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Karlsson, M., Strandqvist, C., Jussi, J., Öberg, O., Petermann, I., Elmlund, L., . . . Wang, Q. (2019). Chemical Sensors Generated on Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene for Application to Front-Line Drug Detection. Sensors, 19(10), Article ID 2214.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical Sensors Generated on Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene for Application to Front-Line Drug Detection
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2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 10, article id 2214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Generation of large areas of graphene possessing high quality and uniformity will be a critical factor if graphene-based devices/sensors are to be commercialized. In this work, epitaxial graphene on a 2" SiC wafer was used to fabricate sensors for the detection of illicit drugs (amphetamine or cocaine). The main target application is on-site forensic detection where there is a high demand for reliable and cost-efficient tools. The sensors were designed and processed with specially configured metal electrodes on the graphene surface by utilizing a series of anchors where the metal contacts are directly connected on the SiC substrate. This has been shown to improve adhesion of the electrodes and decrease the contact resistance. A microfluidic system was constructed to pump solutions over the defined graphene surface that could then act as a sensor area and react with the target drugs. Several prototypic systems were tested where non-covalent interactions were used to localize the sensing components (antibodies) within the measurement cell. The serendipitous discovery of a wavelength-dependent photoactivity for amphetamine and a range of its chemical analogs, however, limited the general application of these prototypic systems. The experimental results reveal that the drug molecules interact with the graphene in a molecule dependent manner based upon a balance of π -stacking interaction of the phenyl ring with graphene (p-doping) and the donation of the amine nitrogens lone pair electrons into the π - π *-system of graphene (n-doping).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NLM (Medline), 2019
Keywords
epitaxial graphene, forensics, illicit drugs, microfluidics, photoactivity, sensors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39057 (URN)10.3390/s19102214 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066874691 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
D'Humières, B., Esmiller, B., Gouy, Y., Steck, E., Quintana, C., Faulkner, G., . . . Thueux, Y. (2017). The C3PO project: A laser communication system concept for small satellites. In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering: . Paper presented at Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXIX, 30 January 2017 through 1 February 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The C3PO project: A laser communication system concept for small satellites
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The satellite market is shifting towards smaller (micro and nanosatellites), lowered mass and increased performance platforms. Nanosatellites and picosatellites have been used for a number of new, innovative and unique payloads and missions. This trend requires new concepts for a reduced size, a better performance/weight ratio and a reduction of onboard power consumption. In this context, disruptive technologies, such as laser-optical communication systems, are opening new possibilities. This paper presents the C3PO1 system, "advanced Concept for laser uplink/ downlink CommuniCation with sPace Objects", and the first results of the development of its key technologies. This project targets the design of a communications system that uses a ground-based laser to illuminate a satellite, and a Modulating Retro-Reflector (MRR) to return a beam of light modulated by data to the ground. This enables a downlink, without a laser source on the satellite. This architecture suits well to small satellite applications so as high data rates are potentially provided with very low board mass. C3PO project aims to achieve data rates of 1Gbit/s between LEO satellites and Earth with a communication payload mass of less than 1kilogram. In this paper, results of the initial experiments and demonstration of the key technologies will be shown.

Series
SPIE Proceedings, Volume 10096, Systems: Designs, Analyses, Measurements II
Keywords
CubeSat, Free space optics, Ground station, Laser communication, Microsatellite, Modulating retro-reflector, Communication satellites, Integrated optics, Light modulation, Nanosatellites, Optical links, Orbits, Reflection, Satellites, Ground stations, Micro satellite, Modulating retro reflectors, Optical communication
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29389 (URN)10.1117/12.2254046 (DOI)2-s2.0-85016947334 (Scopus ID)9781510606333 (ISBN)
Conference
Free-Space Laser Communication and Atmospheric Propagation XXIX, 30 January 2017 through 1 February 2017
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5966-0204

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