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Schavkan, A., Gollwitzer, C., Garcia-Diez, R., Krumrey, M., Minelli, C., Bartczak, D., . . . Shard, A. (2019). Number concentration of gold nanoparticles in suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as traceable methods compared to laboratory methods. Nanomaterials, 9(4), Article ID 502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Number concentration of gold nanoparticles in suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as traceable methods compared to laboratory methods
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2019 (English)In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The industrial exploitation of high value nanoparticles is in need of robust measurement methods to increase the control over product manufacturing and to implement quality assurance. InNanoPart, a European metrology project responded to these needs by developing methods for the measurement of particle size, concentration, agglomeration, surface chemistry and shell thickness. This paper illustrates the advancements this project produced for the traceable measurement of nanoparticle number concentration in liquids through small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS). It also details the validation of a range of laboratory methods, including particle tracking analysis (PTA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and electrospray-differential mobility analysis with a condensation particle counter (ES-DMA-CPC). We used a set of spherical gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters between 10 nm and 100 nm and discuss the results from the various techniques along with the associated uncertainty budgets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Comparison, Laboratory methods, Nanoparticles, Number concentration, Suspensions, Traceability
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38900 (URN)10.3390/nano9040502 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065464814 (Scopus ID)
Note

; Funding details: Singapore Eye Research Institute, 15.0205; Funding details: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy; Funding details: National Institute of Standards and Technology; Funding text 1: Funding: This work was funded by the 14IND12 InNanoPart project of the EMPIR programme co-financed by the EMPIR Participating States and by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, as well as the National Measurement System of the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). METAS gratefully acknowledges funding from the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and lnnovation (SERI) under contract number 15.0205.; Funding text 2: Analysis of variance UK Department for Bussiness, Energy and Industrial Strategy Berliner Elektronenspeicherring für Synchrotronstrahlung Differential Centrifugal Sedimentation Dansk Fundamental Metrologi Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek Dynamic light scattering Electron multiplying charge coupled device European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research Electrospray-differential mobility analysis with a condensation particle counter Four-crystal monochromator Raman spectroscopy with hollow fiber Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH Light emitting diode Laboratory of government chemist Federal Institute of Metrology of Switzerland Mass flow meter National Institute of Standards and Technology National Physical Laboratory Polystyrene Particle tracking analysis Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Polyvinyl alcohol Research Institutes of Sweden Small-angle X-ray scattering Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation Systeme International Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy Transmission electron microscopy Transient analysis Ultra-violet visible spectroscopy

Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-03Bibliographically approved
Minelli, C., Bartczak, D., Peters, R., Rissler, J., Undas, A., Sikora, A., . . . Shard, A. G. (2019). Sticky Measurement Problem: Number Concentration of Agglomerated Nanoparticles. Langmuir, 35(14), 4927-4935
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sticky Measurement Problem: Number Concentration of Agglomerated Nanoparticles
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2019 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 35, no 14, p. 4927-4935Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measuring the number concentration of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) is critical for assessing reproducibility, enabling compliance with regulation, and performing risk assessments of NP-enabled products. For nanomedicines, their number concentration directly relates to their dose. However, the lack of relevant reference materials and established traceable measurement approaches make the validation of methods for NP number concentration difficult. Furthermore, commercial products often exhibit agglomeration, but guidelines for dealing with nonideal samples are scarce. We have compared the performance of five benchtop measurement methods for the measurement of colloidal number concentration in the presence of different levels of agglomeration. The methods are UV-visible spectroscopy, differential centrifugal sedimentation, dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We find that both ensemble and particle-by-particle methods are in close agreement for monodisperse NP samples and three methods are within 20% agreement for agglomerated samples. We discuss the sources of measurement uncertainties, including how particle agglomeration affects measurement results. This work is a first step toward validation and expansion of the toolbox of methods available for the measurement of real-world NP products.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38275 (URN)10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b04209 (DOI)30869903 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Jakobsson, J. K. .., Aaltonen, H. L., Nicklasson, H., Gudmundsson, A., Rissler, J., Wollmer, P. E. & Löndahl, J. (2018). Altered deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 18(1), Article ID 129.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altered deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
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2018 (English)In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 1471-2466, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is a key link to understand their health impact. Experimental data are limited for vulnerable groups such as individuals with respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in lung deposition of nanoparticles in the distal lung for healthy subjects and subjects with respiratory disease. Methods: Lung deposition of nanoparticles (50 and 100 nm) was measured after a 10 s breath-hold for three groups: healthy never-smoking subjects (n = 17), asymptomatic (active and former) smokers (n = 15) and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 16). Measurements were made at 1300 mL and 1800 mL volumetric lung depth. Each subject also underwent conventional lung function tests, including post bronchodilator FEV1, VC, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, DL,CO. Patients with previously diagnosed respiratory disease underwent a CT-scan of the lungs. Particle lung deposition fraction, was compared between the groups and with conventional lung function tests. Results: We found that the deposition fraction was significantly lower for subjects with emphysema compared to the other subjects (p = 0.001-0.01), but no significant differences were found between healthy never-smokers and smokers. Furthermore, the particle deposition correlated with pulmonary function tests, FEV1%Pred (p < 0.05), FEV1/VC%Pred (p < 0.01) and DL,CO (p < 0.0005) when all subjects were included. Furthermore, for subjects with emphysema, deposition fraction correlated strongly with DL,CO (Pearson's r = 0.80-0.85, p < 0.002) while this correlation was not found within the other groups. Conclusions: Lower deposition fraction was observed for emphysematous subjects and this can be explained by enlarged distal airspaces in the lungs. As expected, deposition increases for smaller particles and deeper inhalation. The observed results have implications for exposure assessment of air pollution and dosimetry of aerosol-based drug delivery of nanoparticles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central Ltd., 2018
Keywords
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Emphysema, Human, In vivo study, Inhalation exposure, Lung deposition, Nanoparticles, bronchodilating agent, carbon monoxide, nanoparticle, adult, Article, asymptomatic disease, bioaccumulation, breath holding, chronic obstructive lung disease, computer assisted tomography, controlled study, female, forced expiratory volume, lung diffusion capacity, lung emphysema, lung function test, major clinical study, male, measurement, particle size, smoking, vital capacity, volumetry
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37287 (URN)10.1186/s12890-018-0697-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054930344 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Harra, J., Tuominen, M., Juuti, P., Rissler, J., Koivuluoto, H., Haapanen, J., . . . Mäkelä, J. M. (2018). Characteristics of nFOG, an aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique. JCT Research, 15(3), 623-632
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of nFOG, an aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique
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2018 (English)In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 623-632Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An atmospheric pressure aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique called the nFOG is characterized and applied in polymer film coatings. In the nFOG, a fog of droplets is formed by two air-assist atomizers oriented toward each other inside a deposition chamber. The droplets settle gravitationally and deposit on a substrate, forming a wet film. In this study, the continuous deposition mode of the nFOG is explored. We determined the size distribution of water droplets inside the chamber in a wide side range of 0.1–100 µm and on the substrate using aerosol measurement instruments and optical microscopy, respectively. The droplet size distribution was found to be bimodal with droplets of approximately 30–50 µm contributing the most to the mass of the formed wet film. The complementary measurement methods allow us to estimate the role of different droplet deposition mechanisms. The obtained results suggest that the deposition velocity of the droplets is lower than the calculated terminal settling velocity, likely due to the flow fields inside the chamber. Furthermore, the mass flux of the droplets onto the substrate is determined to be in the order of 1 g/m3s, corresponding to a wet film growth rate of 1 µm/s. Finally, the nFOG technique is demonstrated by preparing polymer films with thicknesses in the range of approximately 0.1–20 µm.

Keywords
Aerosol measurement, Droplet size distribution, nFOG, Polymer film, Wet coating technique, Aerosols, Atmospheric pressure, Atomization, Atomizers, Coating techniques, Drops, Film growth, Plastic coatings, Polymer films, Semiconducting films, Size distribution, Continuous deposition, Deposition velocities, Droplet size distributions, Polymer film coating, Terminal settling velocity, Wet coating techniques, Thin films
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34448 (URN)10.1007/s11998-017-0022-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045145179 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Wittbom, C., Eriksson, A.-C., Rissler, J., Roldin, P., Nordin, E., Sjögren, S., . . . Svenningsson, B. (2018). Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 75(4), 359-383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 359-383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water. © 2018, The Author(s).

Keywords
Critical supersaturation, Hygroscopic growth, Particles, SOA, Solubility, Traffic exhausts
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36613 (URN)10.1007/s10874-018-9380-5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057081647 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Rissler, J., Nicklasson, H., Gudmundsson, A., Wollmer, P., Swietlicki, E. & Löndahl, J. (2017). A set-up for respiratory tract deposition efficiency measurements (15–5000 nm) and first results for a group of children and adults. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 17(6), 1244-1255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A set-up for respiratory tract deposition efficiency measurements (15–5000 nm) and first results for a group of children and adults
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2017 (English)In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, E-ISSN 2071-1409, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1244-1255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to airborne particulate matter is associated with a number of negative health effects ranging from respiratorydiseases to systemic effects and cancer. One important factor for understanding the health effects is the individual variationin the respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles. In this study, we describe an experimental set-up for size-resolvedmeasurements of the lung deposited fraction of airborne particles, covering the diameter range from 15 to 5000 nm. Theset-up includes a system for generating a stable aerosol with a sufficiently broad size distribution. We used a scanningmobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer to determine particle number and size. The set-up was used toinvestigate individual differences in the deposition fraction (DF) of particles in the respiratory tract for a group of 67subjects of both sexes aged 7–70 years. The measured DF was applied to two model aerosols, one representing an urbanenvironment and one a rural environment, and the particle deposition rates were derived (i.e., the deposited amount ofparticles per unit time). Furthermore, the deposition rates were normalized to lung surface area and body mass – two dosemeasures that are considered relevant for the health effects of airborne particles. In addition to validation of the set-up, weshow that there is a large individual variation in DF, with some subjects having a DF that is more than twice as high as thatof others. Although we observe differences in the DF between different subgroups, most individual variation wasexplained neither by age nor by gender. When normalizing the deposition rates to lung surface area or body mass, thedeposition rates of children become significantly higher than those of adults. Furthermore, the individual variability islarger for the lung surface area or body mass normalized deposition rates than for DF

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AAGR Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2017
Keywords
Aerosols, Airborne particles, Deposition efficiency, Dose rate, Individual variability, Biological organs, Deposition rates, Efficiency, Health, Aerodynamic particle sizer, Airborne particle, Airborne particulate matters, Broad size distribution, Deposition efficiencies, Scanning mobility particle sizer, Deposition
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29783 (URN)10.4209/aaqr.2016.09.0425 (DOI)2-s2.0-85018422203 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Rissler, J., Gudmundsson, A., Nicklasson, H., Swietlicki, E., Wollmer, P. & Löndahl, J. (2017). Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: An experimental study in healthy children and adults. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 14(1), Article ID 10.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: An experimental study in healthy children and adults
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2017 (English)In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, ISSN 1743-8977, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exposure to airborne particles has a major impact on global health. The probability of these particles to deposit in the respiratory tract during breathing is essential for their toxic effects. Observations have shown that there is a substantial variability in deposition between subjects, not only due to respiratory diseases, but also among individuals with healthy lungs. The factors determining this variability are, however, not fully understood. Method: In this study we experimentally investigate factors that determine individual differences in the respiratory tract depositions of inhaled particles for healthy subjects at relaxed breathing. The study covers particles of diameters 15-5000 nm and includes 67 subjects aged 7-70 years. A comprehensive examination of lung function was performed for all subjects. Principal component analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between subject characteristics and particle deposition. Results: A large individual variability in respiratory tract deposition efficiency was found. Individuals with high deposition of a certain particle size generally had high deposition for all particles <3500 nm. The individual variability was explained by two factors: breathing pattern, and lung structural and functional properties. The most important predictors were found to be breathing frequency and anatomical airway dead space. We also present a linear regression model describing the deposition based on four variables: tidal volume, breathing frequency, anatomical dead space and resistance of the respiratory system (the latter measured with impulse oscillometry). Conclusions: To understand why some individuals are more susceptible to airborne particles we must understand, and take into account, the individual variability in the probability of particles to deposit in the respiratory tract by considering not only breathing patterns but also adequate measures of relevant structural and functional properties.

Keywords
Aerosols, Airborne particles, Airway dead space, Individual variability, Inhalation, Lung dose, NanoSafety, Particle lung deposition, Respiratory tract deposition
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30966 (URN)10.1186/s12989-017-0190-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85018416270 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: 2009-01117, VINNOVA; Funding details: 621-2011-3560, VR, Vetenskapsrådet; Funding text: This research was supported by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, VINNOVA (Project 2009-01117), the Swedish Research Council for Environmental, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS (Projects 2009-1294, 2014-7613) and the Swedish Research Council (Project 621-2011-3560). This research was supported by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, VINNOVA (Project 2009-01117), the Swedish Research Council for Environmental, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS (Projects 2009-1294, 2014-7613) and the Swedish Research Council (Project 621-2011-3560). The funding bodies had no influence on the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in writing the manuscript.

Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Svensson, C. R., Ameer, S. S., Ludvigsson, L., Ali, N., Alhamdow, A., Messing, M. E., . . . Rissler, J. (2016). Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres. Journal of nanoparticle research, 18(4), Article ID 86.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres
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2016 (English)In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles &lt;10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air–liquid interface of 0.4–10.7, 0.9–46.6, and 0.1–1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2016
Keywords
A549, aggregates, air–liquid interface, cytokines, DMA-APM, health effects, NACIVT, SAEC, toxicity
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-100 (URN)10.1007/s11051-016-3389-y (DOI)2-s2.0-84961659569 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8650-4741

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