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Ylmen, P., Peñaloza, D. & Mjörnell, K. (2019). Life Cycle Assessment of an Office Building Based on Site-Specific Data. Energies, 12(13), Article ID 2588.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment of an Office Building Based on Site-Specific Data
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an established method to assess the various environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a building. The goal of this project was to calculate the environmental releases for a whole office building and investigate the contribution in terms of environmental impact for different parts of the building, as well as the impact from different stages of the life cycle. The construction process was followed up during production and the contractors provided real-time data on the input required in terms of building products, transport, machinery, energy use, etc. The results are presented for five environmental impact categories and, as expected, materials that constitute the main mass of the building and the energy used during operation contribute the largest share of environmental impact. It is usually difficult to evaluate the environmental impact of the materials in technical installations due to the lack of data. However, in this study, the data were provided by the contractors directly involved in the construction and can, therefore, be considered highly reliable. The results show that materials for installations have a significant environmental impact for four of the environmental impact categories studied, which is a noteworthy finding.

Keywords
life cycle assessment (LCA), building, office, technical installations, HVAC, livscykelanalys (LCA), byggnad, kontor, tekniska installationer, VVS
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39329 (URN)10.3390/en12132588 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 37512-2SBUF - Sveriges Byggindustriers Utvecklingsfond, 13399Vinnova, 2015-05852
Available from: 2019-07-05 Created: 2019-07-05 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Peñaloza, D., Røyne, F., Sandin, G., Svanström, M. & Erlandsson, M. (2019). The influence of system boundaries and baseline in climate impact assessment of forest products. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 24(1), 160-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of system boundaries and baseline in climate impact assessment of forest products
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2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 160-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This article aims to explore how different assumptions about system boundaries and setting of baselines for forest growth affect the outcome of climate impact assessments of forest products using life cycle assessment (LCA), regarding the potential for climate impact mitigation from replacing non-forest benchmarks. This article attempts to explore how several assumptions interact and influence results for different products with different service life lengths. Methods: Four products made from forest biomass were analysed and compared to non-forest benchmarks using dynamic LCA with time horizons between 0 and 300 years. The studied products have different service lives: butanol automotive fuel (0 years), viscose textile fibres (2 years), a cross-laminated timber building structure (50 years) and methanol used to produce short-lived (0 years) and long-lived (20 years) products. Five calculation setups were tested featuring different assumptions about how to account for the carbon uptake during forest growth or regrowth. These assumptions relate to the timing of the uptake (before or after harvest), the spatial system boundaries (national, landscape or single stand) and the land-use baseline (zero baseline or natural regeneration). Results and discussion: The implications of using different assumptions depend on the type of product. The choice of time horizon for dynamic LCA and the timing of forest carbon uptake are important for all products, especially long-lived ones where end-of-life biogenic emissions take place in the relatively distant future. The choice of time horizon is less influential when using landscape- or national-level system boundaries than when using stand-level system boundaries and has greater influence on the results for long-lived products. Short-lived products perform worse than their benchmarks with short time horizons whatever spatial system boundaries are chosen, while long-lived products outperform their benchmarks with all methods tested. The approach and data used to model the forest carbon uptake can significantly influence the outcome of the assessment for all products. Conclusions: The choices of spatial system boundaries, temporal system boundaries and land-use baseline have a large influence on the results, and this influence decreases for longer time horizons. Short-lived products are more sensitive to the choice of time horizon than long-lived products. Recommendations are given for LCA practitioners: to be aware of the influence of method choice when carrying out studies, to use case-specific data (for the forest growth) and to communicate clearly how results can be used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2019
Keywords
Biogenic carbon, Carbon footprint, Carbon storage, Dynamic LCA, Timing of emissions, Wood-based product
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34296 (URN)10.1007/s11367-018-1495-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85049570565 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Peñaloza, D., Erlandsson, M. & Pousette, A. (2018). Climate impacts from road bridges: effects of introducing concrete carbonation and biogenic carbon storage in wood. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 14(1), 56-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate impacts from road bridges: effects of introducing concrete carbonation and biogenic carbon storage in wood
2018 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The construction sector faces the challenge of mitigating climate change with urgency. Life cycle assessment (LCA), a widely used tool to assess the climate impacts of buildings, is seldom used for bridges. Material-specific phenomena such as concrete carbonation and biogenic carbon storage are usually unaccounted for when assessing the climate impacts from infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to explore the effects these phenomena could have on climate impact assessment of road bridges and comparisons between bridge designs. For this, a case study is used of two functionally equivalent design alternatives for a small road bridge in Sweden. Dynamic LCA is used to calculate the effects of biogenic carbon storage, while the Lagerblad method and literature values are used to estimate concrete carbonation. The results show that the climate impact of the bridge is influenced by both phenomena, and that the gap between the impacts from both designs increases if the phenomena are accounted for. The outcome is influenced by the time occurrence assumed for the forest carbon uptake and the end-of-life scenario for the concrete. An equilibrium or 50/50 approach for accounting for the forest carbon uptake is proposed as a middle value compromise to handle this issue. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Keywords
Life cycles, wooden bridges, concrete bridges, environmental engineering, climate change, biogenic carbon storage, concrete carbonation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29760 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2017.1327545 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019192178 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-02 Created: 2017-06-02 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Kurkinen, E.-L., Norén, J., Peñaloza, D., Al-Ayish, N. & During, O. (2018). Energy and climate-efficient construction systems: Environmental assessment of various frame options for buildings in Brf. Viva.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and climate-efficient construction systems: Environmental assessment of various frame options for buildings in Brf. Viva
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the collaborative forum Positive footprint housing® Riksbyggen is building the Viva residential quarter, which is a sustainability project at the very forefront of what is possible with contemporary construction. The idea is that this residential quarter should be fully sustainable in ecological, economic and social terms. Since 2013, a number of pilot studies have been completed under the auspices of the Viva project framework thanks to financing from the Swedish Energy Agency. The various building frame alternatives that have been evaluated are precast concrete, cast in-situ concrete and solid wood, all proposed by leading commercial suppliers. The report includes a specific requirement for equivalent functions during the use phase of the building, B. An interpretation has been provided that investigates the building engineering aspects in detail, as well as an account of the results based on the social community requirements specified in Viva, durability, fire, noise and energy consumption in the Swedish National Board of Building, Planning and Housing building regulations (BBR), plus Riksbyggen’s own requirements, Sweden Green Building Council’s Environmental Building Gold (Miljöbyggnad Guld) and 100-year life cycle. Given that the alternatives have different long-term characteristics (and also that our knowledge of these characteristics itself varies), these functional requirements have been addressed by setting up different scenarios in accordance with the EPD standard EN 15978. Because Riksbyggen has specified a requirement for a 100-year life cycle, we have also opted for an analysis period of 100 years. The results show no significant differences between concrete and timber structures for the same functions during the life cycle, either for climate or for primary energy. The minor differences reported are accordingly less than the degree of uncertainty involved in the study. The available documentation on the composition of the relevant intumescent paint coating on solid wood frames differs from source to source, so it was not possible to fully allow for the significance of this. The LCA has not included functional changes in the building linked to load-bearing characteristics, noise, moisture, health or other problems that may result in increased maintenance and replacement. The concrete houses have been dimensioned for 100 years, for instance, in accordance with tried and tested standards and experience. The solid wood house is not dimensioned in the same way, and this has led to us having to assume various scenarios.

The results also show the following:

• The uncertainties involved in comparing different structures and alternative solutions are very significant. The results are affected by factors such as life cycle, the functional requirements taken into consideration, transportation, design and structural details, etc.

• Variations in the built items and a considerable degree of uncertainty in the assumptions make it difficult to obtain significant results on comparisons. Only actual construction projects with known specific data, declared from a life cycle perspective that takes into account actual building developer requirements and involving different scenarios (best, documented and worst-case) for the user stage can currently be compared.

• In the other hand, comparisons restricted to different concrete structures only, or to different timber structures only, ought to involve a lower degree of uncertainty. These would then provide results that are significant as well as improvement requirements that are relevant.

• There is potential for improving concrete by imposing requirements on the material

• There is potential for improving solid wood frames by developing and guaranteeing well-documented long-term characteristics for all functional requirements.

The LCAs were performed as an iterative process where all parties were given the opportunity to submit their viewpoints and suggestions for changes during the course of the work. This helped ensure that all alternatives have been properly thought through.

Because, during the project, Riksbyggen opted to procure a concrete frame, in the final stage the researchers involved focused on ensuring the procurement process would result in the concrete frame as built meeting the requirements set out above. As things currently stand, the material requirements for the concrete are limited by the production options open to the suppliers, and this is therefore being investigated in the manufacture of precast concrete frames for the Viva cooperative housing association.

Publisher
p. 41
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2015:70 E
Keywords
building systems, climate impact, CLT wood frame, lean concrete frame, sustainable building, LCA, EPD
National Category
Civil Engineering Building Technologies Construction Management Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33945 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Detta är den engelska versionen/översättningen (publicerad 2018) av SP Rapport 2015:70 (publicerad 2015)

This is the english version/translation (published 2018) of SP Rapport 2015:70, (published 2015).

Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Peñaloza, D., Erlandsson, M., Berlin, J., Wålinder, M. & Falk, A. (2018). Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 1025-1035
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 187, p. 1025-1035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A variety of climate mitigation strategies is available to mitigate climate impacts of buildings. Several studies evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies have been performed at the building stock level, but do not consider the technological change in building material manufacturing. The objective of this study is to evaluate the climate mitigation effects of increasing the use of biobased materials in the construction of new residential dwellings in Sweden under future scenarios related to technological change. A model to estimate the climate impact from Swedish new dwellings has been proposed combining official statistics and life cycle assessment data of seven different dwelling typologies. Eight future scenarios for increased use of harvested wood products are explored under different pathways for changes in the market share of typologies and in energy generation. The results show that an increased use of harvested wood products results in lower climate impacts in all scenarios evaluated, but reductions decrease if the use of low-impact concrete expands more rapidly or under optimistic energy scenarios. Results are highly sensitive to the choice of climate impact metric. The Swedish construction sector can only reach maximum climate change mitigation scenarios if the low-impact building typologies are implemented together and rapidly.

Keywords
Biobased materials, Bioeconomy, Building stock, Climate scenarios, Life cycle assessment, Low-carbon buildings, Climate models, Competition, Concrete products, Construction industry, Housing, Life cycle, Wood products, Bio-based materials, Building stocks, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Climate change
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33959 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.285 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047457062 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: EnWoBio 2014-172, Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Ylmen, P., Peñaloza, D. & Schade, J. (2018). Livscykelstudie av kontor med kombinerad betong- och träkonstruktion.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Livscykelstudie av kontor med kombinerad betong- och träkonstruktion
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vasakronan has produced an office building were seven of the floors are mainly made in concrete and two floors are mainly made of wooden materials.  As Vasakronan had little previous experience with wooden construction works they were interested in comparing the different production methods from an environmental and economic perspective.

The main purpose of the project was to analyze the long-term environmental impact of different building methods with alternative design and production as well as material choice and on-site systems. A secondary purpose was to assess the economic consequences of different construction solutions. The goals were to:

  • provide advice and suggestions on how different material choice, construction solutions and assembly methods can be used from their environmental and economic properties.
  • find environmental hot-spots in the building process.
  • contribute with knowledge and experience to develop methods regarding life cycle assessment (LCA) and calculation of life cycle cost (LCC) for building projects. 
  • compare differences between constructions in concrete and wood.

An LCA was carried out on the whole building and LCA and LCC calculation were conducted to compare the environmental impact and cost of concrete and wooden constructions.  The results include global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, stratospheric ozone depletion potential, photooxidants creation potential and present costs. The data were collected by the contractors during production to ensure that the results are based on the finished building and not assumptions made during the design stage.

The report shows the difficulties that arise during life cycle studies of buildings but also provides guidance how to solve them in this particular case, which can be used as a base for continued development of methods.

Publisher
p. 59
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:76
Keywords
Life cycle assessment, LCA, LCC, building, office, Livscykelanalys, LCA, Livscykelkostnadsberäkningar, LCC, byggnad, kontor
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36669 (URN)978-91-88907-26-4 (ISBN)
Projects
Framtidens Biobaserade Byggande och Boende
Note

Ändringar: Rapporten publicerad 2018-12-21. Rapporten/fulltexten reviderad 2019-04-04 med följande ändringar:Rapporten har uppdaterats fr o m 2019-04-04 efter att beräkningarna för miljöpåverkan korrigerats, vilket främst påverkade resultaten för ODP och POCP. Påverkan på resultaten har justerats i resultat- och diskussionsdelarna av rapporten.

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Peñaloza, D. (2017). The role of biobased building materials in the climate impacts of construction: Effects of increased use of biobased materials in the Swedish building sector. Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of biobased building materials in the climate impacts of construction: Effects of increased use of biobased materials in the Swedish building sector
2017 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A significant share of the global climate change impacts can be attributed to the construction sector. One mitigation strategy is increasing the use of biobased materials. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to demonstrate the benefits of this, but forest complexities create uncertainty due to omission of key aspects. This aim of this thesis is to enhance understanding of the effects of increasing use of biobased materials in climate change mitigation of construction works with a life cycle perspective. Non-traditional LCA methodology aspects were identified and the climate impact effects of increasing the use of biobased materials while accounting for these was studied. The method applied was dynamic LCA combined with forest carbon data under multi-approach scenarios. Diverse case studies (a building, a small road bridge and the Swedish building stock) were used. Most scenarios result in impact reductions from increasing the use of biobased materials in construction. The inclusion of non-traditional aspects affected the results, but not this outcome. Results show that the climate mitigation potential is maximized by simultaneously implementing other strategies (such as increased use of low-impact concrete). Biobased building materials should not be generalised as climate neutral because it depends on case-sensitive factors. Some of these factors depend on the modelling of the forest system (timing of tree growth, spatial level approach, forest land use baseline) or LCA modelling parameters (choice of the time horizon, end-of-life assumptions, service life). To decrease uncertainty, it is recommended to use at least one metric that allows assessment of emissions based on their timing and to use long-term time horizons. Practitioners should clearly state if and how non-traditional aspects are handled, and study several methodological settings. Technological changes should be accounted for when studying long-term climate impacts of building stocks.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017
Keywords
LCA, timber buildings, timber bridges, biobased building materials, dynamic LCA, climate change mitigation, building stock, scenario analysis, biogenic carbon, Environmental Engineering, Naturresursteknik
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29950 (URN)978-91-7729-418-4 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary; 2017:02; QC 20170517; 2017-05-17T11:23:41.967+02:00

Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Røyne, F., Peñaloza, D., Sandin, G., Berlin, J. & Svanström, M. (2016). Climate impact assessment in life cycle assessments of forest products: Implications of method choice for results and decision-making. Journal of Cleaner Production, 116, 90-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate impact assessment in life cycle assessments of forest products: Implications of method choice for results and decision-making
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 116, p. 90-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As life cycle assessments are often conducted to provide decision support, it is important that impact assessment methodology is consistent with the intended decision context. The currently most used climate impact assessment metric, the global warming potential, and how it is applied in life cycle assessments, has for example been criticised for insufficiently accounting for carbon sequestration, carbon stored in long-lived products and timing of emission. The aim of this study is to evaluate how practitioners assess the climate impact of forest products and the implications of method choice for results and decision-making. To identify current common practices, we reviewed climate impact assessment practices in 101 life cycle assessments of forest products. We then applied identified common practices in case studies comparing the climate impact of a forest-based and a non-forest-based fuel and building, respectively, and compared the outcomes with outcomes of applying alternative, non-established practices. Results indicate that current common practices exclude most of the dynamic features of carbon uptake and storage as well as the climate impact from indirect land use change, aerosols and changed albedo. The case studies demonstrate that the inclusion of such aspects could influence results considerably, both positively and negatively. Ignoring aspects could thus have important implications for the decision support. The product life cycle stages with greatest climate impact reduction potential might not be identified, product comparisons might favour the less preferable product and policy instruments might support the development and use of inefficient climate impact reduction strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Environment, Life cycle assessment, LCA, Environmental assessment, Carbon footprint, Wood, Forest, Carbon model, Forest model, Global warming, Climate change, Carbon, Fuel, Biofuel, Construction, Building, GWP, GWPbio, Climate impact assessment, Decision making, Carbon storage, sequestration, albedo, land use change, LUC, indirect land use change, ILUC, System boundaries, Spatial, Temporal, Time horizon, End of life, Soil disturbance, Aerosol, Concrete, Timber, Dynamic LCA, Literature review
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29994 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.01.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-84992255018 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Peñaloza, D., Erlandsson, M. & Falk, A. (2016). Exploring the climate impact effects of increased use of bio-based materials in buildings. Construction and Building Materials, 125, 219-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the climate impact effects of increased use of bio-based materials in buildings
2016 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 125, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whenever Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to assess the climate impact of buildings, those with high content of biobased materials result with the lowest impact. Traditional approaches to LCA fail to capture aspects such as biogenic carbon exchanges, their timing and the effects from carbon storage. This paper explores a prospective increase of biobased materials in Swedish buildings, using traditional and dynamic LCA to assess the climate impact effects of this increase. Three alternative designs are analysed; one without biobased material content, a CLT building and an alternative timber design with “increased bio”. Different scenario setups explore the sensitivity to key assumptions such as the building's service life, end-of-life scenario, setting of forest sequestration before (growth) or after (regrowth) harvesting and time horizon of the dynamic LCA. Results show that increasing the biobased material content in a building reduces its climate impact when biogenic sequestration and emissions are accounted for using traditional or dynamic LCA in all the scenarios explored. The extent of these reductions is significantly sensitive to the end-of-life scenario assumed, the timing of the forest growth or regrowth and the time horizon of the integrated global warming impact in a dynamic LCA. A time horizon longer than one hundred years is necessary if biogenic flows from forest carbon sequestration and the building's life cycle are accounted for. Further climate impact reductions can be obtained by keeping the biogenic carbon dioxide stored after end-of-life or by extending the building's service life, but the time horizon and impact allocation among different life cycles must be properly addressed.

Keywords
Biogenic carbon dioxide, Climate impact assessment, Dynamic LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, Wood construction, Buildings, Carbon dioxide, Ecodesign, Forestry, Global warming, Wooden construction, Alternative designs, Forest carbon sequestration, Global warming impact, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Traditional approaches, Life cycle
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27596 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.08.041 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Peñaloza, D., Pantze, A., Erlandsson, M. & Pousette, A. (2016). Life cycle assessment of road bridges: Implications from using biobased building. In: SBE16 – International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment: . Paper presented at International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (SBE 16) March 8-11, 2016, Hamburg, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of road bridges: Implications from using biobased building
2016 (English)In: SBE16 – International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-18944 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (SBE 16) March 8-11, 2016, Hamburg, Germany
Available from: 2016-10-27 Created: 2016-10-27 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3140-6823

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