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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Linden, H., Baumann, H. & Rex, E. (2019). LCM development: focusing on the LC promoters and their organizational problem-solving. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 24(2), 297-309
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LCM development: focusing on the LC promoters and their organizational problem-solving
2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 297-309Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Life cycle management (LCM) implies a specific sustainability perspective which extends environmental management along the product life cycle, with the aim of decreasing negative environmental impact throughout the product chain. Research has identified that the adoption of LCM in the industry depends upon its situational adaptation to the organizational context. Even so, little is known about the specifics of this adaptation. With this paper, our aim is to add knowledge on LCM adoption and adaptation. Methods: A systematic analysis of empirical material on life cycle (LC) activity in six multinational corporations (MNCs) is conducted, by applying a secondary analysis of qualitative data (Heaton 2008). In order to study instances of LCM adoption and adaptation, we focus on the acts and situations of LC promoters. The identified instances are analyzed through the lens of situated problem-solving (Kuhn and Jackson 2008). Results and discussion: Sixty-seven instances of LC promotion were identified and analyzed, resulting in the identification of eight categories of problem-situations typically encountered by LC promoters. The identified problem-situations represent different situations when the organizational appropriateness of the LC approach is at stake and to which responses tailored to the organization are put forward by a LC promoter. The results bring to the fore the ubiquity of organizational and creative problem-solving, highlighting the role of LC promoters as change agents for LCM adoption, and depict the development of LCM as an emergent practice, rather than an implementation process. Conclusions: This paper provides a first systematic analysis of LC promoters enacting a variety of responses to organizationally challenging LC situations, thus detailing the adaptation necessary for embedding LCM in the industry. Findings show that the development of LCM to a great extent is about the promotion of a LC approach, and that LC promoters need organizational knowing, in addition to LC knowing, to make the LC approach relevant to management and business.

Keywords
Life cycle (LC) promoters, Life cycle management (LCM), Life cycle thinking (LCT), Organizational problem-solving, Situational adaptation, Sustainability, adoption, article, embedding, life cycle, problem solving, promoter region, secondary analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35914 (URN)10.1007/s11367-018-1523-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85053238346 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Rex, E., Rosander, E., Røyne, F., Veide, A. & Ulmanen, J. (2018). A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals. 

Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:30
Keywords
Succinic acid, Municipal solid waste, Bio-refinery, Systems approach, Waste management
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33600 (URN)978-91-88695-67-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 211-2013-70
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Karheiding, C., Björklund, A., Ekvall, T., Sanne, K. & Rex, E. (2018). Life CyclePractitioners -Education fromcradle to grave. In: : . Paper presented at LCIC2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life CyclePractitioners -Education fromcradle to grave
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Life cycle practitioners of tomorrow will be a more diverse group of professionals than the first generation. A couple of decades ago Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) was the concern of a limited group of experts in academia, research institutes and a few larger companies. Most members of the LC-community were known to each other and the field was limited in terms of job opportunities. Today the field has grown substantially. LC-experts are found in a range of positions in industry, consultancy, and governmental authorities. Many non-experts also come across the LC-concept at various stages in their professional life. While life cycle education for many years was a niche concern for specifically interested students, the dispersion of the LC-concept now raises different needs for education and training. Swedish Life Cycle Center, which aims at credible and applied LCT, has as one of its ambitions to meet these new needs by supporting education and training actions among its partners. The aim of our conference contribution is to describe how ongoing educational and training efforts in Sweden contribute to meet the needs.

15-20 dedicated LCA courses and a multitude of courses integrating the LC-perspective are given at Swedish universities. This gives opportunities of collegial exchange among teachers. Co-operation with industry in master degree projects is important and lays the ground for industry to recruit new colleagues.PhD students benefit from courses where they not only learn from senior researchers but also interact with each other. Such courses gives PhD students an overview of previous and present LCA-related research. This contributes to making research more scientific in the sense that the accumulation of knowledge will be more systematic. It helps establish a network of researchers that benefit their research and careers.Industry and authorities are in need to understand the LC-perspective. Not only environmental experts, but also several functions such as procurement, product development and marketing. It is important to offer education for professionals where they learn the basics of LCT, identify what value chain they are part of and how they can influence its performance.LC-practitioners needs to continue receiving updates and learn about new findings within the field. Seminars, webinars, newsletters and working groups are ways to stay up to date.There is a need to spread LCT within each organization, educate media via easily available information and inform citizens about the LC-perspective to ensure the regrowth of LC-experts of tomorrow.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37533 (URN)
Conference
LCIC2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Brunklaus, B., Rex, E., Carlsson, E. & Berlin, J. (2018). The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques. Journal of Cleaner Production, 202, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, the current dominant valorization of food waste is the production of biogas. However, as current production has low profitability, other options are sought to find more valuable uses of food waste, e.g. as the feedstock for bio-based chemicals. One example is the use of food waste in the production of bio-based succinic acid. In this paper, a LCA study is presented in order to highlight whether biogas production or the production of succinic acid has the lowest environmental impact as valorization option for mixed food waste, and if mixed food waste could be an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. The LCA study shows that the environmental results depend on the perspective. From a valorization perspective, food waste has the lowest environmental impact the biogas production. From a feedstock perspective, mixed food waste is an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. Although many uncertainties exist because production processes are still being developed, it can be concluded that mixed food waste seems to be a promising feedstock for bio-based chemicals from an environmental point of view, and is of interest to be included in future assessments of bio-based chemicals for the emerging bio-economy. © 2018

Keywords
Bio-based economy, Biogas, Food waste, LCA, Succinic acid, Chemical contamination, Chemicals, Feedstocks, Life cycle, Bio-based, Bio-based chemicals, Biogas production, Current production, Environmental assessment, Production process, Succinic acids, Environmental impact
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36421 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.240 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053075794 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR; Funding details: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola

Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Brunklaus, B., Rex, E., Berlin, J., Røyne, F., Ulmanen, J. & Aid, G. (2018). The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals. In: Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton (Ed.), Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation (pp. 327-335). Spinger
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals
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2018 (English)In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, Spinger , 2018, p. 327-335Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within the current political and industrial transition to a bio-based

economy, food waste can be an alternative resource for biobased chemicals. This

chapter describes a case study that evaluates the prospect for Swedish production of

biobased chemicals such as succinic acid from food waste. The evaluation is

addressed from multiple systems perspectives. From a technical and resource

system perspective, the results of the case study show that production seems possible.

However, from a social system perspective succinic acid production currently

lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for realizing

development in Sweden. From an environmental and life cycle perspective, the

scoping of the analysis is decisive for the results. The study shows that multiple

perspectives complement each other when seeking a nuanced evaluation of technical

innovation and give insights for the intended value chain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Spinger, 2018
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37592 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-66981-6 (DOI)978-3-319-66980-9 (ISBN)978-3-319-66981-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Rex, E., Fernqvist, N., Ryding, S.-O. & Karheiding, C. (2018). Towards increased impact of life cycle information in product and service innovation. In: : . Paper presented at Life Cycle Innovation Conference, Berlin 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards increased impact of life cycle information in product and service innovation
2018 (English)In: , 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many businesses of today now recognize the need for a life cycle perspective, for use not only in accounting but also for innovative purposes. However, while availability of data and understanding of the life cycle concept as such continues to grow, there is still inertia in life cycle information having practical implications on decisions and actions throughout the everyday work in the company.

In a project aimed at a better understanding of company internal uses of life cycle information, the existence and use of life cycle information in four large companies (all having with extensive experience of life cycle thinking) were studied. Data collection was made in case studies with two main purposes; to a) follow and illustrate flows of life cycle information within large companies, and to b) understand the role of life cycle information in decision-making outside of the environmental departments. The case studies covered applications such as development of new product concepts, introduction of new materials, and market introduction of eco designed products and services.

The study reveals other dominant barriers than normally assumed; not having or understanding the life cycle information provided. The barriers found were rather related to other aspects of the decision process: Complementary data important for the decision (such as material availability or economic implications for alternate designs) could be missing, recommendation of the most preferred alternative not being clearly presented, concerns about e.g. increased uncertainties and risk not being met, or guidance on how to handle tradeoffs such as between economic and ecologic goals absent. Sometimes information was also not provided in the timeframe needed to change the particular process, or existing routines and tools did not allow the inclusion of life cycle information in a systematic manner. 

Insights from the study point to the importance of understanding the broader context in which the life cycle information should be used, in order to reach impact as decision support. To assist in this, a short guide has been designed to support life cycle proponents in having a more holistic view of the decision making situation and to highlight common pitfalls hindering life cycle information to influence company practices.

 

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37531 (URN)
Conference
Life Cycle Innovation Conference, Berlin 2018
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Rex, E., Rosander, E., Røyne, F., Veide, A. & Ulmanen, J. (2017). A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 125, 86-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, p. 86-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals.

Keywords
Bio-refinery, Municipal solid waste, Succinic acid, Systems approach, Waste management
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30799 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.05.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020495421 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Arvidsson, N., Bolin, L., Lindberg, S. M., Linder, M., Mellquist, A.-C., Norefjell, F., . . . Tööj, L. (2017). Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Sverige har en stark möbelindustri och en stolt tradition av att tillverka tidlösa och högkvalitativa möbler, ofta av naturmaterial. 2016 producerade Sverige möbler för 22,8 miljarder SEK, varav kontorsmöbler stod för nästan en fjärdedel1. Det saknas idag statistik över vad som händer med dessa möbler när de inte längre används, men det står klart att många av dem slängs i förtid när verksamheter flyttar eller när deras behov ändras. Samtidigt syns en tydlig utveckling mot att kunder mer och mer efterfrågar återbrukade eller renoverade möbler som en del i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Denna utveckling var startpunkten för projektet ”Affärsmodell-innovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”.

Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden är ett Vinnovafinansierat projekt som under åren 2015-2017 arbetat med att utveckla och testa koncept för cirkulära affärsmodeller för i första hand offentliga möbler. I projektet har tjugo aktörer från hela värdekedjan, från underleverantörer, möbelproducenter, återförsäljare och användare till forskare och branschorgan, samarbetat kring affärsutveckling, kundincitament, produktdesign, logistik, hållbarhets- och certifieringsfrågor.

Den här skriften belyser hur nya affärsmodeller för mer cirkulära möbelflöden kan bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling och ger smakprov på slutsatser från projektet. Skriften riktar sig framför allt till producenter och återförsäljare av möbler för offentliga miljöer, men även kunder och inköpare tror vi kan ha stor nytta av skriften. Vi hoppas att den även kan fungera som inspiration för andra industrier och branscher som funderar på en övergång till mer cirkulära affärsekosystem.

Publisher
p. 29
Keywords
Cirkularitet, möbler, hållbarhet
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29611 (URN)
Projects
Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden - Steg 2
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Lisa, B., Rex, E., Røyne, F. & Norrblom, H.-L. (2017). Hållbarhetsanalys av cirkulära möbelflöden. Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbarhetsanalys av cirkulära möbelflöden
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport belyser på vilket sätt den miljömässiga, sociala och ekonomiska hållbarheten för offentliga möbler ändras när man går från linjära till mer cirkulära affärsmodeller. Analyserna utgår ifrån fallstudier av en trästol med stoppad sits, en stol med metallben och stoppad sits, en kontorsstol samt ett möblemangbestående av skrivbord och stol. De miljömässiga effekterna av att sälja dessa produkter i en cirkulär affärsmodell har beräknats med hjälp av livscykelanalys (LCA). Resultaten diskuteras även i förhållande till cirkulära affärsmodellers inverkan på sociala aspekter och ekonomisk hållbarhet.

Studien visar att miljönyttan med cirkulära affärsmodeller varierar med produkt men också med typ av miljöpåverkan som studeras. Livscykelanalysberäkningar på produkter som studerats inom projektet visar till exempel på minskningar av klimatpåverkan med runt 20-40% när en möbel tillhandahålls med en cirkulär affärsmodell istället för en traditionell linjär. Samtidigt minskade behovet av ingående materialresurser (trä, stål mm) med runt 50%. Utöver livscykelanalyser bör miljöbedömningen av en cirkulär affärsmodell också särskilt beakta användingen av toxiska ämnen. För att kunna arbeta praktiskt med dessa frågor är dokumentation och spårbarhet för möbler och material en viktigt fråga.  

En cirkulär affärsmodell ger inte med automatik en lägre total miljöpåverkan. Det som spelar störst roll är affärsmodellens förmåga att öka den faktiska livslängden på produkten. Det är också viktigt att möbler fortsatt designas för att materialen ska kunna återvinnas när möbeln inte längre är i bruk, oavsett om de är gjorda för återbruk eller ej. Ökade transporter och lagerhållning som konsekvens av cirkulära affärskoncept har i våra fallstudier liten inverkan på miljöprestandan.   

Uppskattningsvis finns en potential till besparing om ca 45 000 ton koldioxidekvivalenter årligen – om alla kontorsmöbler som produceras i Sverige i stället skulle säljas enligt cirkulär modell. Detta motsvarar ungefär nytillverkning av 450 000 kontorsstolar (NEPD-467-327-EN, 2016). Det finns dock mycket lite statistik över hur möbler används och när de de facto slängs vilket gör det svårt att säga något om faktiska miljöförbättringar i större skala.

Hållbarhet är inte bara miljö, utan även ekonomiska och sociala aspekter, såsom livscykelkostnad för kunden eller påverkan på arbetsmiljö och arbetstillfällen. Om cirkulära affärsmodeller blir mer eller mindre ekonomiskt hållbara beror på det aktuella fallet och ur vems perspektiv ekonomin utvärderas. Viktigt att tänka på när man utvärderar cirkulära affärsmodeller är att ta ett livscykelperspektiv på kostnaderna, t.ex. att en kund inte bara beaktar inköpspris utan alla kostnader att införskaffa, inneha, hantera och avyttra sina möbler. Dessa kostnader kommer att påverka om affärsmodellen är lönsam eller inte för de olika aktörerna. Här saknas dock ofta data när det gäller indirekta kostnader och hanteringskostnader.

Det är troligt att de största miljöeffekterna av cirkulära affärsmodeller kommer av ändrade beteenden kring möbler och möbelköp på sikt - såsom nya kundgrupper för möbler med lång livslängd - samt inspirationseffekt till andra branscher hur cirkulära affärsmodeller kan genomföras i praktiken.

För att beräkna eller bedöma hållbarheteffekter krävs en mängd data och metodmässiga val. För att miljö- och hållbarhetsanalyser ska kunna användas mer utbrett i möbelbranschen inom tex marknadskommunikation, upphandling eller som underlag för styrmedel, behöver branschen komma överens om gemensamma riktlinjer för hur man ska beräkna och kommunicera effekterna av cirkularitet.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: , 2017
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2017:32
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32998 (URN)
Projects
Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2018-01-05 Created: 2018-01-05 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Rex, E., Fernqvist, N., Ryding, S.-O., Hallberg, K., Ringström, E., Landström, L., . . . Hallén Jorquera, R. (2017). Tailored for decision – Knowing your target group prior to adaptation. In: : . Paper presented at Life Cycle Management 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailored for decision – Knowing your target group prior to adaptation
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Life cycle thinking is but one perspective - if at all considered -, in everyday business decisions throughout the organization; in the selection of suppliers, in the strategy of new product ranges, and, in what information is chosen to be highlighted to the customers. Tradeoffs are constantly made between e.g. environment, quality, price and other company goals. Before any successful adaptation and visualization of life cycle information, it is important for internal life cycle experts to identify and understand how other functions of the company perceive and value life cycle information in their specific working situations.

To get a better understanding of these internal users of life cycle information, life cycle experts in four multinational companies (Akzo Nobel, Vattenfall, Volvo Cars, Volvo Group) have joined forces with researchers in life cycle management and behavioral science to create a graphical map of how life cycle information is spread and used in different parts of an organization. The aim of the map is to be used as a basis for discussions and recommendations on how to tailor life cycle information in order to support decision making throughout a company.

The map is constructed by combining a) inventories on how quantitative data seeks its way to internal users through databases, reports and KPIs, with b) qualitative interviews on goal framing and decision weights of e.g. environmental and economic information. As a result, the map illustrates both the “physical” flows of life cycle information and the “cognitive logics” of this information for different users (e.g. how values, attitudes and norms influence the target groups’ likelihood of including life cycle information in their decision processes).

Based on the map, each company can identify and discuss who the main users of life cycle information are and what premises for life cycle thinking these users have: In what decision making situation is, or can, life cycle information be used? How is the information understood? What other sources of information and rationales for decisions are used in parallel to, or in conflict with, LCA-results?

Initial analyses on the usefulness of the map point to a better understanding of how life cycle experts can tailor information for decisions in different parts of the company, as well as on its usefulness in illustrating to people outside of the environmental departments the widespread use of life cycle information that already exist in the company. The latter is not least important for creating an understanding in how the organization respond to ongoing external pressure to focus more on a life cycle approach, e.g. new requirements in ISO 14001, new EU Directives on public procurement and current EU work to establish a common LCA methodology.   

Keywords
decision-making, target group, life cycle information, LCT
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33952 (URN)
Conference
Life Cycle Management 2017
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3833-4092

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