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Papatheocharous, EfiORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5157-8131
Publications (10 of 39) Show all publications
Borg, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Wnuk, K., Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Axelsson, J. (2019). Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions. Information and Software Technology, 112, 18-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions
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2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Component-based software engineering, Decision making, Software architecture, Sourcing, Survey, Decision support systems, Open systems, Software design, Surveying, Surveys, Commercial off-the-shelf softwares, Industry practices, Make-or-buy decisions, Online questionnaire, Software development organizations, Software Evolution, Open source software
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38474 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2019.03.015 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064013176 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling; Funding text 1: The work is partially supported by a research grant for the ORION project (reference number 20140218 ) from The Stiftelsen för Kunskaps- och Kompetensutveckling in Sweden. The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Papatheocharous, E. (2018). Challenges in Software Ecosystems and Product Development. In: Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production Research Report. Paper presented at Dagstuhl Seminar 18182, April 29 – May 2, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges in Software Ecosystems and Product Development
2018 (English)In: Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production Research Report, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The German computer science pioneer Karl Steinbuch in 1966 remarked: “In a few decades time, computers will be inter-woven into almost every industrial product.” The increasing prevalence of software ecosystems and platforms today calls for the ability to augment solutions and support an emerging portfolio of leading technology solutions and trends. It is unquestionable to design or use any software technology without taking into account digitalisation trends the emerging technological innovations (e.g., Big Data, Internet of Things, Systems of Systems) and without considering standing on the shoulders of a multitude of layers of platforms and ecosystems. In our research we investigate efficient ways to organise and carry out product development in software ecosystems with the target to satisfy mutual and conflicting requirements from the involved parties. This led to the formulation of the overall research questions (RQs): RQ1. What are the implications on the business models of the different actors, when moving from a traditional supply chain to a dynamic SECO? RQ2. What are the options for improved design of product architectures to handle the contradictory requirements of openness, flexibility and dependability, and to allow efficient product line management? We identified challenges with respect to 3 categories: a) organizational, b) technical, and c) business and use a schema to conceptualise an ecosystem for Federated Embedded 1 8 1 8 2 182 18182 – Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems Systems encompassing of four layers: actors, business processes, services and components. We described in an explorative case study (based on interviews with 15 senior staff members at 9 companies related to Embedded Systems) our findings mapped according to the Business Model Canvas (BMC) to highlight the interrelated parts and characteristics of the domain. Openness in SECO was evaluated in 7 companies including 8 practitioners taking into account their practices and methods. Moreover, we target efficient and informed architecture formulation through the selection of existing components and services, and fast architectural adaptations which is crucial for companies’ success, with a systematic approach in the decision-making process with respect to components, services and platforms.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37628 (URN)
Conference
Dagstuhl Seminar 18182, April 29 – May 2, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Petersen, K., Badampudi, D., Shah, S., Wnuk, K., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Crnkovic, I. (2018). Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? – A Case Survey. Paper presented at European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2017). IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 44(3), 237-261
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? – A Case Survey
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36347 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2017.2677909 (DOI)2-s2.0-85044103443 (Scopus ID)
Conference
European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2017)
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Sentilles, S., Ciccozzi, F. & Papatheocharous, E. (2018). PROMOpedia: A web-content management-based encyclopedia of software property models. In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering: . Paper presented at 40th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2018, 27 May 2018 through 3 June 2018 (pp. 45-48).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PROMOpedia: A web-content management-based encyclopedia of software property models
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2018, p. 45-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The way software properties are defined, described, and measured, is different across different domains. When addressing these properties, several challenges commonly emerge, among which: synonymity, polysemy, paronymy, incomplete and inconsistent specification. In this paper we introduce PROMOpedia, an online encyclopedia, to tackle these challenges. PROMOpedia uses a web-content management system coupled with crowd-sourcing of scientific contents related to properties and their evaluation methods. The core concepts of PROMOpedia are built upon a property models ontology previously proposed by the authors, and is intended to target the needs of both researchers and practitioners. Website: http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/promopedia/ © 2018 Authors.

Keywords
Knowledge engineering, Websites, Different domains, Evaluation methods, Online encyclopedia, Property models, Scientific content, Software properties, Web content management, Web content management systems, Software engineering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34444 (URN)10.1145/3183440.3183482 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049696107 (Scopus ID)9781450356633 (ISBN)
Conference
40th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2018, 27 May 2018 through 3 June 2018
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-08
Borg, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Wnuk, K., Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Axelsson, J. (2018). Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

Publisher
p. 36
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:71
Keywords
component-based software engineering, sourcing, software architecture, decision making, survey
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36624 (URN)978-91-88907-15-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Orion
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140218
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Frecon, E. & Papatheocharous, E. (2018). Technical Challenges in Designing Systems-of-Systems Supporting Vehicle Fleets. In: Proceedings of the Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems: . Paper presented at SweSoS 2018, Linkoping, Sweden, November 22, 2018 (pp. 6-8).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technical Challenges in Designing Systems-of-Systems Supporting Vehicle Fleets
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems, 2018, p. 6-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Advances in interconnectivity between vehicles, vehicle fleets and infrastructures led to opportunities of interoperability and systems-of-systems (SoS). Several challenges emerge that put on requirements on dealing with the vast amount of data generated by modern vehicles and their actuation with higher-level commands and controls. They have naturally created opportunities for the development of sophisticated, powerful, generic platforms to support ingestion, storage, processing, management, operation and orchestration of data and processes in SoS. A prominent example is the scenario of vehicle fleets and more precisely, on how to engineer the SoS so that the collaboration among various constituent systems will achieve the SoS goals. Several challenges cap the extent of opportunities, such as determining the business and functional requirements, as well as technical: constructing and operating an independent, scalable, and flexible platform ensuring e.g., privacy and accountability. In this work, we discuss these concerns and challenges from a technical perspective.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37635 (URN)
Conference
SweSoS 2018, Linkoping, Sweden, November 22, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Papatheocharous, E., Wnuk, K., Petersen, K., Sentilles, S., Cicchetti, A., Gorschek, T. & Shah, S. M. A. (2018). The GRADE taxonomy for supporting decision-making of asset selection in software-intensive system development. Information and Software Technology, 100, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The GRADE taxonomy for supporting decision-making of asset selection in software-intensive system development
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2018 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 100, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: The development of software-intensive systems includes many decisions involving various stakeholders with often conflicting interests and viewpoints. Objective: Decisions are rarely systematically documented and sporadically explored. This limits the opportunity for learning and improving on important decisions made in the development of software-intensive systems. Method: In this work, we enable support for the systematic documentation of decisions, improve their traceability and contribute to potentially improved decision-making in strategic, tactical and operational contexts. Results: We constructed a taxonomy for documentation supporting decision-making, called GRADE. GRADE was developed in a research project that required composition of a common dedicated language to make feasible the identification of new opportunities for better decision support and evaluation of multiple decision alternatives. The use of the taxonomy has been validated through thirty three decision cases from industry. Conclusion: This paper occupies this important yet greatly unexplored research gap by developing the GRADE taxonomy that serves as a common vocabulary to describe and classify decision-making with respect to architectural assets.

Keywords
Decision-making, Knowledge management, Software engineering, Taxonomy, Decision support systems, Software design, Taxonomies, Classify decision makings, Decision supports, Software intensive systems, Decision making
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34584 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2018.02.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046163169 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 20140218, Knowledge Foundation

Available from: 2018-08-14 Created: 2018-08-14 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Papatheocharous, E., Frecon, E., Kaizer, C., Festl, A. & Stocker, A. (2018). Towards a generic IoT platform for data-driven vehicle services. In: IEEE (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES 2018) (pp. 95-100). , Article ID 8519505.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a generic IoT platform for data-driven vehicle services
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2018 (English)In: / [ed] IEEE, 2018, p. 95-100, article id 8519505Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Advances in the field of engineering have resulted in vehicles becoming a digitised source of data from which scenarios of Quantified Vehicles emerge. Even though the benefits and range of emerging services are ample, several challenges cap the extent of opportunities, such as determining the business benefits, as well as constructing and operating an independent, scalable, and flexible platform ensuring e.g., privacy, accountability. In our work in progress paper, we propose a conceptual architecture of a generic IoT platform for enabling such data-driven services for the vehicle domain, while considering important characteristics, such as data security and privacy, improved service operations, safety and value creation for end-users. We then describe how this platform can be demonstrated, including the vehicle gateway device (Vehicle Data Logger) capturing the vehicle data, to finally enable a set of useful and usable data-driven services for vehicle drivers and other stakeholders.

Keywords
Business benefits, Conceptual architecture, Data security and privacy, Flexible platforms, Service operations, Vehicle drivers, Vehicle service, Work in progress
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36349 (URN)10.1109/ICVES.2018.8519505 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057621361 (Scopus ID)9781538635438 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES 2018)
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Sentilles, S., Papatheocharous, E. & Ciccozzi, F. (2018). What do we know about software security evaluation?: A preliminary study. In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: . Paper presented at 6th International Workshop on Quantitative Approaches to Software Quality, QuASoQ 2018, 4 December 2018 (pp. 44-51). CEUR-WS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What do we know about software security evaluation?: A preliminary study
2018 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2018, p. 44-51Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

—In software development, software quality is nowadays acknowledged to be as important as software functionality and there exists an extensive body-of-knowledge on the topic. Yet, software quality is still marginalized in practice: there is no consensus on what software quality exactly is, how it is achieved and evaluated. This work investigates the state-of-the-art of software quality by focusing on the description of evaluation methods for a subset of software qualities, namely those related to software security. The main finding of this paper is the lack of information regarding fundamental aspects that ought to be specified in an evaluation method description. This work follows up the authors’ previous work on the Property Model Ontology by carrying out a systematic investigation of the state-of-the-art on evaluation methods for software security. Results show that only 25% of the papers studied provide enough information on the security evaluation methods they use in their validation processes, whereas the rest of the papers lack important information about various aspects of the methods (e.g., benchmarking and comparison to other properties, parameters, applicability criteria, assumptions and available implementations). This is a major hinder to their further use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEUR-WS, 2018
Keywords
Property model ontology, Software quality evaluation, Software security, Systematic review, Ontology, Quality control, Software design, Evaluation methods, Method descriptions, Property models, Security evaluation, Software functionality, Computer software selection and evaluation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37313 (URN)2-s2.0-85058662257 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th International Workshop on Quantitative Approaches to Software Quality, QuASoQ 2018, 4 December 2018
Note

 Funding details: Sweden-America Foundation; Funding text 1: Part of the work is also supported by the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work is supported by a research grant for the ORION project (reference number 20140218) from The Knowledge Foundation in Sweden.; Funding text 2: under grant agreement No 737422. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway.

Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Jansen, S., Grunbacher, P., Papatheocharous, E. & Spinellis, D. (2018). Working Group on Health Measurement of Open Source Projects and Ecosystems. In: Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production. Paper presented at Dagstuhl Seminar 18182.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working Group on Health Measurement of Open Source Projects and Ecosystems
2018 (English)In: Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Open source projects and ecosystems can be studied due to the public availability of their data. The main reasons for studying this data is to collect operationalizable metrics that can be used for the improvement of the project or ecosystem. We can for instance use these metrics to do prediction, study adoption rates, and perform scenario modeling. Presently, in literature, the reigning health factors that are acknowledged are Robustness, Productivity, Niche creation. It is also common to look at ecosystem health from two dimensions: the partner/network level versus the system/project level. Each dimension provides a unique perspective on open source health and enables improvement in a different manner: one focuses on the activity within the platform, whereas the other focuses on the activity outside of it. Typically, in open source ecosystem health research the metrics are characterized along several axes: they are evaluated for availability, collectability, generalizability, comparability, user friendliness, etc. Examples of metrics are interactions between developers, clones, branches, and numbers of commits. We also find that metrics that are typically easy to collect are not very meaningful. Also, the need arises for a meaningful compact subset of metrics, instead of throwing the kitchen sink at evaluation projects. Also, we suspect that “typical” developer behaviors can be extracted from the correlations between different metrics. Finally, we find that the goal-question-metric approach is insufficiently employed in the study of the health of ecosystems. One of the bigger challenges in assessing ecosystem health is the myriad of perspectives on ecosystems. For instance, we can look at network health versus economic health. Furthermore, ecosystems themselves are made up of ecosystems, and we need to establish beforehand what the best manner is of decomposing an ecosystem.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37632 (URN)
Conference
Dagstuhl Seminar 18182
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5157-8131

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