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Sochor, J., Arby, H., Karlsson, M. & Sarasini, S. (2018). A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals. Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), 27, 3-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 27, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterises a ‘MaaS service’, as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the ‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS' potential effects, and aiding the integration of societal goals into MaaS services. Based on an exploration of existing definitions and descriptions of MaaS, and an expert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resulting proposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterised by different types of integration: 0 no integration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the service offer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are then described in terms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for society, business, users/customers, and technical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4 and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topology adds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along the MaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can help support the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type of MaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linked with the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achieved via the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecological sustainability, and business potential.

Keywords
Business models, Integration, Mobility as a Service (MaaS), Societal goals, Value creation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38163 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.12.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062153035 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Sarasini, S. & Linder, M. (2018). Integrating a business model perspective into transition theory: The example of new mobility services. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 27, 16-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating a business model perspective into transition theory: The example of new mobility services
2018 (English)In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 27, p. 16-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Business model innovation is increasingly seen as a means to promote sustainable forms of production and consumption, having been linked to technological innovations in electric vehicles and the circular economy. Business models are an organisational phenomenon that concern focal firms and their networks. However, there is no theory of the firm in transition theory, such that the role of business model innovation in wider transformative processes is unclear. This paper aims to redress this issue by combining a business model perspective with core concepts and constructs from transition theory. We elucidate sources of change and inertia that issue from new and existing business models, illustrating our arguments by focusing on mobility services, which have the potential to radically transform road transportation via new business models. We derive new lines of inquiry that can be used to examine the dynamics of business model innovation in the context of sustainability transitions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Business model; Sustainability transitions; Mobility services; Technological innovation systems; Multi-level perspective
National Category
Social Sciences Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36971 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2017.09.004 (DOI)
Funder
Nordic Council of Ministers, SHIFT
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Sarasini, S. (2018). Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland. Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland
2018 (English)In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

Keywords
Barriers, Drivers, H110, H44, L240, L320, L910, L980, Mobility as a service, Neo-institutional theory
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35930 (URN)10.1016/j.rtbm.2018.09.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055054090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 5 November 2018; Article in Press; Correspondence Address: Smith, G.; Chalmers University of TechnologySweden; email: goran.smith@chalmers.se; Funding text: The authors would like to express gratitude towards the Swedish Innovation Agency (Vinnova) and K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport that funded the IRIMS project. The authors are also grateful for the contributions of the interviewees and of other members of the IRIMS project team, particularly Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren and MariAnne Karlsson.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Linder, M., Sarasini, S. & van Loon, P. (2017). A Metric for Quantifying Product-Level Circularity. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 21(3), 545-558
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Metric for Quantifying Product-Level Circularity
2017 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Circularity metrics are useful for empirically assessing the effects of a circular economy in terms of profitability, job creation, and environmental impacts. At present, however, there is no standardized method for measuring the circularity of products. We start by reviewing existing product-level metrics in terms of validity and reliability, taking note of theoretically justified principles for aggregating different types of material flows and cycles into a single value. We then argue that the economic value of product parts may constitute a useful basis for such aggregation; describe a set of principles for using economic value as a basis for measuring product circularity; and outline a metric that utilizes this approach. Our recommendation is to use the ratio of recirculated economic value to total product value as a circularity metric, using value chain costs as an estimator. In order to protect value chain actors’ sensitive financial data and facilitate neutrality regarding outsourcing or insourcing, we suggest a means to calculate product-level circularity based on sequential approximations of adding one product part and activity at a time. We conclude by suggesting potential avenues for further research, including ways in which the proposed metric can be used in wider assessments of the circular economy, and ways in which it may be further refined.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29615 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12552 (DOI)2-s2.0-85013628702 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Vinnova. Grant Number: 2014-00880
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Sochor, J., Arby, H., Karlsson, M. & Sarasini, S. (2017). A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017 (pp. 187-201).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 187-201Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterizes a ‘MaaS service’,as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS’ potential effects, and aiding the integration ofsocietal goals into MaaS services. Based on a literature review analyzing existing definitions, and anexpert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resultingproposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterized by different types of integration: 0 nointegration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the serviceoffer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are described interms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for business, society, users, andtechnical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topologyadds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along theMaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can helpsupport the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type ofMaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linkedwith the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achievedvia the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecologicalsustainability, and business potential.

Keywords
Mobility as a Service (MaaS), integration, value creation, societal goals, business models
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33070 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Sarasini, S. & Langeland, O. (2017). Business model innovation for car sharing andsustainable urban mobility. In: : . Paper presented at The 8th International Sustainability Transitions Conference 18-21 June 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business model innovation for car sharing andsustainable urban mobility
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33075 (URN)
Conference
The 8th International Sustainability Transitions Conference 18-21 June 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Smith, G., Sochor, J. & Sarasini, S. (2017). Mobility as a Service: Comparing Developments in Sweden andFinland. In: : . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017 (pp. 223-239).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a Service: Comparing Developments in Sweden andFinland
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

This paper examines how institutional factors influence developments in the field of Mobility as a Service(MaaS). We draw upon neo-institutional theory in order to describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developmentsin Sweden and Finland. By analyzing similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set ofgeneral implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate theimportance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders.The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating theright conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levelsof the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we also assess the utility of the appliedtheoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structuralchanges are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

Keywords
Mobility as a Service; neo-institutional theory; drivers and barriers
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33085 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Sarasini, S. & Langeland, O. (2017). Providing alternatives to the private car: the dynamics of businessmodel innovation. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017 (pp. 21-42).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Providing alternatives to the private car: the dynamics of businessmodel innovation
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 21-42Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the potential for business model innovations in the field of car sharing to bring abouta sustainable reorientation of the road transport system. On the basis of interviews with different types ofcar sharing organisations in four Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway), we identifydifferent types of car sharing business models. We also examine the ways in which organisations are currentlyinnovating these business models, focusing on the role of digital technologies, environment-friendly vehicledrivetrains, and linkages to new innovative concepts such as Mobility as a Service. We then extrapolate threetransition pathways, entitled technological substitution, shared mobility and integrated mobility, discussingtheir potential and governance implications

Keywords
Car sharing, business model innovation, sustainable transitions, mobility as a service
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33087 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017: 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Karlson, M., Koglin, T., Kronsell, A., Mukhtar-Landgren, D., Lund, E., Wendle, B., . . . Sochor, J. (2017). Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework
Show others...
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With a continued global urbanisation trend and increasing demand for transportation with consequences interms of, for example, congestion, emissions, and noise, urban mobility is a major challenge for the future.Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution by contributing to reducing the use ofprivate cars and increasing the use of public transport and ride sharing services: “MaaS has the potentialto fundamentally change the behaviour of people in and beyond cities, hence it is regarded as the biggestparadigm change in transport since affordable cars came into the market” (maas-alliance.eu). However,even though a number of initiatives have been taken, including pilots which have shown positive outcomes(see e.g., Karlsson et al., 2016), the implementation of MaaS has been slow.Different sources refer to different challenges. The purpose of the project ‘Institutional Frameworks forIntegrated Mobility Services in Future Cities’ (IRIMS) is to determine how, and to what extent, existinginstitutional factors affect the further development of MaaS. The project aims to provide suggestions for howinstitutions can be modified to enable the implementation of MaaS to contribute to sustainable mobility. Thispaper presents part of the work: a tentative framework, intended to support the analysis of the institutionalfactors that facilitate or create barriers to the further development and dissemination of MaaS (see alsoMukhtar-Landgren et al., 2016).

Keywords
Mobility-as-a-Service; framework; institutions; barriers
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33092 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017, 1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Sarasini, S., Sochor, J. & Arby, H. (2017). What characterises a sustainable MaaS business model?. In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings: . Paper presented at ICoMaaS 2017.1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What characterises a sustainable MaaS business model?
2017 (English)In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Generally, business models are increasingly recognised as a vital component of transitions towardssustainability (Bocken et al., 2014; Bocken and Short, 2016; Boons and Lüdeke-Freund, 2013a; Schaltegger etal., 2016, 2012; Stubbs and Cocklin, 2008). For example, several works have noted that new business modelsmay unlock the economic potential of electric vehicle technology and assist in its adoption (e.g. BuddeChristensen et al., 2012; Costain et al., 2012; Weiller et al., 2015), but there exists no such work on Mobilityas a Service (MaaS), although it can, in principal, revolutionise the way we travel and has a huge potential toimprove the sustainability of the transport system. Whilst is not presently clear which business model/s willunderpin the development and adoption of Mobility as a Service, it is possible to outline the characteristicsof a sustainable MaaS business model. This paper aims to address the following research question:“What characterises MaaS business models that deliver improvements in the economic, environmental andsocial sustainability dimensions?In order to address this question, we must first tackle the sticky problem of understanding how to treat MaaSas a concept that currently lacks a formal and robust definition. MaaS is often described as an alternativeto private vehicle ownership that combines different types of mobility services as part of a single, seamlessoffering made available to users via subscription-based smartphone applications (Beutel et al., 2014; Goldmanand Gorham, 2006; Sochor et al., 2015), and is also referred to using the rubrics ‘combined’ or ‘integrated’mobility services. However, the MaaS concept can refer to different types of services, and there are several‘things’ that can be integrated within any MaaS initiative. Also, at the current, pre-commercial phase, itmakes little sense to attempt to define MaaS as the field is in a state of fluidity, with several innovativeconcepts being tested. Hence any pre-emptive definition would run the risk of quickly becoming redundant,especially given the current level of hype around the MaaS concept. Instead, it is better to treat MaaS in topological terms by classifying different elements in terms of what may be integrated in a single service.A business model is commonly referred to as a device for creating, delivering and capturing value (Chesbrough,2010; Johnson et al., 2008; Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010; Teece, 2010; Zott et al., 2011; Zott and Amit,2010). Hence in order to examine what characterises sustainable MaaS business models, it is important toconsider: 1) the concept of sustainable value; and 2) the ways in which MaaS, as a topological phenomenon,can be translated into a set of business models that create, deliver and capture sustainable value. These twopoints underpin the structure of this paper, which consists of four sections, of which this is the first. The nextsection outlines the methods deployed, focusing on an integrative literature review. Section three presentsour main findings, outlining a set of principled arguments regarding sustainable MaaS business models,supported by practical examples. The last section concludes with a set of implications for practitioners andfurther research.

Keywords
Mobility services, business models, value capture, sustainable development
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33094 (URN)
Conference
ICoMaaS 2017.1st international conference on Mobility as a Service Tampere 28.–29.11.2017
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0982-5159

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