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Williams Portal, N., Flansbjer, M. & Mueller, U. (Eds.). (2018). Analysis of the Flexural Behavior of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Elements Using Optical Measurements. Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Brussels, Belgium, 1–5 July 2018.. MDPI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the Flexural Behavior of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Elements Using Optical Measurements
2018 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich façade elements were developed using Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (TRRPC) along with low density Foamed Concrete (FC) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) continuous connecting devices. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC sandwich element beams to characterize the structural performance, which included the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behavior of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
Reactive Powder Concrete; Textile Reinforced Concrete; Foam Concrete; Glass Fiber
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33930 (URN)10.3390/ICEM18-05221 (DOI)
Conference
18th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Brussels, Belgium, 1–5 July 2018.
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 608950
Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Flansbjer, M., Williams Portal, N., Vennetti, D. & Mueller, U. (2018). Composite Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Façade Elements. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 12(1), Article ID 71.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Façade Elements
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN 1976-0485, E-ISSN 2234-1315, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the EC funded project smart elements for sustainable building envelopes, carbon textile reinforcement was incorporated into reactive powder concrete, namely textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC), to additionally improve the post-cracking behaviour of the cementitious matrix. This high-performance composite material was included as outer and inner façade panels in prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich elements along with low density foamed concrete (FC) and glass fibre reinforced polymer continuous connecting devices. Experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) were applied to characterize the structural performance of the developed sandwich elements. The mechanical behaviour of the individual materials, components and large-scale elements were quantified. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC-FC sandwich element beams to quantify the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on digital image correlation were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behaviour of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels. As for the FEA, the applied modelling approach was found to accurately describe the stiffness of the sandwich elements at lower load levels, while describing the stiffness in a conservative manner after the occurrence of connector failure mechanisms. © 2018, The Author(s).

Keywords
finite element analysis (FEA), foam concrete (FC), four-point bending test, reactive powder concrete (RPC), sandwich elements, textile reinforced concrete (TRC), Bending tests, Cracks, Fiber reinforced plastics, Finite element method, Intelligent buildings, Optical correlation, Reinforced concrete, Sandwich structures, Stiffness, Structural analysis, Textiles, Foam concretes, Reactive powder concrete, Sandwich element, Textile reinforced concretes, Failure (mechanical)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36594 (URN)10.1186/s40069-018-0301-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057099836 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, M., Babaahmadi, A. & Mueller, U. (2018). Exposure experiments in sulfate containing solution, including exposure at low temperature.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure experiments in sulfate containing solution, including exposure at low temperature
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report describes results of an investigation on the sulfate resistance of dual blended binder of mortar and concrete specimens over a period of 1 year. The focus is on showing the importance of the chemistry of the components when discussing sulfate resistance and the relation of that to the hydrate phase assemblage. Moreover the importance of the test method for evaluations is pointed out.

Publisher
p. 30
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:09
Keywords
Cement, Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM), Testing, Sulfate ingress
National Category
Materials Chemistry Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34868 (URN)978-91-88695-44-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, M., Helsing, E., Babaahmadi, A. & Mueller, U. (2018). State-of-the-Art Report on: Material Type, Requirements and Durability aspects of Sprayed Concrete in Tunnels.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>State-of-the-Art Report on: Material Type, Requirements and Durability aspects of Sprayed Concrete in Tunnels
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The report summarizes a state-of-the-art for sprayed concrete applied for ground support in tunnel environments, in Sweden and several European countries, with focus on the components, the mix design and the guidelines and specifications. It focuses also on the addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), where the use, the common practice and the long-term experience vary from country to country. The report presents numerous examples of applications in Sweden and seven other European countries. It also gives an overview about the possible exposure risks and summarizes the relevant durability issues. Along with specifications in international standards and guidelines it also reviews the national requirements in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland.

Publisher
p. 64
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:08
Keywords
sprayed concrete, underground constructions, mix design, applications in Sweden and other countries, requirements in standards, guidelines, durability
National Category
Civil Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34865 (URN)978-91-88695-43-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
Williams Portal, N., Flansbjer, M., Malaga, K. & Mueller, U. (2017). Anchorage of Textile Reinforcement in High-Performance Concrete. In: : . Paper presented at Eleventh High Performance concrete (11th HPC) and the Second Concrete Innovation Conference (2nd CIC,)Tromsø 6-8 March 2017. , Article ID No. 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anchorage of Textile Reinforcement in High-Performance Concrete
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The mechanical properties of textile reinforced high-performance concrete (TRHPC) applied in innovative lightweight sandwich elements has been investigated in the framework of EC supported FP7 project, H-House (Healthier Life with Eco-innovative Components for Housing Constructions). TRHPC offers new possibilities for architects and engineers to create thinner and more durable concrete façade elements. Textile reinforcement grids are typically woven from non-metallic rovings usually consisting of continuous glass, rock or carbon fibres. The most promising performing textile reinforcement alternative in terms of mechanical and durability performance consists of carbon fibres. Carbon fibres do however have an inherent smooth surface which is unfavourable concerning its bond to the cement paste, which is often improved by polymer-based coatings. The bond behaviour, being a critical design parameter, should be investigated for TRHPC in order to understand limitations regarding required anchorage lengths for use in applications such as façade elements. The aim of this study was to quantify and verify the required anchorage length for a selected epoxy impregnated carbon textile reinforced TRHPC combination. To achieve this aim, the bond behaviour, leading to a suitable anchorage length (or overlap), was firstly studied by means of pull-out tests. Thereafter, the ultimate strength of the composite material was measured via uniaxial tensile testing with and without an overlap splice according to the findings from the pull-out tests. Optical measurements during the pull-out tests were performed using a video extensometer technique and by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) for the uniaxial tensile tests. Results indicated that the required anchorage length to yield rupture of the textile reinforcement in pull-out was deemed appropriate as an overlapping length when tested in tension. The combination of these two experimental methods on the composite level was useful for determining the overlapping length required for the TRHPC which could be applied in larger scale applications.

Keywords
Textile reinforced concrete, high-performance concrete, pull-out testing, bond, uniaxial tensile testing
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29214 (URN)
Conference
Eleventh High Performance concrete (11th HPC) and the Second Concrete Innovation Conference (2nd CIC,)Tromsø 6-8 March 2017
Projects
H-House
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 608893
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Appelquist, K., Mueller, U. & Trägårdh, J. (2017). Detection of potential alkali-silica reactivity of aggregates from Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 16th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials EMABM, Book of abstracts, Les Diablerets, Switzerland, May 14-17, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of potential alkali-silica reactivity of aggregates from Sweden
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33273 (URN)
Conference
16th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials EMABM, Book of abstracts, Les Diablerets, Switzerland, May 14-17, 2017
Note

Extended abstract (3-4 pp.)

Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Williams Portal, N., Flansbjer, M. & Mueller, U. (2017). Experimental Study on Anchorage in Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete. Nordic Concrete Research, 57(2), 73-88, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Study on Anchorage in Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete
2017 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 73-88, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The EC funded project SESBE (Smart Elements for Sustainable Building Envelopes) focused on utilizing new types of cementitious materials for reducing the mass and thickness of façade elements while increasing their thermal performance. A method enabling the quantification and verification of the required anchorage length for a given textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC) is presented. At the material level, tensile tests were conducted to determine the tensile properties of the reinforcement. Pull-out tests were applied to quantify the required anchorage length, while uniaxial tensile tests were performed to quantify the ultimate strength and verify the suitability of the anchorage length at the composite level. The combination of these methods was deemed useful to determine the overlapping length required for larger scale façade applications.

Keywords
reactive powder concrete, textile reinforcement, anchorage, testing
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32827 (URN)
Projects
SESBE(Smart Elements for Sustainable Building Envelopes)
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Mueller, U., Lundgren, M. & Babaahmadi, A. (2017). Hydration of concrete binders blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and metakaolin.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydration of concrete binders blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and metakaolin
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report describes a study on the effects of ground granulated blast furnace slag, low calcium fly ash and metakaolin on the hydration behavior of different binder pastes blended with these SCM. The study investigated early heat development, phase assemblages at different ages, strength gain, changes in porosity and pore sizes, pore water OH-concentration, development of the microstructure and the micro chemistry of the binder pastes.It was shown that all SCM impact the pore size distribution of pastes of different ages. Compared to a reference paste without SCM, SCM containing pastes shift their pore size range to smaller sizes, the more SCM the pastes contain. The total porosity depends on the type of SCM. With slag, there was a tendency to decrease the total porosity with increasing SCM content. With fly ash, total porosity was increased with increasing fly ash content. The strength development of slag and fly ash containing mortars is under that of a Portland cement reference mortar within the first 28 days. However, after 28 d strength gain, in particular with fly ash is considerable compared to the reference. With metakaolin already at early ages a strong increase in strength was observed. After that, the strength development was parallel the one of the reference mortar. Aluminum containing SCM contribute to the formation of AFm phases. AFm phases increase the chloride binding in seawater or deicing salt exposed concretes. In particular metakaolin and fly ash contribute, due to their high alumina content, to the formation of AFm phases but also increase the aluminum content in the C-S-H phases.

Abstract [sv]

Rapporten beskriver en studie om inverkan av tillsatsmaterial (SCM) som mald granulerad masugnslagg, kiselhaltig flygaska och metakaolin på hydratationsförloppet hos cementpastor med sammansatta bindemedel, dvs en blandning av cement och en av dessa SCM.Studien undersökte den tidiga värmeutvecklingen, vilka cementhydratfaser som utvecklas vid olika ålder, hållfasthetsutvecklingen, förändringarna i porositet och porstorlekar, porvattnets OH-koncentration och utvecklingen av mikrostruktur och mikrokemi i cementpastan, beroende bindemedlets sammansättning.Studien visar att samtliga tillsatsmaterial (SCM) påverkar porstorleksfördelningen i cementpastan. Jämfört med en referenspasta med enbart cement, sker i cementpastor med blandcement (cement plus SCM) en ändring mot finare porstorlekar, dvs mindre pordiameter, ju högre andelen SCM i blandningen är. Den totala porositeten beror på vilken typ av SCM som används i blandningen. Slagg visade tendensen att leda till minskad total porositet med ökande slagghalt. Med flygaska ökade däremot den totala porositeten med ökande halt flygaska.Hållfastheten som utvecklas hos bruk med bindemedel med slagg och flygaska är lägre än den hos referensbruk med enbart Portland cement, under de första 28 dygnen. Efter 28 dygn märks däremot en mer markant hållfasthetsutveckling jämfört med referensbruket, i synnerhet hos bruk med flygaska. Med metakaolin noterades en markant ökning av hållfastheten redan under de första dygnen, men hållfasthetsutvecklingen fortsatte därefter i samma takt som (parallellt med) referensbruket.Aluminiumhaltiga SCM leder vid hydratation till bildning av hydratfaser av typen AFm.AFm-faser bidrar till ökad kloridbindning i cementpastan, en fördel för betong som utsätts för t ex havsvatten eller avisningssalter på vintervägar. I synnerhet metakaolin och flygaska, tack vare den höga aluminiumhalten, leder till cementhydrater av typen AFm, samtidigt som de även ökar aluminiumhalten i kalciumsilikathydraten (C-S-H-faser).

Publisher
p. 78
Series
CBI rapport, ISSN 0346-8240 ; 2017:6
Keywords
blended binders, hydration, phase assemblages, slag, fly ash, metakaolin, cement
National Category
Other Materials Engineering Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33622 (URN)978-91-980851-6-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Helsing, E., Parg, L., Mueller, U. & Ellison, T. (2017). Hydrofoberande medel i sprutbetong: Inverkan på egenskaper och beteendet vid sprutning.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrofoberande medel i sprutbetong: Inverkan på egenskaper och beteendet vid sprutning
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Hydrophobic admixtures in sprayed concrete : lnfluence on properties and the behaviour at spraying
Abstract [sv]

Det övergripande målet med projektet är att få fördjupade kunskaper och erfarenheter när det gäller användning av hydrofoberande medel som tillsätts betongmassan i sprutbetong med lågalkaliska bindemedel, med syfte att förbättra sprutbetongens beständighet och brukbarhet. Resultaten från detta projekt bidrar till ökad förståelse för praktiska möjligheter med och begränsningar för hydrofoberande medel som tillsätts betongmassan i sprutbetong, och därmed minskar behovet av kostsamma fältförsök, med ” trial and error”.En stor del av projektet har ägnats åt att studera inverkan av hydrofoberingsmedlen på egenskaperna i det tidiga stadiet, då de är avgörande för den praktiska tillämpningen. Därutöver har inverkan på egenskaper som hållfasthetsutveckling och vidhäftningshållfasthet mätts. Vilken hydrofobicitet som dessa medel ger betongen har också undersökts. Dessa provningar har främst gjorts på pasta, bruk eller betong som gjutits på konventionellt sätt, alltså inte på sprutbetong. Därutöver har provsprutning gjorts med en betong med ett av medlen samt en referens utan hydrofoberingsmedel för att kartlägga beteendet vid sprutning. På prover av den sprutade betongen har vidhäftningshållfastheten, hydrofobiciteten och kloridinträngningen bestämts.Två hydrofoberande medel, Sitren P 750 (E) och Silres BS 1001 (W) har använts, båda baserade på organosilikater. Medel E grundar sig på modifierad siloxan som är anbringad på silikastoft och medel W är en vattenbaserad emulsion av silan/siloxan. De flesta provningarna har utförts dels med ett rent Portlandcement (Degerhamns Anläggningscement från Cementa) och dels ett Portland-flygaskecement (Slite Anläggning FA från Cementa). Båda är sulfatresistenta och lågalkaliska. Provningar med och utan accelerator har utförts.Använda utan accelerator påverkade medel W bindetid och värmeutveckling i betydligt högre grad än medel E. Medel W hade en klart retarderande effekt. Denna effekt kunde dock i hög grad kompenseras genom tillsats av en accelerator. 28-dygnshållfastheten sänktes med båda hydrofoberingsmedlen, mest med medel W, men även i detta fall kompenserades denna effekt till viss del av acceleratorn. Acceleratorn hade inte samma avgörande effekt när medel E användes.Vid provning på gjuten betong var vidhäftningen bättre och mindre spretig (mindre standardavvikelse) med medel W än med medel E. Hydrofobiciteten hos blandningar med de båda medlen vara jämförbar.Provprutningen genomfördes med medel W och accelerator. Med hydrofoberingsmedel erhölls samma konsitens med mindre mängd vatten. Beteendet vid sprutning med medel W var lika bra som eller något bättre än utan. Hydrofoberingsmedlet påverkade inte sprutbetongens vidhäftning. Vattenabsorptionen hos sprutbetongen med hydrofoberingsmedel var c:a 30 % lägre än utan sådant medel, och motståndet mot kloridinträngning ungefär 40 % bättre.

Abstract [en]

The overall goal with this project is to acquire more profound knowledge and experiences as regards the use of hydrophobic agents added to fresh concrete (hydrophobic admixtures) intended for sprayed concrete with low-alkali binders, with the purpose to enhance the durability and serviceability of the sprayed concrete. The results from this project contribute to increased understanding of the practical possibilities with and limitations for hydrophobic admixtures in sprayed concrete. Thus the need for costly field tests, with trial and error can be decreased.A large part of the project has been devoted to study the influence of the hydrophobic admixtures on the properties at an early stage, since these are decisive for the practical application. In addition the influence on strength development and bond have been determined. The hydrophobicity that these admixtures give the concrete has also been investigated. These tests have primarily been carried out on paste, mortar or concrete cast in a traditional way, not on sprayed concrete. Spraying tests have been carried out with one of the hydrophobic admixtures and a reference without admixture in order to study the behaviour at spraying. On samples from the sprayed concrete the bond, hydrophobicity and chloride intrusion have been determined.Two hydrophobic admixtures, Sitren P 750 (E) and Silres BS 1001 (W) have been used, both based on organosilicates. Admixture E consist of a modified siloxan which is attached to silica fume and admixture W is a water based emulsion of silan/siloxan. Most of the tests were carried out on a pure Portland cement (Degerhamns Anläggningscement from Cementa) and on a Portland-fly ash cement (Slite Anläggning FA from Cementa). Both cements are sulphate resistant and have low alkali content. Tests with and without accelerator have been carried out.When used without accelerator admixture W influenced the setting time and the heat development much more than admixture E. Admixture W had a clear retarding effect. It was though possible to compensate for this effect by adding an accelerator. The 28 day strength decreased when both admixtures were used, most with admixture W. But also in this case this effect was to some extent compensated by adding an accelerator. The accelerator did not have a decisive influence when admixture E was used. When the bond was determined on cast concrete admixture W gave higher and less deviating results than admixture E. The hydrophobicity in mixtures with the two admixtures was comparable.The spray test was carried out with admixture W and an accelerator. With the admixture less water was needed to give the same workability. The behaviour at spraying was as good as, or somewhat better, with the hydrophobic admixture compared to the mix without. The hydrophobic admixture did not influence the bond of the sprayed concrete. The water absorption of the sprayed concrete with the hydrophobic admixture was approximately 30 % lower than without, and the resistance to chloride intrusion was approximately 40 % higher.

Publisher
p. 54
Series
CBI rapport, ISSN 0346-8240 ; 2017:5
Keywords
hydrophobic agent, sprayed concrete, shot-crete, water repellant agent, bond
National Category
Civil Engineering Other Materials Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33621 (URN)978-91-980851-5-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Miccoli, L., Mueller, U. & Pospíšil, S. (2017). Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading. Construction and Building Materials, 149, 29-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading
2017 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 149, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the mechanical behaviour under pseudo-dynamic loading of structural elements built in rammed earth and strengthened with polyester fabric strips. This strengthening technique was developed to exploit the strength potential of rammed earth and to solve its lack of tensile strength. For this reason, in-plane cyclic tests were carried out to investigate the shear behaviour of unstrengthened and strengthened walls. The strengthening technique requires low-tech equipment and workmanship, uses readily available, not expensive and industrially standardised materials. The experimental results were analysed in terms of stiffness degradation, energy dissipation capacity and equivalent viscous damping. Although the unstrengthened and strengthened walls confirmed a limited ductile behaviour, the findings confirm that the strengthening contributes to limit the spread of the diagonal cracks and provide an increase of strength in terms of horizontal load and displacement capacity.

Keywords
Polyester fabric strips, Pseudo-dynamic loads, Rammed earth, Shear-compression tests, Strengthening, Compression testing, Cyclic loads, Dynamic loads, Energy dissipation, Strengthening (metal), Tensile strength, Energy dissipation capacities, Equivalent viscous damping, Polyester fabric, Pseudo-dynamics, Stiffness degradation, Strengthening technique, Walls (structural partitions)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30803 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.115 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019367985 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: EC, European Commission; Funding text: This research was funded by the European Commission within the framework of the project NIKER dealing with improving immovable cultural heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes (contract No. 244123). The support of Czech Ministry of Education Youth and Sport via project LO1219 is acknowledged. The authors wish to express their gratitude to Mr. André Gardei, Mr. Shota Urushadze and Dr. Stanislav Hračov for their important support in the test setup and the samples preparation.

Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1904-7426

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