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Roos, S., Jönsson, C., Posner, S., Arvidsson, R. & Svanström, M. (2019). An inventory framework for inclusion of textile chemicals in life cycle assessment. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 24(5), 838-847
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An inventory framework for inclusion of textile chemicals in life cycle assessment
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2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 838-847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Toxicity impacts of chemicals have only been covered to a minor extent in LCA studies of textile products. The two main reasons for this exclusion are (1) the lack of life cycle inventory (LCI) data on use and emissions of textile-related chemicals, and (2) the lack of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data for calculating impacts based on the LCI data. This paper addresses the first of these two. Methods: In order to facilitate the LCI analysis for LCA practitioners, an inventory framework was developed. The framework builds on a nomenclature for textile-related chemicals which was used to build up a generic chemical product inventory for use in LCA of textiles. In the chemical product inventory, each chemical product and its content was modelled to fit the subsequent LCIA step. This means that the content and subsequent emission data are time-integrated, including both original content and, when relevant, transformation products as well as impurities. Another key feature of the framework is the modelling of modularised process performance in terms of emissions to air and water. Results and discussion: The inventory framework follows the traditional structure of LCI databases to allow for use together with existing LCI and LCIA data. It contains LCI data sets for common textile processes (unit processes), including use and emissions of textile-related chemicals. The data sets can be used for screening LCA studies and/or, due to their modular structure, also modified. Modified data sets can be modelled from recipes of input chemicals, where the chemical product inventory provides LCA-compatible content and emission data. The data sets and the chemical product inventory can also be used as data collection templates in more detailed LCA studies. Conclusions: A parallel development of a nomenclature for and acquisition of LCI data resulted in the creation of a modularised inventory framework. The framework advances the LCA method to provide results that can guide towards reduced environmental impact from textile production, including also the toxicity impacts from textile chemicals. Recommendations: The framework can be used for guiding stakeholders of the textile sector in macro-level decisions regarding the effectiveness of different impact reduction interventions, as well as for guiding on-site decisions in textile manufacturing.

Keywords
Chemical, LCA, Life cycle inventory, Textile, USEtox
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36058 (URN)10.1007/s11367-018-1537-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055540338 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Sandin, G., Roos, S. & Johansson, M. (2019). Environmental impact of textile fibers – what we know and what we don't know: Fiber Bible part 2. Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental impact of textile fibers – what we know and what we don't know: Fiber Bible part 2
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Production of cotton and synthetic fibres are known to cause negative environmental effects. For cotton, pesticide use and irrigation during cultivation contributes to emissions of toxic substances that cause damage to both human health and the ecosystem. Irrigation of cotton fields cause water stress due to large water needs. Synthetic fibres are questionable due to their (mostly) fossil resource origin and the release of microplastics. To mitigate the environmental effects of fibre production, there is an urgent need to improve the production of many of the established fibres and to find new, better fibre alternatives.

For the first time ever, this reports compiles all currently publicly available data on the environmental impact of fibre production. By doing this, the report illuminates two things:

  • There is a glaring lack of data on the environmental impact of fibres – for several fibres just a few studies were found, and often only one or a few environmental impacts are covered. For new fibres associated with sustainability claims there is often no data available to support such claims.
  • There are no ”sustainable” or ”unsustainable” fibre types, it is the suppliers that differ. The span within each fibre type (different suppliers) is often too large, in relation to differences between fibre types, to draw strong conclusions about differences between fibre types.

Further, it is essential to use the life cycle perspective when comparing, promoting or selecting (e.g. by designers or buyers) fibres. To achieve best environmental practice, apart from considering the impact of fibre production, one must consider the functional properties of a fibre and how it fits into an environmentally appropriate product life cycle, including the entire production chain, the use phase and the end-of-life management. Selecting the right fibre for the right application is key for optimising the environmental performance of the product life cycle.

The report is intended to be useful for several purposes:

  • as input to broader studies including later life cycle stages of textile products,
  • as a map over data gaps in relation to supporting claims on the environmental preferability of certain fibres over others, and
  • as a basis for screening fibre alternatives, for example by designers and buyers (e.g. in public procurement).

For the third use it is important to acknowledge that for a full understanding of the environmental consequences of the choice of fibre, a full cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: , 2019. p. 98
Series
Mistra Future Fashion report number ; 2019:03
Keywords
Textile fibre, fibre, review, environmental impact, environmental performance, LCA, life cycle assessment, carbon footprint, water use, toxicity, eutrophication, biodiversity, land use, energy use, impact assessment, sustainability, cotton, polyester, viscose, wool, Textilfiber, fiber, granskning, miljöpåverkan, hållbarhet, LCA, livscykelanalys, kolfotavtryck, klimatpåverkan, vattenanvändning, övergödning, toxicitet, biologisk mångfald, markanvändning, energianvändning, effektbedömning, bomull, polyester, viskos, ull
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38198 (URN)978-91-88695-91-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Mistra Future Fashion
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, J., Fransson, K., Prideaux, S., Roos, S., Jönsson, C. & Wallinder, I. O. (2019). Improving the life cycle impact assessment of metal ecotoxicity: Importance of chromium speciation, water chemistry, and metal release. Sustainability, 11(6), Article ID 1655.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the life cycle impact assessment of metal ecotoxicity: Importance of chromium speciation, water chemistry, and metal release
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Investigations of metal ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) are becoming important tools for evaluating the environmental impact of a product or process. There is, however, improvement needed for LCIA of metal ecotoxicity in order to make this assessment more relevant and robust. In this work, three issues within the LCIA of metal ecotoxicity are investigated, mainly focusing on topics related to stainless steel manufacturing. The first issue is the importance of considering regional water chemistry when constructing the characterization factor (CF). A model freshwater of relevance for stainless steel manufacturing in a region of Sweden was created with chemistry different from available options. The second issue is related to the lack of consideration on changes in speciation of Cr(VI) in freshwater for a given emission, as Cr(VI) to some extent will be reduced to Cr(III). Two new options are suggested based on relationships between the Cr(VI)-total Cr ratio as a way to improve the relevancy of LCIA for Cr(VI) in freshwater. The last issue is how to treat metal release from slags in LCIA. Metal release from slags was shown to vary significantly between different ways of modelling slag emissions (differences in total metal content, slag leaching tests, estimated emissions to groundwater). © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Chromium, Chromium(VI), Ecotoxicity, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle impact assessment, Metal release, Nickel, Slag, Stainless steel, USEtox
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38466 (URN)10.3390/su11061655 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063495702 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Rex, D., Oksabol, S. & Roos, S. (2019). possible sustainable berson the market and their technical properties: the fiber bible part 1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>possible sustainable berson the market and their technical properties: the fiber bible part 1
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents a study of the technical performance of new sustainable textile_bers. The sister report scrutinizes the de_nition of “new sustainable textile _bers” andquanti_es the environmental potential of _bers. Together they aim to identify the _berswith the greatest potential to mitigate the environmental impact of _bers currentlydominating the fashion industry.We wanted to quantify the environmental potential of _bers and compare them on a fairand level playing _eld, with the aim to guide policy makers, industry and end customers inselecting “winners” and “losers”. A multitude of other reports and tools with similar aimsexist, though this report includes more types of textile _bers provides more quantitativedata on their performance, and to a greater extent discuss the data found, as well as thedata not found.The work with _nding sustainable _ber alternatives, but also sustainable yarns andfabrics will be on-going in the Mistra Future Fashion programme until the summer of 2019.If you, as a reader, know about sustainable _bers which are missing in the present report,please let us know by e-mail: sandra.roos@ri.se.

Publisher
p. 74
Series
Mistra Future Fashion report number: 2019:02 part 1
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38587 (URN)978-91-88695-90-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Schellenberger, S., Gillgard, P., Stare, A., Hanning, A.-C., Levenstam, O., Roos, S. & Cousins, I. T. (2018). Facing the rain after the phase out: Performance evaluation of alternative fluorinated and non-fluorinated durable water repellents for outdoor fabrics. Chemosphere, 193, 675-684
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facing the rain after the phase out: Performance evaluation of alternative fluorinated and non-fluorinated durable water repellents for outdoor fabrics
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2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 193, p. 675-684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fluorinated durable water repellent (DWR) agents are used to obtain water and stain repellent textiles. Due to the on-going phase-out of DWRs based on side-chain fluorinated polymers (SFP) with “long” perfluoroalkyl chains, the textile industry lacks suitable alternatives with comparable material characteristics. The constant development and optimization of SFPs for textile applications initiated more than half a century ago has resulted in a robust and very efficient DWR-technology and textiles with exceptional hydro- and oleo-phobic properties. The industry is now in the predicament that the long-chain SFPs with the best technical performance have undesirable toxicological and environmental behaviour. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the technical performance of presently available fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs as part of a chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). The results are based on a study with synthetic outdoor fabrics treated with alternative DWRs and tested for repellency using industrial standard and complementary methods. Using this approach, the complex structure-property relationships of DWR-polymers could be explained on a molecular level. Both short-chain SFPs and non-fluorinated DWRs showed excellent water repellency and durability in some cases while short-chain SFPs were the more robust of the alternatives to long-chain SFPs. A strong decline in oil repellency and durability with perfluoroalkyl chain length was shown for SFP DWRs. Non-fluorinated alternatives were unable to repel oil, which might limit their potential for substitution in textile application that require repellency towards non-polar liquids.

Keywords
Chemical alternatives assessment, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances outdoor apparel, Water repellency, Oil repellency, Sustainability
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32822 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85035352098 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, C., Arturin, O. L., Hanning, A.-C., Landin, R., Holmström, E. & Roos, S. (2018). Microplastics shedding from textiles-developing analytical method for measurement of shed material representing release during domestic washing. Sustainability, 10(7), Article ID 2457.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microplastics shedding from textiles-developing analytical method for measurement of shed material representing release during domestic washing
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2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2457Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The topic of shedding of micro-sized polymeric particles, so called microplastics, from textiles has been covered by an increasing number of studies over the past years. However, the methods with which the shedding of microplastics from textiles has been measured so far has shown a large variation. Consequently, the results regarding the amount of shed particles also vary, from 120 to 728,289 particles from similar garments in recent studies. This article presents research enabling for identification of whether the shedding of microplastics from different types of fabric was dependent on construction parameters. As none of the methods in the existing literature could be used for evaluating shedding of microplastics from textiles, a method was developed for this purpose. The resulting final method is described in this paper as well as the work with minimizing the error sources and consequently the standard deviation of the results through selection of material samples, equipment and procedure for sample preparation, washing, filtering the washing water and analyzing the shed microplastics. Comparing the environmental load of different garments, or identifying improvement possibilities in garment construction are two examples of how the method can be utilized.

Keywords
Fibre, Gyrowash, Microplastic, Polyester, Shed, Test method, Textile, Validation, Washing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34292 (URN)10.3390/su10072457 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049996732 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Fantke, P., Aurisano, N., Bare, J., Backhaus, T., Bulle, C., Chapman, P. M., . . . Hauschild, M. (2018). Toward Harmonizing Ecotoxicity Characterization in Life Cycle Impact Assessment.. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 37(12), 2955-2971
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Harmonizing Ecotoxicity Characterization in Life Cycle Impact Assessment.
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2955-2971Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ecosystem quality is an important area of protection in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Chemical pollution has adverse impacts on ecosystems at the global scale. To improve methods for assessing ecosystem impacts, the Life Cycle Initiative hosted at the United Nations Environment Programme established a task force to evaluate the state-of-the-science in modelling chemical exposure of organisms and resulting ecotoxicological effects for use in LCIA. Outcome of the task force work will be global guidance and harmonization by recommending changes to the existing practice in exposure and effect modelling in ecotoxicity characterization. These changes reflect the current science and ensure stability of recommended practice. Recommendations must work within the needs of LCIA in terms of (a) operating on information from any inventory reporting chemical emissions with limited spatiotemporal information, (b) applying best estimates rather than conservative assumptions to ensure unbiased comparison with results for other impact categories, and (c) yielding results that are additive across substances and life cycle stages and allow a quantitative expression of damage to the exposed ecosystem. Here, we report the current framework as well as discuss research questions identified in a roadmap. Primary research questions relate to the approach for ecotoxicological effect assessment, the need to clarify the method's scope and interpretation of its results, the need to consider additional environmental compartments and impact pathways, and the relevance of effect metrics other than the currently applied geometric mean of toxicity effect data across species. Because they often dominate ecotoxicity results in LCIA, metals pose a specific focus, which includes consideration of their possible essentiality and changes in environmental bioavailability. We conclude with a summary of key questions along with preliminary recommendations to address them as well as open questions that require additional research efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Ecotoxicology, ecosystem exposure, environmental modeling, life cycle impact assessment, species sensitivity distributions
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35142 (URN)10.1002/etc.4261 (DOI)30178491 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056076442 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Roos, S., Zamani, B., Sandin, G., Peters, G. M. & Svanström, M. (2016). A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the Swedish apparel sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 133, 691-700
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the Swedish apparel sector
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 133, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The environmental challenges associated with consumption of textiles have generally been investigated on product level in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. For social sustainability aspects, social hotspot analysis has instead been applied on the textile sector level. The aim with the industry sector approach developed by the authors was to enable assessment of different interventions in terms of how they contribute to reaching targets for environmental and social sustainability, on the sector level. The approach was tested in a case study on the Swedish apparel sector. The industry sector approach consists of three steps that address three different questions: 1) What is the current sustainability performance of the sector? 2) What is an acceptable sustainability performance for the sector? 3) Are proposed interventions enough to reach an acceptable sustainability performance? By answering these questions, it is possible to measure performance in relation to sector level targets and learn which types of interventions (technical improvements, behavioral changes, new business models, etc.), and which actors (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, authorities, etc.) that can potentially provide the greatest improvements. By applying the approach in the case study, conclusions could be drawn on whether specific interventions appear to be sufficient or not in relation to the set environmental targets. The influence of the interventions in relation to reaching targets for social sustainability was found to be the most difficult to measure due to lack of data. To spur the industry sector's stakeholders to actualize the full potential of the most effective environmental interventions, a scheme for structured evaluation of LCA results directed towards these prospective actors was developed. Based on the results from the study, actor-oriented advice could be provided.

Keywords
Actor-oriented advice, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle interpretation, Planetary boundaries, Social assessment, Textile, Sustainable development, Textiles, Environmental and social sustainability, Environmental challenges, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Social sustainability, Sustainability performance, Life cycle
National Category
Natural Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27604 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.146 (DOI)2-s2.0-84988896850 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Goldsworthy, K., Roos, S., Sandin, G. & Peters, G. (2016). Towards a Quantified Design Process: Bridging Design and Life Cycle Assessment. In: Circular Transitions Proceedings: . Paper presented at Circular Transitions – A Mistra Future Fashion Conference on Textile Design and the Circular Economy, November 23-24, 2016, London, UK (pp. 208-221).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Quantified Design Process: Bridging Design and Life Cycle Assessment
2016 (English)In: Circular Transitions Proceedings, 2016, p. 208-221Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we describe how design researchers and environmental researchers are making a joint effort in overcoming the disciplinary barriers for collaboration. By comparing existing processes and identifying potential opportunities arising from inter-disciplinary collaboration the aim is to propose methods for building a bridge between disciplines. A model for “quantified design” is generated, and explored, relevant for designers, design researchers as well as LCA researchers.

Keywords
Textile, Fashion, Apparel, Design, Life Cycle Assessment, LCA
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30228 (URN)
Conference
Circular Transitions – A Mistra Future Fashion Conference on Textile Design and the Circular Economy, November 23-24, 2016, London, UK
Projects
Mistra Future Fashion
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Roos, S., Posner, S., Jönsson, C. & Peters, G. M. (2015). Is Unbleached Cotton Better Than Bleached? Exploring the Limits of Life-Cycle Assessment in the Textile Sector (ed.). Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, 33(4), 231-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Unbleached Cotton Better Than Bleached? Exploring the Limits of Life-Cycle Assessment in the Textile Sector
2015 (English)In: Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, ISSN 0887-302X, E-ISSN 1940-2473, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The applicability of life-cycle assessment (LCA) for the textile industry is discussed with a special focus on environmental impact from chemicals. Together with issues of water depletion and energy use, the use of chemicals and their emissions are important environmental considerations for textile products. However, accounting for chemicals is a weak point in LCA methodology and practice. Two research questions were investigated in a case study of hospital garments: 1) whether LCA adds value to assessments of the chemical performance of textile products, and 2) whether inclusion of toxicity issues in LCA affects environmental performance rankings for textile products. It is concluded that the quantitative and holistic tool LCA is useful for environmental decision makers in the textile industry, and becomes more effective when chemical impacts are included. A flexible way forward is demonstrated to meet the challenge of accounting for chemicals in LCAs of textile products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
Keywords
decision making, design process, environment, green products, product development, sustainable design
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-13304 (URN)10.1177/0887302X15576404 (DOI)2-s2.0-84931595273 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7949-2268

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