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Olsson, L., Lang, L., Bok, G. & Mjörnell, K. (2023). Development of laboratory experiments to determine critical moisture condition of CLT constructions. Journal of Physics, Conference Series, 2654(1), Article ID 012022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of laboratory experiments to determine critical moisture condition of CLT constructions
2023 (English)In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an increased interest in using Cross-laminated timber (CLT) in construction, but many buildings are erected without weather protection, which poses a risk of moisture impact if wood is exposed to precipitation during construction. The construction industry argues that there are no documented critical moisture levels for CLT and no specific test method. In the study, a laboratory test set-up was developed to study mould growth under realistic and controlled climatic conditions after exposure to distilled water and spore suspension. In the experiments, small test specimens of CLT structures were exposed to distilled water for 1 day or 1 week. During the development of the method it was found that exposed for one day and then given the opportunity for open drying did not give rise to mould growth. On the other hand, growth occurred on surfaces that could not dry immediately, for example at connection points. For specimens exposed for one week, mould growth arose regardless of whether the surfaces could dry immediately or not. The conclusions apply primarily to the climates studied. The methodology needs to be further developed, with other scenarios being studied, and calibrated against samples exposed to outdoor air, dust, dirt and rainwater. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2023
Keywords
Moisture; Molds; ’Dry’ [; Cross laminated; Distilled water; Exposed to; Laboratory experiments; Laminated timber; Moisture conditions; Mould growth; Timber construction; Weather protections; Construction industry
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-69246 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/2654/1/012022 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181173951 (Scopus ID)
Note

The main support provided by Smart Housing Småland is gratefully acknowledged. 

Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. (2023). Regntäthet hos prefabricerade betongsandwichväggar-etapp 2: Fältmätningar av tryckskillnad över fasader.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regntäthet hos prefabricerade betongsandwichväggar-etapp 2: Fältmätningar av tryckskillnad över fasader
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I en tidigare genomförd SBUF studie (ID:13651) pekades det på att problem förekommer med vatteninträngning i ytterväggar bestående av betongsandwichelement. Historiskt sett har det förekommit vatteninträngning och även idag uppmärksammas problem med vatteninträngning i nya ytterväggar i varierande utsträckning, med prefabricerade betongsandwichelement. Det finns ingen entydig bild över omfattningen men däremot att det finns problem. Denna studie är en fortsättning av SBUF 13818. SBUF projekt 13818 visade på flera väsentliga avvikelser vid besiktningar och vid laboratorieförsök av fasader med betongsandwichväggar. Det finns ett behov i branschen av att klargöra utformningen av pålitliga lösningar och tätningar. Därför har nu nästa delsteg varit att studera tryckskillnad över verkliga fasader för att få klarhet i om verkliga fasader har en tryckutjämnande funktion och samtidigt få en avstämning om tidigare labbförsök var realistiska. Dessutom dra nytta av den kunskap som finns genom en litteraturinventering. Generellt sett visade utförda fältmätningar exempelvis på betydande tryckskillnader över fasad, 30-40 Pa undertryck i vägg mot ute, även vid relativt låga vindhastigheter på 5-8 m/s. Uppmätta fasader/väggar, var fogade med fogmassa och bottningslist samt TDV-rör/öppningar i fogkryss. Fasaderna kan därför inte anses ha en tryckutjämnande funktion (jämnställning av tryck). Fasader med aktuella TDV-öppningar har förmodligen otillräckligt med öppningar. Detta överensstämmer med de tidigare labbförsöken. Observera att i dessa fältmätningar så har enbart lufttrycksdifferensen över fasad och vägg samt vindhastighet och vindriktning mätts. Fasadernas regntäthet med mera har inte omfattats av dessa fältmätningar. I den internationella litteraturen förespråkas tvåstegstätning med dränering vilket inte förefaller vara så vanligt i Sverige idag. Eventuellt kan tvåstegstätade lösningar med dränering ha blivit misskrediterade i Sverige på grund av olika fel eller brister i utförande. Genomgående framhålls i den nationella och internationella litteraturen att tvåstegstätning ska vara en mer pålitlig och tätare metod än enstegstätning, om tätningar utförs korrekt. Inför fortsatt forskning kan konstateras att det finns ett behov av en guide med goda tätningsprinciper för dagens olika konstruktioner, lösningar och material med dokumenterade egenskaper, funktion och hållbarhet.

Publisher
p. 69
Series
SBUF PROJEKTNR. 14102
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70666 (URN)
Available from: 2024-01-23 Created: 2024-01-23 Last updated: 2024-01-23Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. (2021). CLT construction without weather protection requires extensive moisture control. Journal of Building Physics, 45(1), 5-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CLT construction without weather protection requires extensive moisture control
2021 (English)In: Journal of Building Physics, ISSN 1744-2591, E-ISSN 1744-2583, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 5-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines how cross-laminated timber (CLT) constructions, including joints, connections and attachment points, are affected by precipitation during construction. The case studies are based on moisture content measurements and material sampling as well as microbiological analysis during the structure’s construction stage. The study does not include remediation control. The field measurements show microbiological growth in all buildings and almost all floor structures that were investigated. Of a total of 200 measuring points analysed, half had mould growth and around a third had moderate or extensive growth. The moisture content measurements for one of the locations with the largest percentage of elevated or high moisture content was at the top of the floor structure in the bottom gap between timbers in the CLT top layer. This is one example of several materials or construction components where there is limited possibility of dry out. Based on the outcome, it would appear difficult, or impossible, to avoid the appearance of microbial growth during construction with CLT without weather protection. Previous studies indicate that microbiological analysis of CLT is extremely rare in both laboratory and field studies, which implies that there are obvious shortcomings in the scientific work. The fact that mould growth is often invisible needs to be disseminated, especially in practical studies. However, there seems to be a good level of awareness in the literature that theoretical studies often conduct mould growth risk evaluations. There do not appear to be any moisture safety assembly methods or solutions for CLT construction that do not have weather protection or a declaration of the critical moisture conditions for CLT products. © The Author(s) 2021.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications Ltd, 2021
Keywords
construction, cross-laminated timber, moisture content, Moisture safety, mould, MRD-model, rain, wood, Floors, Moisture determination, Molds, Timber, Construction stages, High moisture contents, Laboratory and field studies, Microbiological analysis, Microbiological growth, Moisture conditions, Moisture content measurement, Weather protections, Moisture control
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53025 (URN)10.1177/1744259121996388 (DOI)2-s2.0-85104254056 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: The author disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The support provided by the SBUF (the Swedish construction industry’s organisation for research and development) is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2021-05-25 Created: 2021-05-25 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Tengberg, C., Olsson, L. & Hagentoft, C.-E. (2021). Risk assessment of joint sealing tape in joints between precast concrete sandwich panels resilient to climate change. Buildings, 11(8), Article ID 343.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk assessment of joint sealing tape in joints between precast concrete sandwich panels resilient to climate change
2021 (English)In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 343Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lately, a new technical solution, pre-compressed joint sealing tapes in precast concrete sandwich panel facades, has been introduced in Sweden. Although the consequences of performance failure can go far beyond the component, affecting the building, the introduction has gained little attention in terms of risk assessment in the literature and in industry. Instead, reference cases are used as verification without formal evaluation, potentially leading to serial failure. The aim of this paper was to provide guidance on how a design–build contractor should handle this new technical solution. A risk assessment framework using a design–build contractor’s perspective was applied to the case. The framework addresses new technical solutions or adaption to new conditions (e.g., climate change) with the aim of preventing serial failures. Moisture conditions within the joints were simulated using present and future climates, and probabilities of failure were assessed using the Monte Carlo method. The results of the study included identified risks of failure associated with the solution and factors influencing the probability of failure. A main issue was the exposure of the facade to driving rain but also run-off areas and imperfections in the application of the joint sealing tape. Future climate changes affect performance negatively. In conclusion, the new technical solution might be possible to use if draining potential is ensured in all detailed designs and a set of recommendations, including full-scale testing, is provided for the design–build contractor. © 2021 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
Climate change, Driving rain, Joint sealing tape, Moisture safety, New technical solutions, Precast concrete, Risk assessment
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56698 (URN)10.3390/buildings11080343 (DOI)2-s2.0-85113737036 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 13535, 13818; Funding text 1: Funding: The work is partly funded by SBUF, the Swedish Construction industry’s organization for research and development: grant number 13535 and 13818.

Available from: 2021-10-07 Created: 2021-10-07 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Hagentoft, C.-E. & Olsson, L. (2021). Stochastic simulation of rain intrusion through small defects due to water rivulet overpressure. Introducing a driving rain leakage potential. In: 'Journal of Physics: Conference Series : . Paper presented at 8th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2021, 25 August 2021 through 27 August 2021. IOP Publishing Ltd, 2069(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stochastic simulation of rain intrusion through small defects due to water rivulet overpressure. Introducing a driving rain leakage potential
2021 (English)In: 'Journal of Physics: Conference Series , IOP Publishing Ltd , 2021, Vol. 2069, no 1Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a need of upgrading the old building stock with respect to the thermal insulation of the building envelope and specifically the façades. There are several systems on the market, and some are quite new and innovative. To bring down the cost some of the systems many are based on prefabricated moisture tight insulated units. This means that in case there is moisture tight barrier on the interior side, two moisture tight barriers surround the wall structure. The leakage of driving rain into the structure then represents a major threat to the durability of these systems. This paper investigates the pressure build up in water rivulets running down a façade acting together with the wind pressure. A driving rain leakage potential is introduced. Using real weather data years and Monte Carlo Simulations, the mean and standard deviation of the annual leakage through small hole is estimated. The examples show that the leakage can reach a level 0-0.5 liter/year for a hole with a diameter of 1-2 mm, and 0.5-3 liter/year for a diameter of 3-4 mm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Intelligent systems, Monte Carlo methods, Rain, Stochastic models, Stochastic systems, Structural dynamics, Thermal insulation, Wind effects, %moisture, Building envelopes, Building stocks, Driving rain, Old buildings, Overpressure, Pressure build up, Stochastic simulations, Wall structure, Water rivulets, Moisture
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57500 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/2069/1/012052 (DOI)2-s2.0-85121464106 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2021, 25 August 2021 through 27 August 2021
Available from: 2021-12-30 Created: 2021-12-30 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Airaksinen, M., Olsson, L., Kurnitski, J. & Hvidberg, S. (2020). Highly insulated crawl spaces with controlled minimal ventilation - Proof of concept by field measurements. In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020.: . Paper presented at 12th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB 2020, 6 September 2020 through 9 September 2020. EDP Sciences, Article ID 07004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly insulated crawl spaces with controlled minimal ventilation - Proof of concept by field measurements
2020 (English)In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020., EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 07004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In current practices crawl spaces are typically ventilated with outdoor air. This leads very often to high relative humidity especially in the beginning of the summer, which can be problematic if the excess humidity cannot be ventilated efficiently enough. This paper introduces a crawl space concept where the crawl space is highly insulated and traditional ventilation openings are replaced by minimal mechanical exhaust ventilation set by pressure difference with the aim to prevent potential pollutants to penetrate indoors through the base floor. The concept that has been developed based on the simulation study is tested in this study with field measurements in four single family houses. Continuous measurements of relative humidity and temperature in crawl spaces and outdoor air were running more than one year in each building. The results revealed that all the crawl spaces had very low relative humidity, mostly below 75% and for very short periods close to 80% even though some of the buildings were new and construction phase moisture was drying out. The results revealed that the crawl space concept studied provided an ultimate moisture safety and can be recommended for all buildings with wooden floor. © The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2020
Keywords
Buildings, Moisture, Ventilation, Continuous measurements, High relative humidities, Low relative humidities, Mechanical exhausts, Pressure differences, Relative humidity and temperatures, Single-family house, Ventilation openings, Ventilation exhausts
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45624 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/202017207004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85088460375 (Scopus ID)
Conference
12th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB 2020, 6 September 2020 through 9 September 2020
Note

Funding details: 2014-2020.4.01.15-0016; Funding details: European Regional Development Fund, FEDER; Funding text 1: This research is based on measurements conducted by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden (former SP) funded by Isolergrund, which are greatly acknowledged. This research was supported by the Finnish Association of Civil Engineers RIL and Estonian Centre of Excellence in Zero Energy and Resource Efficient Smart Buildings and Districts, ZEBE (grant No. 2014-2020.4.01.15-0016 funded by the European Regional Development Fund).

Available from: 2020-08-18 Created: 2020-08-18 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. (2020). Moisture safety in CLT construction without weather protection - Case studies, literature review and interviews. In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020.: . Paper presented at 12th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB 2020, 6 September 2020 through 9 September 2020. EDP Sciences, Article ID 10001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moisture safety in CLT construction without weather protection - Case studies, literature review and interviews
2020 (English)In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020., EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 10001Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This project aims to expand understanding of how cross-laminated timber (CLT) constructions, including joints, connections and attachment points, are impacted by precipitation during construction. The project's case studies have been based on measurements of moisture contents and material sampling as well as microbiological analysis during the construction stage of the structure. The study does not include control of remediation. A literature review and interviews with seven individuals also were conducted. The results are based on two case studies with a total of four buildings. The field measurements show microbiological growth in all buildings and essentially on all investigated floor structures. Of a total of 200 analysed measuring points, half had some growth and about a third had moderate or extensive growth. Based on the outcome, it seems difficult or impossible to avoid the appearance of microbial growth during construction with CLT without weather protection. The literature review shows that microbiological analysis of CLT is extremely rare in both laboratory and field studies, which indicates that there are obvious shortcomings in the scientific work in practical studies. However, there seems to be good awareness in the literature that theoretical studies often conduct mould growth risk evaluations. In the survey, half of those interviewed believed that remediation was needed only in the case of growth visible to the naked eye. There appear to be no moisture safety assembly methods or solutions for CLT construction without weather protection or declaration of the critical moisture conditions for CLT products. As a result, it is recommended that weather protection is used, preferably complete weather protection. © The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2020
Keywords
Safety engineering, Attachment points, Construction stages, Laboratory and field studies, Literature reviews, Microbiological analysis, Microbiological growth, Moisture conditions, Weather protections, Moisture
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45622 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/202017210001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85088454862 (Scopus ID)
Conference
12th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB 2020, 6 September 2020 through 9 September 2020
Note

Funding text 1: The support from SBUF (the Swedish construction industry’s organization for research and development) is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2020-08-18 Created: 2020-08-18 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. (2019). FUKTSÄKERHET VID KL-TRÄBYGGANDE UTAN VÄDERSKYDD: Fallstudie, fältmätningar och intervjuer.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FUKTSÄKERHET VID KL-TRÄBYGGANDE UTAN VÄDERSKYDD: Fallstudie, fältmätningar och intervjuer
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Resultaten är baserade på två fallstudier med totalt fyra byggnader. Fältmätningarna uppvisar mikrobiologisk påväxt i samtliga objekt och i princip på alla undersökta våningsplan. Av totalt 200 analyserade mätpunkter hade hälften sparsam påväxt och ungefär en tredjedel hade måttlig-riklig påväxt.

Baserat på utfallet så förefaller det vara svårt eller omöjligt att undvika uppkomst av mikrobiell påväxt under byggnation med KL-trä utan väderskydd utifrån vad som framkommit i denna studie. Detta innebar att Boverkets byggregler och AMA Hus 18 inte kunde uppfyllas i första läget. Därefter ska omfattande saneringsarbete ha gjorts i alla fyra objekten men resultaten av det arbetet har inte inrymts i denna studie. 

Projektets syfte är att öka kunskapen om hur KL-träkonstruktioner inklusive skarvar, anslutningar och infästningspunkter, påverkas vid nederbörd under byggtiden och dess fuktsäkerhet. Detta för att industrin ska kunna avgöra behovet av väderskydd.

Studien är baserad på verkliga mätningar av fuktkvot och materialprovtagning under byggnation samt mikrobiologisk analys. Vidare har en litteraturstudie genomförts samt intervjuer med sju personer med erfarenhet av byggnation med KL-trä utan väderskydd. Resultaten visar att högst andel mögelpåväxt uppkom i håligheter, springor mellan bräder och anslutningar där vatten kan bli stående eller där uttorkningen är begränsad. Det var också vanligt med påväxt på plana ytor där vatten samlats. Mögelpåväxt uppkom även under vintern och senvintern förmodligen på grund av mildväder vilket kan konstateras att KL-trä behöver väderskyddas under alla årstider.

De egna fuktsäkerhetsplanerna har varit svåra att följa för byggentreprenörerna eftersom det visade sig vara praktiskt svårt att täta mot vatten samt att det tog längre tid än planerat att ta bort vattnet med våtdammsugare. I planerna fanns sanering med som en metod men som har fått användas i betydligt större utsträckning än planerat.

Litteraturstudien visar att det är ytterst ovanligt att det görs mikrobiologisk analys av KL-trä, som utsatts för förhöjd fuktighet eller vatten, både i laboratorie- och fältstudier vilket pekar på att det finns uppenbara brister i det vetenskapliga arbetet vid praktiska studier. Däremot anger flera KL-trähandböcker att KL-trä ska skyddas mot fukt och nederbörd. Dessutom anges det i den svenska KL-trähandboken att provtagning och skadekontroll genomförs av ytor som blivit fuktutsatt. Det verkar finnas en okunskap både nationellt och internationellt om hur detektion av mikrobiell påväxt går till i verkligheten eftersom det är ovanligt att det görs vid praktiska studier både i fält och labb. Genom att underlåta analys så går det inte att svara på frågan om påväxt uppkommit eller inte. Däremot verkar det finnas en god kunskap i litteraturen om att trä är fuktkänsligt och att det ofta genomförs mögelsimuleringar vid teoretiska studier.   

I intervjuundersökningen anser hälften att sanering bara behövs vid synlig påväxt. Trots att det gjorts en fuktsäkerhetsprojektering så har det byggts utan väderskydd i de byggprojekt som personerna jobbat med. Förmodligen har sanering funnits med i projekteringen eftersom samtliga har använt sanering som åtgärd. Få känner till att det finns ett krav på kritiskt fukttillstånd av 75 % RF för material och produkter som saknar dokumentation, i Boverkets byggregler.  Det förefaller saknas fuktsäkra montagemetoder eller lösningar för KL-träbyggande utan väderskydd samt deklaration av KL-träprodukters kritiska fukttillstånd.  Därför rekommenderas att använda väderskydd, helst heltäckande väderskydd.

I denna studie har uppföljning av sanering av mögelpåväxt ej ingått.

Publisher
p. 108
Series
SBUF-rapport ; 13548
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-46658 (URN)
Note

Projektet har finansierats av SBUF (huvudfinansiär), RISE och medverkande företag. Skanska sökte projektet och RISE, Lars Olsson har varit projektledare och utförare. Samordning har gjorts med SBUF-projekt 13499 "Väderskydd - en lathund för entreprenören".

Available from: 2020-08-21 Created: 2020-08-21 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Mjörnell, K. & Olsson, L. (2019). Moisture safety of wooden buildings – design, construction and operation. Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering, 24(1), 29-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moisture safety of wooden buildings – design, construction and operation
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2029-9990, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the last decade, building in wood has increased, mainly due to environmental awareness and targets to decrease the carbon footprint originated from the production of building materials. New technologies such as CLT (cross laminated timber) have accelerated the construction of multi-story wooden buildings. The CLT structure has been used both for housing and offices. Due to the extensive size of the buildings and relatively fast assembly of the buildings, weather protection has not always been used. It is commonly known that building materials sensitive to moisture need to be protected against high moisture conditions and water during construction. If this is not done, there is an increased risk of microbial growth which can result in health problems for future users of the building, extensive costs for the remediation and exchange of materials, but also lack of trust in the construction industry. There are disagreements between the building industry and researchers how sensitive wooden buildings are to exposure to high moisture levels and water during storage at sites and construction. Based on results from several research projects studying moisture conditions both in the laboratory and in the field, recommendations for procurement, storage and handling of wood during construction to assure moisture safety are suggested in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kauno Technologijos Universitetas, 2019
Keywords
CLT, Guidance, Massive wooden buildings, Moisture safety, Mould growth
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39928 (URN)10.5755/j01.sace.24.1.22341 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071775890 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Olsson, L. (2018). Rain resistance of façades with façade details: A summary of three field and laboratory studies. Journal of Building Physics, 41(6), 521-532
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rain resistance of façades with façade details: A summary of three field and laboratory studies
2018 (English)In: Journal of Building Physics, ISSN 1744-2591, E-ISSN 1744-2583, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ne of the main functions of the exterior walls and façades is to protect the indoor and the sensitive parts of construction from the outdoor climate. Exposure of driving rain is the most prominent moisture source a wall has to resist. Despite this, there is a lack of information on rain resistance. Field measurements on real-life external walls show that recurrent water leakage under driving rain conditions is observed in five out of seven new-built houses in Sweden, including those with ventilated façades. About a 100 commercial laboratory façade tests, mounted by façade suppliers, and targeted laboratory experiments showed that it is almost impossible to achieve fully tight façade solutions, and keep them sealed. Nearly, all test walls with façade details leaked, almost regardless of façade type and sealing efforts. The results from field and laboratory measurements of rain resistance in new buildings in Sweden show that façades are usually not water-tight and also that very small deficiencies can cause substantial amount of water leakage. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Driving rain, EN 12865, measurements, moisture, rain intrusion, risk assessment, wall, water leakage, window, Laboratories, Leakage (fluid), Measurement, Walls (structural partitions), Windows, Field measurement, Laboratory experiments, Laboratory measurements, Laboratory studies, Rain
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33899 (URN)10.1177/1744259117713265 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046830183 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten

Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4211-4885

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