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Röös, E., Mie, A., Wivstad, M., Salomon, E., Johansson, B. E. .., Gunnarsson, S., . . . Watson, C. A. (2018). Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 38(2), Article ID 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review
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2018 (English)In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 1774-0746, E-ISSN 1773-0155, Vol. 38, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context. We identify increased N input, weed, disease and pest control, improved livestock feeding, breeding for higher yields and reduced losses as the main measures for yield increases. We review the implications of their implementation for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses, soil fertility, animal health and welfare, human nutrition and health and farm profitability. Our findings from this first-of-its-kind integrated analysis reveal which strategies for increasing yields are unlikely to produce negative side-effects and therefore should be a high priority, and which strategies need to be implemented with great attention to trade-offs. For example, increased N inputs in cropping carry many risks and few opportunities, whereas there are many risk-free opportunities for improved pest control through the management of ecosystem services. For most yield increasing strategies, both risks and opportunities arise, and the actual effect depends on management including active mitigation of side-effects. Our review shows that, to be a driving force for increased food system sustainability, organic agriculture may need to reconsider certain fundamental principles. Novel plant nutrient sources, including increased nutrient recycling in society, and in some cases mineral nitrogen fertilisers from renewable sources, and truly alternative animal production systems may need to be developed and accepted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag France, 2018
Keywords
Animal welfare, Biodiversity, Environment, Nutrition, Organic agriculture, Soil fertility, Yield, agricultural management, breeding, crop yield, cropping practice, ecosystem service, farming system, organic farming, sustainability, trade-off, Europe, Animalia
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37303 (URN)10.1007/s13593-018-0489-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042867508 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Salomon, E. & Spörndly, E. (2017). Markstabiliserande material för att hindra trampskador på hårt belastade betesytor. In: Nilsdotter-Linde, N. & Bernes, G. (reds.). (Ed.), Vallkonferens 2017. Konferensrapport. 7–8 feb, Uppsala. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi. Rapport 22.: . Paper presented at Vallkonferens 2017 (pp. 52-55). Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Markstabiliserande material för att hindra trampskador på hårt belastade betesytor
2017 (Swedish)In: Vallkonferens 2017. Konferensrapport. 7–8 feb, Uppsala. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi. Rapport 22. / [ed] Nilsdotter-Linde, N. & Bernes, G. (reds.)., Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi , 2017, p. 52-55Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

En utvärdering av olika markstabiliserande material visade att den armerade mattan knappt påverkades alls av kotrafik under fyra betessäsonger och tre vintrar däremellan. Om mattan håller isju år blir den lika prisvärd som bark eller krossad sten. Barkbädden höll under rådande förhållanden inte mer än två år, men kan vara ett prisvärt material om man har egen tillgång på bark och lägger på ny bark då bädden uppvisar tendens att kollapsa. Det kan innebära att man får lägga på bark mer än en gång under varje betessäsong. Det krossade stenmaterialet hade efter två betessäsonger liknande antal gropar (framräknat med ett s.k. gropindex) som försöksleden med matta samt det där inga åtgärder vidtogs (kontrollen). Att inte göra någon åtgärd alls har fungerat vid rotationsbete där vegetationen haft möjlighet att återetablera sig. Samtidigt var det tydligt att en yta blev trampskadad då korna passerade den under en regnig period i augusti.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi, 2017
Series
Konferensrapport, ISSN ISSN 1653-5375 ; Rapport 22
Keywords
vall, bete, tramp, markstabiliserande material
National Category
Agricultural and Veterinary sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29244 (URN)978-91-576-9463-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Vallkonferens 2017
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Sonesson, U. G., Lorentzon, K., Andersson, A., Barr, U.-K., Bertilsson, J., Borch, E., . . . Wall, H. (2016). Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(5), 664-676
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 664-676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Ferlag, 2016
Keywords
Consequence assessment, Environment, Food system scenarios, Future food production, LCA, Sustainable food chains
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-330 (URN)10.1007/s11367-015-0969-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Qiuqing, Q., Salomon, E., Wahlund, L. & Atkinson, S. (2015). Lugn och säker hantering av utegående nötkreatur: en effektiv åtgärd för att förbättra arbetsmiljön och undvika farliga situationer (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lugn och säker hantering av utegående nötkreatur: en effektiv åtgärd för att förbättra arbetsmiljön och undvika farliga situationer
2015 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Series
JTI - Övriga publikationer
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2279 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Aronsson, H., Liu, J., Ekre, E., Torstensson, G. & Salomon, E. (2014). Effects of pig and dairy slurry application on N and P leaching from crop rotations with spring cereals and forage leys (ed.). Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 98(3), 281-293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of pig and dairy slurry application on N and P leaching from crop rotations with spring cereals and forage leys
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2014 (English)In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, ISSN 1385-1314, E-ISSN 1573-0867, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 281-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two crop rotations dominated by spring cereals and grass/clover leys on a clay soil were studied over 2 years with respect to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching associated with pig or dairy slurry application in April, June and October. Leaching losses of total N (TN), total P (TP), nitrate-N and dissolved reactive P (DRP) were determined in separately tile-drained field plots (four replicates). Mean annual DRP leaching after October application of dairy slurry (17 kg P ha-1) to growing grass/clover was 0.37 kg ha-1. It was significantly higher than after October application of pig slurry (13 kg ha-1) following spring cereals (0.16 kg ha-1) and than in the unfertilised control (0.07 kg P ha-1). The proportion of DRP in TP in drainage water from the grass/clover crop rotation (35 %) was higher than from the spring cereal rotation (25 %) and the control (14 %). The grass/clover rotation proved to be very robust with respect to N leaching, with mean TN leaching of 10.5 kg ha-1 year-1 compared with 19.2 kg ha-1 year-1 from the cereal crop rotation. Pig slurry application after cereals in October resulted in TN leaching of 25.7 kg ha-1 compared with 7.0 kg ha-1 year-1 after application to grass/clover in October and 19.1 kg ha-1 year-1 after application to spring cereals in April. In conclusion, these results show that crop rotations dominated by forage leys need special attention with respect to DRP leaching and that slurry application should be avoided during wet conditions or combined with methods to increase adsorption of P to soil particles. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2398 (URN)10.1007/s10705-014-9611-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84898545526 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Bertilsson, J., Barr, U., Borch, E., Normann, A., Nielsen, T., Gunnarsson, S., . . . Östergren, K. (2014). Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.. Göteborg, Sverige: SIK Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.
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2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg, Sverige: SIK Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik, 2014
Series
SIK Rapport, ISSN 0436-2071 ; 886
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-606 (URN)
Funder
VINNOVA, 2011-03764
Available from: 2016-06-29 Created: 2016-06-29 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Webb, J., Sorensen, P., Velthof, G., Amon, B., Pinto, M., Rodhe, L., . . . Reid, J. (2013). An Assessment of the Variation of Manure Nitrogen Efficiency throughout Europe and an Appraisal of Means to Increase Manure-N Efficiency (ed.). Advances in Agronomy, 119, 371-442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Assessment of the Variation of Manure Nitrogen Efficiency throughout Europe and an Appraisal of Means to Increase Manure-N Efficiency
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2013 (English)In: Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 119, p. 371-442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using the nitrogen (N) in organic manures more effectively reduces losses to the environment. A requirement to take allowance of the N conserved by reduced ammonia (NH3)-emission techniques would increase manure-N efficiency by up to 15%. Covering manure stores and land application of slurry by injection beneath the soil surface and by rapid incorporation of both slurries and solid manures into uncropped soil reduce NH3 emissions. Injection of cattle slurry also reduces N immobilization compared with application methods, which mix the slurry with soil and increases manure-N efficiency by ca 10-15%. In growing cereals, NH3 emissions can be reduced by band spreading within the canopy. Anaerobic digestion of slurry may also increase manure-N availability in the season of application by 10-20%, compared with undigested slurry. Slurry acidification may increase manure-N efficiency by 35-65% by reducing total NH3 losses by 70% compared with unacidified slurry stored without cover and not incorporated after spreading. To fully utilize the fertilizer value of manure-N, uptake over more than 1 year needs to be accounted for. This is particularly important for solid manures which provide less-available N in the season after application than slurries but release more N to crops in subsequent years. Using manure-N as a sole N source may limit overall manure-N efficiency. Applying manures at reduced rates over a larger crop area, using N fertilizer at times when crop recovery of manure-N may be limited, may give the greatest overall manure-N efficiency. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2415 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-407247-3.00007-X (DOI)2-s2.0-84871361864 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Röös, E., Sundberg, C., Salomon, E. & Wivstad, M. (2013). Ekologisk produktion och klimatpåverkan: En sammanställning av kunskapsläge och framtida forskningsbehov. (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ekologisk produktion och klimatpåverkan: En sammanställning av kunskapsläge och framtida forskningsbehov.
2013 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Series
JTI - Övriga publikationer
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2324 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Salomon, E., Rodhe, L., Sundberg, M. & Oostra, H. (2013). Kvävegödsling till slåttergräsvall: Hur strategier och teknik påverkar ammoniakavgång, skörd, kväveutbyte och kostnader (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kvävegödsling till slåttergräsvall: Hur strategier och teknik påverkar ammoniakavgång, skörd, kväveutbyte och kostnader
2013 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Series
JTI rapport Lantbruk och industri, ISSN 1401-4963 ; 416
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-1865 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Salomon, E. & Wivstad, M. (2013). Rötrest från biogasanläggningar: återföring av växtnäring i ekologiskt produktion. (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rötrest från biogasanläggningar: återföring av växtnäring i ekologiskt produktion.
2013 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Series
JTI - Övriga publikationer
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-2323 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1260-4835

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