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Olsson, T., Wnuk, K. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements. Journal of Systems and Software, 149, 217-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements
2019 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process.

Keywords
Non-functional requirements, Product management, Quality requirements, Requirements engineering, Requirements scope decision, Hardware, Software engineering, Decision process, Empirical studies, External stakeholders, Long term planning, Decision making
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36670 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.12.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058167239 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Sweden-America Foundation; Funding details: Orionin Tutkimussäätiö, 20140218;

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T. & Franke, U. (2019). Introduction to Service Level Agreements.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction to Service Level Agreements
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern industrial production environments are rapidly transforming.Concepts such as smart industry and Industry 4.0 encompass many expectations onhow digital technology can improve industrial plants. Some strands are betteralgorithms for robotics, better situational awareness through ubiquitous RFID,fewer production interruptions through smarter predictive maintenance, and moreagile production lines enabling greater customization of products. Many of theseideas depend on reliable access to IT services such computing power and dataavailability. If these falters, the benefits will not materialize. Therefore,it is crucial to study the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) that are used toregulate such services.

Publisher
p. 12
Series
RISE Rapport
Keywords
Service Level Agreements; Cyber-physical systems; PIMM DMA
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37833 (URN)978-91-88907-49-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T., Runeson, P. & Westerdahl, S. (2019). Open Collaborative Data: a pre-study on an emerging practice.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open Collaborative Data: a pre-study on an emerging practice
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Data intense defined software is becoming more and more prevalent, especially with the advent of machine learning and artificial intelligence. With data intense systems comes both challenges – to continue to collect and maintain quality – and opportunities – open innovation by sharing with others.

To understand challenges and opportunities with ODC, we ran 5 focus groups (4 in Lund and 1 in Kista) with companies and public organizations. We had 27 participants from 22 organizations.

Despite an interest to participate and understanding of the potentials of the subject, the overall maturity is low and ODC is rare. For ODC to be successful, there is a need to study technical, organizational, business, and legal aspects further.

Publisher
p. 17
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:77
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39782 (URN)9789189049062 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T. & Runeson, P. (2019). Open data collaborations: a snapshot of an emerging practice. In: : . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Skövde, Sweden — August 20 - 22, 2019. , Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open data collaborations: a snapshot of an emerging practice
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Data defined software is becoming more and more prevalent, especially with the advent of machine learning and artificial intelligence. With data defined systems come both challenges - to continue to collect and maintain quality data - and opportunities - open innovation by sharing with others. We propose Open Data Collaboration (ODC) to describe pecuniary and non-pecuniary sharing of open data, similar to Open Source Software. To understand challenges and opportunities with ODC, we ran focus groups with 22 companies and organizations. We observed an interest in the subject, but we conclude that the overall maturity is low and ODC is rare.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40578 (URN)10.1145/3306446.3340832 (DOI)
Conference
Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Skövde, Sweden — August 20 - 22, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22
Olsson, T. & Franke, U. (2019). Risks and assets: A qualitative study of a software ecosystem in the mining industry. In: ESEC/FSE 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 27th ACM Joint Meeting European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering: . Paper presented at 27th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, ESEC/FSE 2019, 26 August 2019 through 30 August 2019 (pp. 895-904). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risks and assets: A qualitative study of a software ecosystem in the mining industry
2019 (English)In: ESEC/FSE 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 27th ACM Joint Meeting European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 895-904Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Digitalization and servitization are impacting many domains, including the mining industry. As the equipment becomes connected and technical infrastructure evolves, business models and risk management need to adapt. In this paper, we present a study on how changes in asset and risk distribution are evolving for the actors in a software ecosystem (SECO) and system-of-systems (SoS) around a mining operation. We have performed a survey to understand how Service Level Agreements (SLAs) - a common mechanism for managing risk - are used in other domains. Furthermore, we have performed a focus group study with companies. There is an overall trend in the mining industry to move the investment cost (CAPEX) from the mining operator to the vendors. Hence, the mining operator instead leases the equipment (as operational expense, OPEX) or even acquires a service. This change in business model impacts operation, as knowledge is moved from the mining operator to the suppliers. Furthermore, as the infrastructure becomes more complex, this implies that the mining operator is more and more reliant on the suppliers for the operation and maintenance. As this change is still in an early stage, there is no formalized risk management, e.g. through SLAs, in place. Rather, at present, the companies in the ecosystem rely more on trust and the incentives created by the promise of mutual future benefits of innovation activities. We believe there is a need to better understand how to manage risk in SECO as it is established and evolves. At the same time, in a SECO, the focus is on cooperation and innovation, the companies do not have incentives to address this unless there is an incident. Therefore, industry need, we believe, help in systematically understanding risk and defining quality aspects such as reliability and performance in the new business environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2019
Keywords
Case study, Risk Management, Service Level Agreement, Software ecosystem, Survey, Ecosystems, Investments, Quality of service, Risks, Software engineering, Surveying, Surveys, Systems engineering, Business environments, Formalized risk management, Operation and maintenance, Operational expense, Service level agreement (SLAs), Service Level Agreements, Software ecosystems, Technical infrastructure
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39923 (URN)10.1145/3338906.3340443 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071940101 (Scopus ID)9781450355728 (ISBN)
Conference
27th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, ESEC/FSE 2019, 26 August 2019 through 30 August 2019
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T., Hell, M., Höst, M., Franke, U. & Borg, M. (2019). Sharing of vulnerability information amongcompanies: a survey of Swedish companies. In: : . Paper presented at Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications 2019, August 28-30, 2019 Kallithea, Chalkidiki, Greece.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sharing of vulnerability information amongcompanies: a survey of Swedish companies
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software products are rarely developed from scratch and vulnerabilities in such products might reside in parts that are either open source software or provided by another organization. Hence, the total cybersecurity of a product often depends on cooperation, explicit or implicit, between several organizations. We study the attitudes and practices of companies in software ecosystems towards sharing vulnerability information. Furthermore, we compare these practices to contemporary cybersecurity recommendations. This is performed through a questionnaire-based qualitative survey. The questionnaire is divided into two parts: the providers' perspective and the acquirers' perspective. The results show that companies are willing to share information with each other regarding vulnerabilities. Sharing is not considered to be harmful neither to the cybersecurity nor their business, even though a majority of the respondents consider vulnerability information sensitive. However, the companies, despite being open to sharing, are less inclined to proactively sharing vulnerability information. Furthermore, the providers do not perceive that there is a large interest in vulnerability information from their customers. Hence, the companies' overall attitude to sharing vulnerability information is passive but open. In contrast, contemporary cybersecurity guidelines recommend active disclosure and sharing among actors in an ecosystem.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40577 (URN)
Conference
Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications 2019, August 28-30, 2019 Kallithea, Chalkidiki, Greece
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22
Borg, M., Garousi, V., Mahmoud, A., Olsson, T. & Stalberg, O. (2019). Video Game Development in a Rush: A Survey of the Global Game Jam Participants. IEEE Transactions on Games
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Video Game Development in a Rush: A Survey of the Global Game Jam Participants
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Video game development is a complex endeavor, often involving complex software, large organizations, and aggressive release deadlines. Several studies have reported that periods of “crunch time” are prevalent in the video game industry, but there are few studies on the effects of time pressure. We conducted a survey with participants of the Global Game Jam (GGJ), a 48-hour hackathon. Based on 198 responses, the results suggest that: (1) iterative brainstorming is the most popular method for conceptualizing initial requirements; (2) continuous integration, minimum viable product, scope management, version control, and stand-up meetings are frequently applied development practices; (3) regular communication, internal playtesting, and dynamic and proactive planning are the most common quality assurance activities; and (4) familiarity with agile development has a weak correlation with perception of success in GGJ. We conclude that GGJ teams rely on ad hoc approaches to development and face-to-face communication, and recommend some complementary practices with limited overhead. Furthermore, as our findings are similar to recommendations for software startups, we posit that game jams and the startup scene share contextual similarities. Finally, we discuss the drawbacks of systemic “crunch time” and argue that game jam organizers are in a good position to problematize the phenomenon.

Keywords
Software engineering, game development, game jam, time pressure, opinion survey
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38591 (URN)10.1109/TG.2019.2910248 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Bergman, J., Olsson, T., Johansson, I. & Rassmus-Gröhn, K. (2018). An exploratory study on how internet of things developing companies handle user experience requirements. In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.: . Paper presented at 24th International working conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, 19-22 March, 2018, Utrecht, The Netherlands (pp. 20-36).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study on how internet of things developing companies handle user experience requirements
2018 (English)In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2018, p. 20-36Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[Context and motivation] Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming common throughout everyday lives. However, the interaction is often different from when using e.g. computers and other smart devices. Furthermore, an IoT device is often dependent on several other systems, heavily impacting the user experience (UX). Finally, the domain is changing rapidly and is driven by technological innovation. [Question/problem] In this qualitative study, we explore how companies elicit UX requirements in the context of IoT. A key part of contemporary IoT development is also data-driven approaches. Thus, these are also considered in the study. [Principal idea/results] There is a knowledge gap around data-driven methodologies, there are examples of companies that collect large amount of data but do not always know how to utilize it. Furthermore, many of the companies struggle to handle the larger system context, where their products and the UX they control are only one part of the complete IoT ecosystem. [Contribution] We provide qualitative empirical data from IoT developing companies. Based on our findings, we identify challenges for the companies and areas for future work.

Keywords
Computer software selection and evaluation, Requirements engineering, Technology transfer, Data-driven approach, Empirical data, Exploratory studies, Internet of Things (IOT), Qualitative study, Technological innovation, User experience requirements, User experiences (ux), Internet of things
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34634 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-77243-1_2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85043369317 (Scopus ID)9783319772424 (ISBN)
Conference
24th International working conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, 19-22 March, 2018, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Borg, M., Olsson, T., Franke, U. & Assar, S. (2018). Digitalization of Swedish Government Agencies: A Perspective Through the Lens of a Software Development Census. In: Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society. Paper presented at 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society Gothenburg, Sweden — May 27 - June 03, 2018 (pp. 37-46).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalization of Swedish Government Agencies: A Perspective Through the Lens of a Software Development Census
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society, 2018, p. 37-46Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software engineering is at the core of the digitalization of society. Ill-informed decisions can have major consequences, as made evident in the 2017 government crisis in Sweden, originating in a data breach caused by an outsourcing deal made by the Swedish Transport Agency. Many Government Agencies (GovAgs) in Sweden are rapidly undergoing a digital transition, thus it is important to overview how widespread, and mature, software development is in this part of the public sector. We present a software development census of Swedish GovAgs, complemented by document analysis and a survey. We show that 39.2% of the GovAgs develop software internally, some matching the number of developers in large companies. Our findings suggest that the development largely resembles private sector counterparts, and that established best practices are implemented. Still, we identify improvement potential in the areas of strategic sourcing, openness, collaboration across GovAgs, and quality requirements. The Swedish Government has announced the establishment of a new digitalization agency next year, and our hope is that the software engineering community will contribute its expertise with a clear voice.

Keywords
census, digital government, public sector, software engineering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36443 (URN)10.1145/3183428.3183434 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053889481 (Scopus ID)
Conference
40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society Gothenburg, Sweden — May 27 - June 03, 2018
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Borg, M., Olsson, T., Franke, U. & Assar, S. (2018). Digitalization of Swedish Government Agencies: Detailed Census Description and Analysis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalization of Swedish Government Agencies: Detailed Census Description and Analysis
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Software engineering is at the core of the digitalization of society. Ill-informed decisions can have major consequences, as made evident in the 2017 government crisis in Sweden, originating in a data breach caused by an outsourcing deal made by the Swedish Transport Agency. Many Government Agencies (GovAgs) in Sweden are rapidly undergoing a digital transition, thus it is important to overview how widespread, and mature, software development is in this part of the public sector. We present a software development census of Swedish GovAgs, complemented by document analysis and a survey. We show that 39.2% of the GovAgs develop software internally, some matching the number of developers in large companies. Our findings suggest that the development largely resembles private sector counterparts, and that established best practices are implemented. Still, we identify improvement potential in the areas of strategic sourcing, openness, collaboration across GovAgs, and quality requirements. The Swedish Government has announced the establishment of a new digitalization agency next year, and our hope is that the software engineering community will contribute its expertise with a clear voice.

Publisher
p. 22
Series
SICS Technical Report, ISSN 1100-3154 ; T2018:02
National Category
Information Systems Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33214 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2933-1925

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