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Aschemann-Witzel, J., Otterbring, T., de Hooge, I., Normann, A., Rohm, H., Almli, V. & Oostindjer, M. (2020). Consumer associations about other buyers of suboptimal food – And what it means for food waste avoidance actions. Food Quality and Preference, 80, Article ID 103808.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consumer associations about other buyers of suboptimal food – And what it means for food waste avoidance actions
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2020 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 80, article id 103808Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One approach to tackling the imminent sustainability problem of food waste is to sell suboptimal food which otherwise might be wasted. However, understanding how the action of buying price-reduced suboptimal food is influenced by the fact that the consumer purchases it publicly while observed by others is yet unexplored. The present research investigates which associations consumers form when they see other consumers purchasing suboptimal foods. In an online experimental survey, consumers of five European countries checked every word that applied (CATA) from a set of items that described what choosing a food item told them about an acquaintance they met in the store in terms of his or her traits. The food item was optimal or suboptimal, fresh or packaged food, and presented with a communication that either underlined a budget saving benefit or a contribution to avoiding food waste. Results show that consumers of suboptimal products are regarded as economic and thrifty, as well as frugal and environmentally concerned. The associations with consumers of optimal products are more diverse, and include both positive and negative wordings, ranging from successful to fussy and inattentive. Consumers’ own level of environmental concerns and value consciousness explain the degree to which they perceive another consumer to have similar traits, revealing that consumers project their own traits on others. Findings imply that stores offering suboptimal food should present and communicate the items in line with the characteristics of the store's target group, and that suboptimal food choices can trigger positive associations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Association, Communication, Food waste, Identity, Norms, Suboptimal food
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43393 (URN)10.1016/j.foodqual.2019.103808 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073221738 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Normann, A., Röding, M. & Wendin, K. (2019). Sustainable fruit consumption: The influence of color, shape and damage on consumer sensory perception and liking of different apples. Sustainability, 11(17), Article ID 4626.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable fruit consumption: The influence of color, shape and damage on consumer sensory perception and liking of different apples
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, article id 4626Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable food production and consumption are currently key issues. About one third of food produced for human consumption is wasted. In developed countries, consumers are responsible for the largest amount of food waste throughout the supply chain. The unwillingness to purchase and consume suboptimal food products is an important cause of food waste, however, the reasons behind this are still insufficiently studied. Our research addresses the question of how combinations of color, shape and damage of apples influence consumer liking and perceived sensory attributes. In a laboratory study based on factorial design of visual appearance (color, shape and damage varied from optimal to suboptimal) a total of 130 consumers evaluated sensory perception of flavor and texture attributes in apple samples. Liking was also evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in liking between an optimal apple and all apple categories with at least two out of three suboptimal properties. Further, it was a clear trend that the optimal apple was perceived as sweeter, crispier, less bitter, and less earthy than all the other apples by the participating consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. A suboptimal appearance, therefore, had a negative effect on both perception and liking..

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Appearance, Apples, Consumer, Perception, Suboptimality, Malus x domestica
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39919 (URN)10.3390/su11174626 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071963535 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, SLU; Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas, 2014-00051; Funding text 1: Laura Andreea Bolos and Carl-Johan Lagerkvist, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, are acknowledged for their participation in discussions and experimental issues. This research was funded by the Swedish Research Council FORMAS as part of the project Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS), grant number 2014-00051.

Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Aschemann-Witzel, J., Otterbring, T., de Hooge, I. E., Normann, A., Rohm, H., Almli, V. L. & Oostindjer, M. (2019). The who, where and why of choosing suboptimal foods: Consequences for tackling food waste in store. Journal of Cleaner Production, 236, Article ID 117596.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The who, where and why of choosing suboptimal foods: Consequences for tackling food waste in store
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 236, article id 117596Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food stores have begun to tackle food waste at the point of sale. They do so by selling ‘suboptimal’ food before it is wasted, typically with a price reduction. However, efficiency of this food waste avoidance action can be improved by knowing for which product category, which store type, which accompanying communication, and which consumer characteristics this action works best. This study uses an experimental online survey conducted in five North western European countries to investigate the effect of communication appealing to either self- or others-centred motives in either supermarkets or farmers' markets, for packaged and for fresh food. It is found that both messages – communicating budget saving or an emotional appeal - are effective in increasing choice likelihood. Store type affects choice likelihood of suboptimal packaged, while others-centred values and trust in the store affects choice likelihood for suboptimal fresh food. Communication improves quality perception of suboptimal fresh food. Findings imply that fresh suboptimal foods lend themselves more to be promoted with others-centred messages, or to be targeted at consumers with others-centred values. Sales of suboptimal food in the store should be accompanied by communication, and such efforts to tackle food waste in the store should focus on fresh food in particular.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Communication, Food waste, Quality perception, Store type, Suboptimal food, Value orientation, Industrial engineering, Production engineering, European Countries, Online surveys, Price reductions, Product categories, Quality perceptions, Budget control
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42672 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.07.071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068898567 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Maringer, M., Van'T Veer, P., Klepacz, N., Verain, M. C. D., Normann, A., Ekman, S., . . . Geelen, A. (2018). User-documented food consumption data from publicly available apps: An analysis of opportunities and challenges for nutrition research. Nutrition Journal, 17(1), Article ID 59.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-documented food consumption data from publicly available apps: An analysis of opportunities and challenges for nutrition research
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2018 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The need for a better understanding of food consumption behaviour within its behavioural context has sparked the interest of nutrition researchers for user-documented food consumption data collected outside the research context using publicly available nutrition apps. The study aims to characterize the scientific, technical, legal and ethical features of this data in order to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with using this data for nutrition research. Method: A search for apps collecting food consumption data was conducted in October 2016 against UK Google Play and iTunes storefronts. 176 apps were selected based on user ratings and English language support. Publicly available information from the app stores and app-related websites was investigated and relevant data extracted and summarized. Our focus was on characteristics related to scientific relevance, data management and legal and ethical governance of user-documented food consumption data. Results: Food diaries are the most common form of data collection, allowing for multiple inputs including generic food items, packaged products, or images. Standards and procedures for compiling food databases used for estimating energy and nutrient intakes remain largely undisclosed. Food consumption data is interlinked with various types of contextual data related to behavioural motivation, physical activity, health, and fitness. While exchange of data between apps is common practise, the majority of apps lack technical documentation regarding data export. There is a similar lack of documentation regarding the implemented terms of use and privacy policies. While users are usually the owners of their data, vendors are granted irrevocable and royalty free licenses to commercially exploit the data. Conclusion: Due to its magnitude, diversity, and interconnectedness, user-documented food consumption data offers promising opportunities for a better understanding of habitual food consumption behaviour and its determinants. Non-standardized or non-documented food data compilation procedures, data exchange protocols and formats, terms of use and privacy statements, however, limit possibilities to integrate, process and share user-documented food consumption data. An ongoing research effort is required, to keep pace with the technical advancements of food consumption apps, their evolving data networks and the legal and ethical regulations related to protecting app users and their personal data.

Keywords
Contextual data, Data management, Diet apps, Dietary intake assessment, Food consumption data, Legal and ethical governance, Research infrastructure, Technological innovations, User-documented data, article, dietary intake, documentation, English (language), feeding behavior, food intake, human, human experiment, licence, motivation, nutrition, physical activity, privacy
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33967 (URN)10.1186/s12937-018-0366-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048262885 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Rohm, H., Oostindjer, M., Aschemann-Witzel, J., Symmank, C., L Almli, V., de Hooge, I. E., . . . Karantininis, K. (2017). Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction.. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 6(12), Article ID E104.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction.
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2017 (English)In: Foods (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 6, no 12, article id E104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

Keywords
choice behavior, consumer perception, food waste, suboptimal food
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33347 (URN)10.3390/foods6120104 (DOI)29186883 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-03-01 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Aschemann-Witzel, J., de Hooge, I. E., Rohm, H., Normann, A., Bossle, M. B., Grønhøj, A. & Oostindjer, M. (2017). Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 155, 33-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs collaboration between various supply chain actors and sector stakeholders. Although a range of initiatives from various actors already exists internationally, there is still a lack of knowledge on which lessons can be derived from such cases. The current multiple case study provides insights into how to successfully design future actions, by analysing common and distinct key success factors in 26 existing initiatives to reduce consumer-related food waste. The findings reveal that collaboration between stakeholders, timing and sequence of initiatives, competencies that the initiative is built on, and a large scale of operations are key success factors. Success factors are identified for the primary design, for the development and maintenance phase, and for reaching out to consumers. There are three general types of initiatives that differ in their aims and characteristics: information and capacity building, redistribution, and retail and supply chain alteration. The first type focuses most strongly on motivating consumer food waste avoidance behaviour and strengthening consumer abilities, while the second and third focus primarily on altering consumer food choice context, but combine this with aspects of raising awareness. Recommendations are derived for future initiatives which should take inspiration from existing initiatives, especially considering the right partners, competencies involved, timing the start of the initiative right, and aim to soon achieve a large scale.

Keywords
Case study, Consumers, Food waste, Initiatives, Success factors, Supply chain, Environmental impact, Food supply, Sustainable development, Key characteristics, Key success factors, Multiple-case study, Supply chain actors, Supply chains
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30276 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.11.173 (DOI)2-s2.0-85007413949 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Lagerkvist, C. J., Normann, A. & Åström, A. (2017). Product satisfaction in food choice is multiple-reference dependent: Evidence from an in-store non-hypothetical consumer experiment on bread. Food Quality and Preference, 56, 8-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product satisfaction in food choice is multiple-reference dependent: Evidence from an in-store non-hypothetical consumer experiment on bread
2017 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 56, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Consumer behaviour is goal-orientated. In food product research, goals as cognitive constructs have been shown to translate through the product into an evaluation of product attributes and onto actual choice. In relation to food consumer behaviour and food product choice, however, the manner by which goals operate on post-purchase affective states (need fulfilment) has been largely unexplored. This study examined how food product attributes relate to consumer satisfaction and how this association differs along the goal gradient. We posited that goals are translated through the target object (the product) into a satisfaction representation of product attributes of the identified product. Based on tri-reference point (TRP) goal dependency and the Kano approach to satisfaction measurement, we then analysed the product attribute satisfaction that characterised different goal levels using data collected in an in-store, non-hypothetical consumer experiment with a random sample of 229 consumers. The existence of TRP dependence on product attribute satisfaction was strongly supported, indicating that need fulfilment was directed by transitions across goal reference states. Moreover, a lack of direct proportionality between goal valuation and the instrumentality of the product attributes as means to need fulfilment was identified. These results have normative implications for food product development and research in terms of targeting consumer needs.

Keywords
Consumer behaviour, Decision systems, Field experiment, Goals, Multiple reference
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29185 (URN)10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.09.006 (DOI)2-s2.0-84988640370 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
de Hooge, I. E., Oostindjer, M., Aschemann-Witzel, J., Normann, A., Muller Loose, S. & Lengard Almli, V. (2017). This apple is too ugly for me!: Consumer preferences for suboptimal food products in the supermarket and at home. Food Quality and Preference, 56, 80-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>This apple is too ugly for me!: Consumer preferences for suboptimal food products in the supermarket and at home
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2017 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 56, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food waste has received increasing scientific and societal attention during the last decade. One important cause of food waste is thought to be the un-willingness of supply chains and consumers to sell, purchase, and consume suboptimal or imperfect foods. Yet, empirical research on this issue is scarce and contradictory. The current research investigates under which conditions consumers purchase or consume foods that deviate from regular products in terms of appearance standards, date labelling, or damaged packaging, without deviation on the intrinsic quality or safety. An online choice experiment among 4214 consumers from five Northern European countries reveals that consumer preferences for suboptimal products differ depending on whether the consumer is in a supermarket or at home, and depending on the type of sub-optimality. Moreover, consumer choices, discount preferences, and waste behaviors of suboptimal products are influenced by demographics (nationality, age), by personality characteristics (value orientation, commitment to environmental sustainability, and perceived consumer effectiveness in saving the environment), and by individual-waste aspects (perceived food waste of the household, perceived importance of food waste, engaging in shopping/cooking). These findings provide important insights into consumer preferences for suboptimal products, and useful suggestions for supply-chain regulations on suboptimal products.

Keywords
Consumer choice, Food waste, Households, Imperfect foods, Retail, Suboptimal products
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29183 (URN)10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.09.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-84991271487 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 3 April 2017; Article; CODEN: FQPRE

Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Folkeson, B., Fernqvist, N. & Normann, A. (2017). Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Water use with energy-efficient faucets
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the short and long term impacts of domestic hot and cold water use and associated energy use when replacing conventional faucets in 100 apartments with energy efficient faucets labeled with energy class A-B according to the Swedish energy labeling system. The study included a behavioural study to increase the understanding of the users’ perception of the faucets and to investigate the underlying reasons for acceptance of the installed products.

 

The results showed a reduction in domestic hot water use and energy use for domestic hot water of 28 %. No reduction of cold water use could be identified although changes in occupancy of the apartments might have contributed to this result. The savings in hot water use did not diminish over the measurement period.

 

The acceptance of the energy efficient faucets did not increase over time, which was likely due to the lack of feedback on the assumption that the faucets provided the indicated savings. It was also indicated that the perception of the faucets differed between contexts in the home. The acceptance was also found to be linked to factors that could not be isolated from the faucet and its function.

Publisher
p. 34
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2017:50
Keywords
faucets, domestic hot water, energy efficiency, energy labelling, water use, blandare, vatten, varmvattenanvändning, kallvattenanvändning, energimärkning, beteendestudie, mätstudie
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32834 (URN)978-91-88695-15-4 (ISBN)
Projects
Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40807-1
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Aschemann-Witzel, J., de Hooge, I. & Normann, A. (2016). Consumer-Related Food Waste: Role of Food Marketing and Retailers and Potential for Action. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 28(3), 271-285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consumer-Related Food Waste: Role of Food Marketing and Retailers and Potential for Action
2016 (English)In: Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, ISSN 0897-4438, E-ISSN 1528-6983, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 271-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked and that there are opportunities for competitive advantage through corporate social responsibility and a business case for sustainability in the area of food waste.

Keywords
Consumer, CSR, food waste, retail, sustainability
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-139 (URN)10.1080/08974438.2015.1110549 (DOI)2-s2.0-84963799364 (Scopus ID)08974438 (ISSN) (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0408-3910

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