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Marin, G. & Nygårds, M. (2019). Box compression strength of packages in different climates. In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging. Paper presented at 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 11-14 June, 2019, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Box compression strength of packages in different climates
2019 (English)In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Packages made of five folding box boards made on the same paperboard machinehave been analysed. The paperboards were from the same product series but had different grammage (235, 255, 270, 315, 340 g/m2) and different bending stiffness. Thepaperboards are normally used to make packages, and since the bending stiffnessand grammage varies the packages performance will be different. In this study, twodifferent load cases were defined and Box Compression Tests (BCT) were performedat different levels of relative humidity (30, 50, 70, 90 % RH) and were evaluated as afunction of moisture ratio.The result showed a linear relation between the box compression strength and themoisture ratio. In addition, when the data was normalized with the measurements forthe standard climate (50 % RH) and was evaluated as a function of moisture ratio, theresult indicated that the normalized box compression strength for all the paperboardsand both of the load cases could be expressed as a linear function of moisture, dependent of two constants a and b.Consequently, the study indicates that it is possible to estimate the Box compressionstrength at different climates of a package made of paperboard, by knowing the boxcompression strength for the standard climate (50 % RH and 23 °C) and the constantsa and b.

Keywords
paperboard, moisture, compression strength, mechanical properties, package performance
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39739 (URN)
Conference
29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 11-14 June, 2019, Enschede, The Netherlands
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Srinivasa, P., Nygårds, M., Hagman, A., Pendergraph, S. & Sundström, J. (2019). On the torsion method for measurement of out-of-plane shear properties. In: International Paper Physics Conference 2019: preprint proceedings. Paper presented at International Paper Physics Conference 2019, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 5-8 May 2019; PaperCon 2019 (pp. 8-13). TAPPI Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the torsion method for measurement of out-of-plane shear properties
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2019 (English)In: International Paper Physics Conference 2019: preprint proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2019, p. 8-13Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Torsional loading with combined out-of-plane compressive loading has been studied for its viability in measurement of out-of-plane shear properties. Paperboards of two qualities were evaluated, namely paperboard A, which was a multiply, while paperboard B was a single ply. Both paperboards were produced on commercial paperboard machines. A total of 24 samples were prepared, 12 of each quality, which were tested under four different load levels. Three different out-of-plane compressive load levels were tested in addition to test without compressive load. Results have been presented from the successful tests in terms of torque versus angle of torsion and shear stress versus shear strain plots. It has been demonstrated that the technique was suitable for out-of-plane shear measurements. An order of magnitude agreement in the values of the properties was obtained in the torsional test method and the rigid block shear tests. Results indicated a possible stable post-peak response in shear loading at sample sizes that would provide material properties comparable with that of a homogeneous test. The torsional setup offered benefit of ease of applying out-of-plane axial loads, both in compression and tension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAPPI Press, 2019
Keywords
paperboard, board properties, failure mode analysis, torsion test, shear stress, torque, multiply board
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43252 (URN)
Conference
International Paper Physics Conference 2019, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 5-8 May 2019; PaperCon 2019
Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2020-01-30Bibliographically approved
Nygårds, M., Sjökvist, S., Marin, G. & Sundström, J. (2019). Simulation and experimental verification of a drop test and compression test of a Gable top package. In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging. Paper presented at 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 11-14 June, 2019, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and experimental verification of a drop test and compression test of a Gable top package
2019 (English)In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 A finite element framework has been proposed that can be used to simulateboth empty paperboard packages and package filled with plastic granulates. A Gabletop package was made of a commercial paperboard, and material properties neededin the material model was determined. Two simulations were performed, a drop testand a compression test. By comparison between experimental and numerical results,the deformation mechanisms at impact could be identified and correlated to materialproperties. When the package was filled with granulates different mechanisms wasactivated compared to an empty package. The granulates contribute to bulging ofthe panels, such that the edges became more load bearing compared to the panels.When the edges carried the loads the importance of the out-of-plane properties alsoincreased, and local failure initiation related to delamination was observed. Comparison between experimental and numerical impact forces show that there are still important things to consider in the model generation, e.g. variation of properties withinthe package, which originate both from material property variations and the loadinghistory, e.g. during manufacturing and handling.

Keywords
package, performance test, FEM, finite element modelling, elastic properties, mechanical properties
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39741 (URN)
Conference
29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 11-14 June, 2019, Enschede, The Netherlands
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Nygårds, M., Sjökvist, S., Marin, G. & Sundström, J. (2019). Simulation and experimental verification of a drop test and compression test of a gable top package. Paper presented at 2019/05/08. Packaging technology & science, 32(7), 325-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and experimental verification of a drop test and compression test of a gable top package
2019 (English)In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A finite element framework has been proposed that can be used to simulate both empty paperboard packages and package filled with plastic granulates. A gable top package was made of a commercial paperboard, and material properties needed in the material model were determined. Two simulations were performed, a drop test and a compression test. By comparison between experimental and numerical results, the deformation mechanisms at impact could be identified and correlated to material properties. When the package was filled with granulates, different mechanisms was activated compared with an empty package. The granulates contribute to bulging of the panels, such that the edges became more load bearing compared with the panels. When the edges carried the loads, the importance of the out-of-plane properties also increased, and local failure initiation related to delamination was observed. Comparison between experimental and numerical impact forces shows that there are still important things to consider in the model generation, eg, variation of properties within the package, which originate both from material property variations, and the loading history, eg, during manufacturing and handling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2019
Keywords
elastic-plastic, FEM, mechanical properties, package performance
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38583 (URN)10.1002/pts.2441 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065137914 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019/05/08
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Marin, G., Nygårds, M. & Östlund, S. (2019). Stiffness and strength properties of five paperboards and their moisture dependency. In: International Paper Physics Conference 2019, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 5-8 May 2019: preprint proceedings. Paper presented at International Paper Physics Conference 2019, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 5-8 May 2019; PaperCon 2019 (pp. 14-29). TAPPI Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stiffness and strength properties of five paperboards and their moisture dependency
2019 (English)In: International Paper Physics Conference 2019, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 5-8 May 2019: preprint proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2019, p. 14-29Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research has been undertaken to characterise the in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness and strength properties of paperboards to enable data for use in determining constitutive parameters needed in finite element simulations. Paperboards with different bending stiffness were analysed, using five folding box boards of varying grammage (235, 255, 270, 315 and 340gsm). The stiffness and strength properties were determined at different relative humidity (RH), namely, 20, 50, 70 and 90%. As well as in-plane tensile test and out-of-plane tensile test, the short-span compression test (SCT) was carried out, together with bending stiffness test and double-notch shear test. The results revealed a linear relation between mechanical properties and moisture ratio for each paperboard. When the data were normalised with data for the standard climate (50% RH) and investigated as a function of moisture ratio, it was determined that the normalised mechanical properties for all paperboards coincided along one single line. Thus they could be expressed as a linear function of moisture ratio and two constants. It has been concluded that by knowing the structural properties for the preferred level of RH and the mechanical property for the standard climate, the mechanical properties of a paperboard could be obtained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAPPI Press, 2019
Keywords
folding boxboard, stiffness, strength properties, moisture, test method, finite element method, paperboard
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43253 (URN)
Conference
International Paper Physics Conference 2019, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 5-8 May 2019; PaperCon 2019
Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Upadhyaya, M. & Nygårds, M. (2017). A finite element model to simulate brim forming of paperboard. In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging: . Paper presented at 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 9-12 May, 2017, Lausanne (pp. 395-408).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A finite element model to simulate brim forming of paperboard
2017 (English)In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2017, p. 395-408Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
paper cup, finite element modelling, simulation, shear test
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30296 (URN)
Conference
28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 9-12 May, 2017, Lausanne
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Coffin, D. W. & Nygårds, M. (2017). Creasing and folding. In: 16th Fundamental research symposium: . Paper presented at 16th Fundamental research symposium, Oxford, 3-8 September 2017 (pp. 69-136).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creasing and folding
2017 (English)In: 16th Fundamental research symposium, 2017, p. 69-136Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
paperboard, creasing, folding, converting, paper mechanics, review
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31321 (URN)
Conference
16th Fundamental research symposium, Oxford, 3-8 September 2017
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Hagman, A., Timmermann, B., Nygårds, M., Lundin, A., Barbier, C., Fredlund, M. & Östlund, S. (2017). Experimental and numerical verification of 3D forming. In: 16th Fundamental research symposium: . Paper presented at 16th Fundamental research symposium, Oxford, 3-8 September 2017 (pp. 3-26).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and numerical verification of 3D forming
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2017 (English)In: 16th Fundamental research symposium, 2017, p. 3-26Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
3D-forming, paper, hydro-forming, fibre raw material, beating, strength additive, grammage, softwood, hahrdwood
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31322 (URN)
Conference
16th Fundamental research symposium, Oxford, 3-8 September 2017
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2020-01-30Bibliographically approved
Tryding, J., Marin, G., Nygårds, M., Mäkelä, P. & Ferrari, G. (2017). Experimental and theoretical analysis of in-plane cohesive testing of paperboard. International journal of damage mechanics, 26(6), 895-918
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and theoretical analysis of in-plane cohesive testing of paperboard
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2017 (English)In: International journal of damage mechanics, ISSN 1056-7895, E-ISSN 1530-7921, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 895-918Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In-plane cohesive failure of paperboard was characterized by short-span uniaxial tension tests. Six paperboards’ qualities were experimentally investigated, from which cohesive stress-widening curves were extracted. A fracture energy was defined, expressed in the tensile strength and maximum slope of the cohesive stress-widening relation. Analytical cohesive relations were derived based on the tensile strength and maximum slope, utilizing the Morse potential for diatomic molecules. It was experimentally found that the maximum slope and fracture energy depend on the tensile strength. The ratio of the maximum slope to the elastic modulus (stable length) was shown to be independent of the tensile strength.

Keywords
experiment, paperboard, orthotropic, in-plane direction, cohesive fracture
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30164 (URN)10.1177/1056789516630776 (DOI)2-s2.0-85022070705 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-01 Created: 2017-08-01 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, J.-E. & Nygårds, M. (2017). Loading and deformation of cigarette packages. In: Martine E (Ed.), 28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017: Proceedings. Paper presented at 28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017 held in Lausanne, Switzerland, 9-12 May 2017 (pp. 409).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loading and deformation of cigarette packages
2017 (English)In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017: Proceedings / [ed] Martine E, 2017, p. 409-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research has been undertaken to investigate the deformation properties of cigarette packages subjected to different loads. Numerical simulation enables a hypothetical package produced from a hypothetical paperboard to be tested. A finite element model was implemented in the Abaqus system in order to calculate stresses and strains in the deformed packages. The model behaves as expected up to deformations with limited damage. The calculated initial slopes of the reaction force responses were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measured slopes, although the model had a nonlinear force response that was not found in the experimental data. Incorporating cohesive behaviour into the model would allow the elements to disconnect from each other. Statistical analysis of the couplings between the initial process responses and the material properties of the paperboards revealed that only the initial yield stress parameter significantly affected the slope.

Keywords
cigarette pack, deformation, modelling, package design, packaging paperboard
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32967 (URN)978-2-8399-2120-6 (ISBN)
Conference
28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017 held in Lausanne, Switzerland, 9-12 May 2017
Note

Abstract only

Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9689-5966

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