88907-05-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Fjellgaard Mikalsen, R., Sæter Bøe, A., Glansberg, K., Sesseng, C., Storesund, K., Stolen, R. & Brandt, A. W. (2019). Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet
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2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 90
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:02
Keywords
Energy efficient buildings, fire safety, solar cells, photovoltaic installation, photovoltaic module, battery, battery room, battery system, extinguishing, firefighting, technical solutions, new materials, new construction methods., Energieffektive bygg, brannsikkerhet, solceller, solcelleinstallasjon, solcellemodul, batteri, batterirom, batterisystemer, slokking, brannvesen, energibesparende bygg, tekniske løsninger, nye materialer, nye konstruksjonsmetoder.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38296 (URN)978-91-88907-16-5 (ISBN)
Note

Fire safety in energy efficient buildingsBackgroundThere has been a lot of focus on energy efficient buildings recently, and there is a rapid development of new materials, construction methods and technologies on the market. Improvement of one product property may affect other aspects, for example the fire safety. Norwegian authorities want to get an overview of possible challenges associated with the fire safety of energy efficient buildings.ObjectiveThe main objective of this study has been to survey challenges associated with energy efficient buildings and fire safety, with a special focus on solar cells, batteries and fire extinguishment. The project is divided into different work packages. Sub-goals for each of these have been to:

• Study solar cell technology in the context of the total energy supply chain to uncover fire-related challenges.• Increase the understanding of safety challenges, solutions and regulations related to energy storage of batteries in buildings.• Increase the understanding of challenges associated with fire extinguishment in energy efficient buildings where solar cells and/or batteries are used.• Achieve an overall understanding of the interaction between different solutions in energy efficient buildings, and how these interactions affect the fire safety.

ConclusionsGeneral• The interaction between various new technical and energy efficient solutions could affect fire safety, with regard to ignition, fire development, fire dynamics, evacuation and firefighting efforts.• When it comes to fire safety, questions often arise regarding what should be considered as sufficient and adequate documentation. Here, industry guidelines and exchange of knowledge is important, until relevant regulations are in place.• It is important that fire safety is considered, and that responsibilities and tasks are coordinated when new solutions are implemented.• The industry often feels that regulations are adapted too slowly when new solutions are launched.• Our overall impression is that most professionals in the industry take fire safety seriously. Serious actors, good quality of design and installation are important to ensure a safe development.

Solar cells• No substantial difference has been found in fire engineering challenges for large photovoltaic (PV) installations compared to small ones.• Solar cells mounted on facades should be treated similarly to other facade claddings with cavities behind the cladding, with regard to fire testing and classification.• The European regulations for fire testing of roofing materials are not well suited for testing of roofs with building attached photovoltaics.• According to German statistics, building integrated photovoltaics have a significantly higher fire risk than building attached photovoltaics. However, this has not been thoroughly studied during recent years.• It is primarily the electrical voltage that the solar cells generate that can be problematic for firefighting, including re-ignition hazard, shock hazard due to direct contact with energized components and through extinguishing water.Batteries• It is relatively well known how a fire in a battery may start, and this knowledge is transferable to stationary batteries in buildings.• Lack of knowledge, experience and training within fire brigades with regard to large battery systems in buildings, may contribute to application of unfortunate extinguishing strategies.• It is important that the fire service is informed when large battery systems are installed in buildings, to ensure that an extinguishing strategy exist in case of fire.• In many cases, cooling with water is the best extinguishing method, but this can result in high water consumption as the battery itself supplies oxygen to the fire, and the battery encapsulation may prevent the water from reaching the fire zone.• Regulations for domestic battery systems should be better defined with regard to placement and adequate safety levels. Guidelines for people who are considering installing battery systems in their homes would be beneficial.

Airtight buildings• There is no substantial difference in the fire development in airtight and conventional buildings during the initial phases of the fire. According to fire modelling studies there are more pronounced differences at later stages of the fire.• The differences are mainly an increased pressure build-up and that the fire more rapidly becomes ventilation-controlled in airtight buildings.• There is also an increased risk of backdraft for fires in airtight buildings, which represents an increased risk for the firefighters.

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2019). Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study. In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study
2019 (English)In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39345 (URN)
Conference
15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering (Interflam 2019), July 1-3, 2019, Windsor, UK
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf. In: Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem (Ed.), Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World. Paper presented at Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway (pp. 1847-1854). , 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World / [ed] Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 1847-1854Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997 - 2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly in-volved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36548 (URN)2-s2.0-85058105023 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018: . Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 1847-1854).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 1847-1854Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997–2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly involved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

Keywords
Gasoline, Petroleum industry, Reliability, Risk assessment, Dangerous situations, False alarms, Fire accident, Fire incidents, Norwegian continental shelves, Oil and gas production, Petroleum sectors, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37462 (URN)2-s2.0-85058105023 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C., Storesund, K. & Steen-Hansen, A. (2018). Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study. In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018: . Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 2837-2844).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 2837-2844Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Five-hundred-and-seventy-one fatalities were registered in the official fire statistics in Norway between 2005–2014. However, little is known about the victims. This study collected information from several sources to build a holistic database and gain more knowledge about the technical and social aspects of the incidents, forming a basis for more targeted measures. Human behaviour greatly affects the risk of fire, which supports why social aspects of incidents should be considered when identifying risk factors associated with the victims. The results showed a clear distinction between victims above and below the age of 67 with respect to risk factors. For the elderly, reduced mobility, impaired cognitive ability, mental disorders and smoking were observed risk factors. For the younger victims known substance abuse, mental illness, alcoholic influence and smoking were observed, mostly in combination. This shows that fire is a social problem, and should be prevented by initiating customised measures

Keywords
Behavioral research, Diseases, Economic and social effects, Reliability, Social aspects, Cognitive ability, Fire statistics, Human behaviours, Mental disorders, Mental illness, Observational study, Social problems, Substance abuse, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37461 (URN)2-s2.0-85058136726 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Storesund, K., Steen-Hansen, A., Sesseng, C. & Hox, K. (2018). Assessment of the response time of Norwegian fire and rescue service. In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018: . Paper presented at Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018 (NFSD 2018), June 7-8, 2018, Trondheim, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the response time of Norwegian fire and rescue service
2018 (English)In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39347 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018 (NFSD 2018), June 7-8, 2018, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2019-07-08 Created: 2019-07-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Sesseng, C. (2018). Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av gassbeholdere i bygg.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av gassbeholdere i bygg
2018 (Norwegian)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [no]

Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). DSB har bedt RISE Fire Research om å bistå med evalueringer knyttet til bruken av gassbeholdere ved serveringssteder, overnattingssteder og forsamlingslokaler.

Series
RISE Rapport ; A18 20237:1
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37563 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-01-24
Gjøsund, G., Almklov, P. G. & Sesseng, C. (2018). False alarm?: Effects of reducing unnecessary dispatches by fire and rescue services. In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018: . Paper presented at 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 181-188).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>False alarm?: Effects of reducing unnecessary dispatches by fire and rescue services
2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 181-188Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fire and rescue services in Norway dispatch more often to false and unnecessary alarms than to real fires and accidents. In 2016, 60% of the emergency dispatches were conducted on the basis of false or unnecessary alarms. These unnecessary dispatches are costly in terms of time and resources spent, and can in some cases lead to a weakened preparedness towards real incidents. Also, the risk for traffic accidents increases when big vehicles rush through the streets on their way to where the alarm was triggered. Hence, there are good reasons to work to reduce the number of these kind of dispatches. On the other hand, one may also argue that there can be some positive effects of a certain number of mobilizations for the fire crews. Based on interviews with relevant actors connected to fire and rescue services, as well as on statistics collected through the BRIS reporting system, we will discuss possible consequences of reducing the number of false and unnecessary alarms and potential effects of implementing measures for decreasing unnecessary dispatches.

Keywords
Accidents, Alarm systems, Emergency services, Fire protection, Reliability, False alarms, Fire and rescue services, Fire crews, Potential effects, Real fire, Reporting systems, Fires
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37466 (URN)2-s2.0-85058112360 (Scopus ID)9780815386827 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8378-4650

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