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Zira, S., Salomon, E., Åkerfeldt, M. & Röös, E. (2023). Environmental consequences of pig production scenarios using biomass from rotational grass-clover leys as feed. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 30, 103068-103068, Article ID 103068.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental consequences of pig production scenarios using biomass from rotational grass-clover leys as feed
2023 (English)In: Environmental Technology & Innovation, ISSN 2352-1864, Vol. 30, p. 103068-103068, article id 103068Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Production of pork based on monoculture cereal-based cropping systems causes substantial environmental pressures and feed-food competition. This study evaluated the environmental consequences of five different scenarios involving inclusion of rotational grass-clover leys and incorporation of grass-clover biomass in pig diets: (1) a conventional reference scenario without grass-clover biomass; (2) a conventional scenario with replacement of feed with grass-clover silage in a total mixed ration, i.e., with grass-clover biomass replacing other feed; (3) an organic scenario using grass-clover silage for enrichment purposes only; (4) an organic scenario using grass-clover silage for enrichment purposes and additional grass-clover leys for green manuring; and (5) an organic scenario using grass-clover silage and pasture to replace feed. The functional unit was 1 kg of pork slaughter weight and the system boundary was from cradle to farm gate. We used life cycle assessment, the introductory carbon balance method and human edible feed conversion efficiency to assess the performance of the pig production system. Introducing grass-clover biomass as a total mixed ration in conventional pig diets, reduced the climate impact (-17%), eutrophication (-7.1%), marine eutrophication (-15%), energy use (-13%), and feed-food competition (-20%) per kg of pork meat, while acidification (+2.7%) and land use (+1.5%) were slightly increased compared with the reference. The lower climate impact (without considering soil carbon change) was attributable to reduced fertilizer and diesel needs due to pre-crop effects. Overall, feeding grass-clover biomass decreased several environmental impact categories, feed-food competition and improved cereal-based cropping systems by the introduction of grass-clover leys.

National Category
Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64061 (URN)10.1016/j.eti.2023.103068 (DOI)
Note

This study was part of the Mistra Food Futures project, Sweden (Grant number DIA 2018/24 #8), a research program financed by the Stiftelsen för miljöstrategisk forskning (MISTRA), Sweden . We would like to express our gratitude to MISTRA for the funding and to Ingela Löfquist for her help with feed formulation and crop rotation data.

Available from: 2023-02-23 Created: 2023-02-23 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Friman, J., Mjöfors, K., Salomon, E. & Presto Åkerfeldt, M. (2023). Feeding silage to fattening pigs – effects on nitrogen utilization and ammonia losses from fresh manure. Acta agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feeding silage to fattening pigs – effects on nitrogen utilization and ammonia losses from fresh manure
2023 (English)In: Acta agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal science, ISSN 0906-4702, E-ISSN 1651-1972Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACTThis study evaluated the effect of feeding silage to pigs on nitrogen (N) utilization and ammonia (NH3) volatilization. In total, 128 Yorkshire ? Hampshire (30?110?kg) pigs were fed commercial feed (Control) or commercial feed mixed with dried, milled silage in pelleted form (Pellet-S), fresh, chopped silage (Silage-Ch) or intensively treated silage (Silage-Pr). Silage replaced 20% of the crude protein (g/kg). Diet affected daily N excretion, which was higher for pigs fed Silage-Ch and Silage-Pr than for pigs in the Pellet-S and Control treatments. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) content in the manure and NH3 volatilization from fresh manure were higher for Control pigs than for pigs in the other treatments. Overall, these results show that pre-treatment of silage influences N utilization and excretion. Furthermore, the results indicate that feeding silage to pigs can reduce NH3 volatilization from fresh manure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Finishing pig; silage; TMR;nitrogen; ammoniavolatilization
National Category
Animal and Dairy Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65652 (URN)10.1080/09064702.2023.2225517 (DOI)
Note

This study was funded by the Swedish Research Council forEnvironment,  Agricultural  Science  and  Spatial  Planning(Formas): [grant number 2018-02391].

Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
Wivstad, M., Salomon, E. & Spångberg, J. (2023). Survey of farm-gate N and P balances on arable and dairy organic and conventional farms in Sweden—basis for improved management. Organic Agriculture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survey of farm-gate N and P balances on arable and dairy organic and conventional farms in Sweden—basis for improved management
2023 (English)In: Organic Agriculture, ISSN 1879-4238, E-ISSN 1879-4246Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

About half of all N and P loads to Swedish waters originate from agriculture and must decrease to reach environmental goals. Studying nutrient management at farm level can provide an understanding of nutrient recycling and the risk of losses. In a survey of organic and conventional dairy and arable farms in three southern counties of Sweden, farm-gate N and P balances and N use efficiency (NUE) were analysed. Crop distribution differed significantly between organic and conventional farms, with organic dairy farms having higher proportions of ley and pulse crops and organic arable farms having a much higher proportion of N-fixing crops than corresponding conventional farms. Conventional dairy and arable farms had on average 70% and 40% higher N surplus than corresponding organic farms. Farm-gate P surplus was larger on conventional dairy farms and much larger on organic arable farms, mainly due to purchase of P-rich organic fertilisers. Organic dairy farms had higher NUE than corresponding conventional farms, but the opposite was true for arable farms. However, in the southernmost county Skåne, where soil fertility and yield potential are high, NUE was similar on all arable farms. Total inputs of N and P were positively correlated with N and P surpluses, especially on dairy farms. Improved manure and crop residue management, reduced use of purchased mineral N fertilisers coupled to more uniform within-farm distribution of manure, use of catch crops, intercropping and organic fertilisers with appropriate N:P ratio are measures that can reduce farm nutrient surpluses and improve nutrient management on both organic and conventional farms.

National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66071 (URN)10.1007/s13165-023-00436-3 (DOI)
Note

 The authors would like to thank the Swedish Board of Agriculture and SLU Ekoforsk – Field Research on Organic Farming for fnancial support.

Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2023-08-22Bibliographically approved
Wimmler, C., Vermeer, H. M., Leeb, C., Salomon, E. & Andersen, H.-L. M. (2022). Concrete outdoor runs for organic growing-finishing pigs – a legislative, ethological and environmental perspective. Animal, 16(1), Article ID 100435.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concrete outdoor runs for organic growing-finishing pigs – a legislative, ethological and environmental perspective
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2022 (English)In: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, E-ISSN 1751-732X, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 100435Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concrete Outdoor Runs (OUTRUNs) are a characteristic part of organic pig housing. They must allow species-specific behaviours such as rooting and elimination, as explicitly required by organic legislation of the European Union (EU). However, OUTRUN design often fails to fulfil behavioural needs, and excreta can cover large parts of the OUTRUN leading to poor pen hygiene and associated ammonia (NH3) emissions. This review integrates legislative, ethological and environmental requirements for OUTRUNs for organic growing-finishing pigs. While EU regulations specify some welfare-related standards for OUTRUNs (e.g. minimal space allowance), national and private standards interpret some aspects differently, e.g. the proportion of roofed and slatted floor area. Furthermore, reducing NH3 emissions is equally a challenge for organic systems, even though EU legislation does not explicitly refer to OUTRUNs. Depending on the actual use of the OUTRUN for elimination, higher space allowance compared to conventional production norms increases the potential for a large NH3-emitting surface. The design of pen features (e.g. roof, floor, enrichment) can encourage pigs to separate functional areas and consequently reduce the elimination area and associated NH3 emissions. While providing the main lying area indoors, resting outdoors should be possible for sub-groups during the day. A roof protects pigs and resources (e.g. bedding) from adverse weather, but the effect on pig welfare and NH3 emissions is site-specific. A floor design that ensures practicable manure removal and drainage is most important to reduce emissions. Providing opportunities for exploring and rooting in the OUTRUN has particular relevance for pigs’ behavioural needs and can improve pen hygiene by reducing the elimination area. Cooling facilities are increasingly important to prevent heat stress and its detrimental effects on welfare and pen hygiene. Finally, practicability for farmers needs to be ensured for all resources provided in OUTRUNs, as good management is crucial. Research gaps emerge regarding the association between soiling and NH3 and the influence of certain pen features (shape, roof, feeder location, pen partitions and wet areas) on pig behaviour and soiling.

Keywords
Ammonia emission, Animal welfare, Behaviour, Outside area, Pen design
National Category
Animal and Dairy Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58577 (URN)10.1016/j.animal.2021.100435 (DOI)s2.0-S1751731121002810 (Scopus ID)
Note

Open access funding is provided by University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU). The financial support for the POWER project is provided by transnational funding bodies, being partners of the H2020 ERA-net project, CORE Organic Cofund, and the cofund from the European Commission.

Available from: 2022-02-21 Created: 2022-02-21 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Myrbeck, Å., Salomon, E. & Bark, L. (2022). Deliverable 4.3 Assessment of effects of manure/pasture management on nitrogen and phosphorus losses.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliverable 4.3 Assessment of effects of manure/pasture management on nitrogen and phosphorus losses
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The POWER project aimed to examine the effectiveness of innovations and best practise in achieving improved pig welfare in Europe. Free-range pasture systems for pigs support the organic principles of natural living, but intensive free-range production is characterized by high risks of nutrient losses, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching to surrounding water bodies and also ammonia (NH3) emissions. The scope of this grazing study, with housing pigs on pasture, was eight pig farms located in four countries: Austria, Denmark, Germany and Sweden. Collected farm data showed a large range in values, reflecting the diversity of pasture systems. Average animal density in paddocks per farm varied between 10 and 480 pigs per hectare, with a density in falling order as weaners>fatteners>sows. Vegetation in paddocks varied greatly between farms and also in paddocks within the same farm. Climate, animal density and soil type are important parameters influencing the risk of nutrient losses. Nutrient loads from faeces and urine in paddocks varied with animal density. The calculated loads were rather high in relation to fertilizing needs in crop production at some of the studied farms. This highlights the importance of having enough area for the pigs and/or to limit the period they are hold in the same paddock in order to apply nutrient loads balanced to subsequent crop or vegetation needs. With the highest N load registered in the study, pigs could be held in the paddock approximately one and a half month per year before exceeding the EU regulation of maximum application of 170 kg N per ha with animal manure.

Publisher
p. 26
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:105
Keywords
outdoor pigs, paddocks, pig production, environmental impact, ley
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60124 (URN)978-91-89711-50-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-09-15 Created: 2022-09-15 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Salomon, E., Tidåker, P. & Bergström Nilsson, S. (2022). Flows and budgets of nutrients and potentially toxic elements on four Swedish organic farms using digestate from agricultural residues. Organic Agriculture, 12(2), 279-292
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flows and budgets of nutrients and potentially toxic elements on four Swedish organic farms using digestate from agricultural residues
2022 (English)In: Organic Agriculture, ISSN 1879-4238, E-ISSN 1879-4246, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few fertilizers are permitted for organic farming, which is a challenge when securing nutrient availability, particularly of nitrogen (N). Digestate from biogas production could be a valuable fertilizer for increasing crop yields, through its high content of plant-available nitrogen (NH4-N), but is rarely used in practice. This study evaluated how anaerobic digestion of manure and use of digestate affected inflows and outflows of nutrients and potentially toxic elements on four organic farms with different solutions for digestate production. Mass flows and element concentrations were documented 3 years on three dairy farms and one crop farm and used for calculating farm budgets. Nitrogen and phosphorus (P) budgets were also calculated for biogas reactor and storage pits on three farms. Nitrogen surplus exhibited large variation (18–87 kg N ha−1 year−1) at farm level, with purchased digestate or poultry manure giving major N inputs. The risk of process losses was high, with up to 40% of N and P in feedstock entering farm biogas reactors not recovered in digestate. The proportion of NH4-N in total N in digestate was slightly higher (2–9%) or lower (37%) than in feedstocks entering farm biogas reactors. Improved stirring in farm biogas reactors and storage pits to decrease N and P sedimentation, particularly when digesting poultry manure, would directly increase digestate value. Two farms purchasing digestate from central biogas plants received a digestate causing significant cadmium inputs. Keeping records on element flows can help to tailor the use of digestate for organic farms to achieve a sustainable use of nutrients.

National Category
Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59287 (URN)10.1007/s13165-022-00393-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85130727011 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-25 Created: 2022-05-25 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Röös, E., Zira, S., Salomon, E. & Åkerfeldt, M. (2022). Minskad klimatpåverkan med vallfoder till gris– beräkning av klimatavtrycket ur ett livscykelperspektiv.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minskad klimatpåverkan med vallfoder till gris– beräkning av klimatavtrycket ur ett livscykelperspektiv
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Reduced climate impact feeding grass-clover biomass to pigs – calculation of the climate impact from a lifecycle perspective
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här studien var att uppskatta klimateffekten ur ett livscykelperspektiv av att introducera gräs-klövervall som ingrediens i foder till grisar i konventionell svensk grisproduktion. Resultaten visar att klimatavtrycket för ett kg konventionellt griskött kan minskas med cirka 13 procent genom att en del av grisarnas traditionella foder byts ut mot vallfoder. Minskningen beror på i) lägre kvävegiva till vall i jämförelse med spannmål och därmed lägre lustgasutsläpp och lägre utsläpp från tillverkning av mineralgödsel, ii) minskad dieselanvändning, iii) högre skörd för vallen jämfört med andra fodermedel och iv) förfruktseffekter från vallodlingen i övriga grödor. Inkluderas den förväntade inlagringen av kol i mark när vall introduceras i en spannmålsdominerad växtföljd, minskar utsläppen med ytterligare 18 procent. Dock är uppskattningen vad gäller inlagring av kol från atmosfären i mark osäker och dessutom är processen reversibel, vilket gör att denna minskningspotential ska beaktas med viss försiktighet. Det finns flera ytterligare fördelar med att föra in vallodling i grisproduktionen inklusive förbättrad välfärd för grisarna, ökad markbördighet, ökad mångfald av odlade grödor på jordbruksmark som kan gynna biodiversiteten och minskad användning av insatsvaror. För att odla och hantera vallen och kunna använda vallfoder i foderstaten till grisar behövs en annan typ av maskinpark och utfodringsanläggning än vad som används traditionellt inom grisproduktion. Sådan teknik bör dock kunna komma på plats snabbt i och med att sådana system redan används inom mjölk och nötköttsproduktionen. Rådgivare inom grisproduktionen behöver också information och kunskap kring vilka vallgrödor som är lämpliga till grisar samt hur tekniska lösningar för skörd, lagring och hantering av ensilage på gårdsnivå bör ske. Mycket av den kunskapen finns att hämta hos mjölk- och nötköttsproducenter.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to estimate the climate effect from a life cycle perspective of introducing grass-clover biomass as an ingredient in diets to pigs in conventional Swedish pig production. The results show that the climate footprint of one kg of conventional pork can be reduced by around 13 percent by replacing parts of the pigs' traditional feed with grass-clover biomass. The reduction in emissions is due to i) lower nitrogen application to grass-clover ley compared to grains and thus lower nitrous oxide emissions and lower emissions from mineral fertilizer production, ii) reduced diesel use, iii) higher yield for grass-clover ley compared to other fodder, and iv) precursor crop effects from the cultivation of grass-clover ley. If the expected sequestration of carbon in soil from the introduction of ley in a cereal-dominated crop rotation is included, emissions are reduced by an additional 18 percent. However, the estimate soil carbon sequestration is uncertain and the process is reversible, why this reduction potential must be considered with some caution. There are several additional benefits of introducing grass-clover biomass into pig production including improved pig welfare, increased soil fertility, increased diversity of crops grown on farmland which can benefit biodiversity and reduced use of inputs. To grow ley and use it as a feed ingredient in diets to pigs, a different type of machinery and feeding equipment is needed than what is traditionally used in pig production. However, it should be possible to put in place such technology quickly as such systems are already used in milk and beef production. Advisors in pig production also need information and knowledge about which ley crops are suitable for pigs and how technical solutions for harvesting, storing and handling ley at farm level should take place. Much of that knowledge can be obtained from milk and beef producers.

Publisher
p. 34
Series
Mistra Food Futures Report #11
Keywords
pig production, grass-clover, ley, forage, climate impact, carbon sequestration, grisproduktion, vallfoder, vallodling, klimatpåverkan, kolinlagring
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61164 (URN)978-91-8046-771-1 (ISBN)
Note

Denna rapport är framtagen inom forskningsprogrammet Mistra Food Futures.

Available from: 2022-11-14 Created: 2022-11-14 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Aronsson, H., Wahlund, L., Lovang, M., Hellstrand, E., Odelros, Å. & Salomon, E. (2022). Phosphorus load in outdoor areas for laying hens and capacity of phosphorus retaining materials to reduce the environmental impact. Organic Agriculture, 12(3), 325
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus load in outdoor areas for laying hens and capacity of phosphorus retaining materials to reduce the environmental impact
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2022 (English)In: Organic Agriculture, ISSN 1879-4238, E-ISSN 1879-4246, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 325-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated manure loads in outdoor paddocks for laying hens and the capacity of two phosphorus (P) retaining materials for reducing leaching from manure in areas with high hen density. Inventories on two commercial farms during 2 years (2017 and 2018) of the impact of hens (groups of 3000 hens) on vegetation, as a proxy for land use by hens, showed that 16–21% of outdoor area in grassland paddocks and 22–39% of area in a forest paddock were used by the hens. Sand and limestone were tested as P retention materials in areas with high manure load in a field study during the outdoor season for laying hens (May 1 to October 31 in 2018). The materials were placed on the ground (0.2 m deep bed, 3.3 m wide) outside the pop-hole in paddocks with 76 hens. The average numbers of hens outdoors were recorded at 9 am and 3 pm daily. There was no significant difference between the materials concerning distribution of hens, and they seemed not to prefer any material more than the other. When cylinders containing the spent materials were exposed to simulated rainfalls in a laboratory study, the P concentrations in drainage water were high for all materials, including a control with gravel (58–136 mg PO4-P L−1 and 130–197 mg total-P L−1). On average, 14% of manure P retained in the sand and limestone materials was leached after 100 mm of simulated rainfall. Thus, these materials may act as physical filters for P in manure, but to reduce the risk of P losses to waters during the following winter, they need to be removed from the paddocks and preferably used as potential P fertilizers on arable land. © 2021, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2022
Keywords
Lysimeter, P binding capacity, Phosphorus leaching, Poultry manure
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52921 (URN)10.1007/s13165-021-00349-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85101492663 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen Lantbruksforskning, SLF; Funding text 1: Open Access funding provided by Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The study was financed by The Swedish Farmers’ Foundation for Agricultural Research.

Available from: 2021-04-09 Created: 2021-04-09 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Pfeifer, C., Moakes, S., Salomon, E. & Kongsted, A. G. (2022). The role of diversity and circularity to enhance the resilience of organic pig producers in Europe. Animal - Open Space, 1(1), Article ID 100009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of diversity and circularity to enhance the resilience of organic pig producers in Europe
2022 (English)In: Animal - Open Space, ISSN 2772-6940, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 100009Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates how pig housing relates to diversity and circularity of farms and how this influences the capacity of European organic pig producers to cope with economic, legislation, labour and climate-related shocks. It identifies resilience strategies of pig producers in Europe by analysing resilience capacity and attributes to different shocks, namely input and output price shocks, disease outbreaks, climate change, legislation change and labour fluctuations. Based on narratives of 18 pig producers, this paper finds three resilience strategies: an efficiency-based strategy, a nutrient substitution strategy and a farm diversification strategy. Non-resiliency is mostly found among the producers with an all-year outdoor production system following the nutrient substitution strategy related to low feed self-sufficiency. The producers follow an efficiency-based strategy when they cannot accumulate reserves sufficient to cope with shocks. Non-resilience among the farm diversification strategy is related to direct marketing that is labour intensive requires the ability to pay decent wages. To increase the resilience of pig producers in Europe, policies should recognise that these different strategies exist and tailor policies differently for different types of producers.

Keywords
Adaptive cycle, Diversification, Nitrogen cycle, Pig farming systems, Pork production
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59126 (URN)10.1016/j.anopes.2022.100009 (DOI)
Note

This research was funded through the CORE Organic Cofundproject ‘‘Proven welfare and resilience in organic pig production‘‘(POWER). The authors acknowledge the financial support for this project provided by transnational funding bodies, being partners of the H2020 ERA-net project, CORE Organic Cofund, and the cofund from the European Commission.

Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Salomon, E., Mjöfors, K. & Tersmeden, M. (2020). Ammonia emissions from outdoor fattening pigs on concrete pad –a farm case study. In: Proceedings of the IAHA Video-Conferenceon Organic Animal Husbandry. Organic Animal Husbandry systems –challenges, performance and potentials: . Paper presented at Video Pre-Conference on Animal Husbandry 21-22 September 2020 linked to the 20th Organic World Congress 2021 Organized by IFOAM Animal Husbandry Alliance (IAHA) (pp. 44-47).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ammonia emissions from outdoor fattening pigs on concrete pad –a farm case study
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the IAHA Video-Conferenceon Organic Animal Husbandry. Organic Animal Husbandry systems –challenges, performance and potentials, 2020, p. 44-47Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Keeping organic fattening pigs indoors with access to an outdoor concrete pad is common inEU countries. The main environmental impact is related to a risk of high ammonia emissionsfrom excretions on the concrete pad. The objective was to evaluate the effect of frequency ofscraping the pigs’ toilet, on ammonia (NH3) emissions. The  experiment was conducted at anorganic pig farm in southern Sweden over three  consecutive days in August. The experimentincluded four groups of 68 fattening pigs per  group, 24 weeks old. Each group had access toan outdoor concrete area (116,4 m2)  divided into two sections with a wall. One section was atoilet (7.2 x 4.1 m) and the  other was a concrete run (6.9 x 12.7 m). There was no roof over the outdoor area. The whole outdoor concrete area was scraped before the experiment. Each group received a silage bale on the outdoor concrete run. The experimental set-up was tome asure NH3 emissions each day from not scraped vs. daily scraped sub-areas (N= 2  groupsper treatment). In the scraped treatment, only toilet and wet areas with urine  and faeces was scraped. Other sub-areas were dry sub-areas with silage and dry  concrete areas with/without dry faeces. The pigs had access to the whole outdoor area in  between measurements. Wetand dry sub-areas were defined each day before measurements. Measurements of NH3 emissions were conducted with an equilibrium  concentration method, where two chambers and one ambient sampler unit were  randomly placed in each defined sub-area. The results indicated that the toilet sub-area  could have 84 times higher NH3 emissions than the dry sub-area.Scraping toilet sub- areas decreased NH3 emissions, varying from one third lower NH3 emissions down to 17 times lower. This study was part of the CORE Organic Cofund project POWER

Keywords
NH3, excretion area, toilet area, manure, urine, scraping frequency
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52380 (URN)
Conference
Video Pre-Conference on Animal Husbandry 21-22 September 2020 linked to the 20th Organic World Congress 2021 Organized by IFOAM Animal Husbandry Alliance (IAHA)
Available from: 2021-02-09 Created: 2021-02-09 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1260-4835

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