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Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Afanasov, M., Djordjevic, A., Lui, F. & Mottola, L. (2019). Flyzone: A testbed for experimenting with aerial drone applications. In: MobiSys 2019 - Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services: . Paper presented at 17th ACM International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, MobiSys 2019, 17 June 2019 through 21 June 2019 (pp. 67-78). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flyzone: A testbed for experimenting with aerial drone applications
2019 (English)In: MobiSys 2019 - Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 67-78Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

FlyZone is a testbed architecture to experiment with aerial drone applications. Unlike most existing drone testbeds that focus on low-level mechanical control, FlyZone offers a high-level API and features geared towards experimenting with application-level functionality. These include the emulation of environment influences, such as wind, and the automatic monitoring of developer-provided safety constraints, for example, to mimic obstacles. We conceive novel solutions to achieve this functionality, including a hardware/software architecture that maximizes decoupling from the main application and a custom visual localization technique expressly designed for testbed operation. We deploy two instances of FlyZone and study performance and effectiveness. We demonstrate that we realistically emulate the environment influence with a positioning error bound by the size of the smallest drone we test, that our localization technique provides a root mean square error of 9.2cm, and that detection of violations to safety constraints happens with a 50ms worst-case latency. We also report on how FlyZone supported developing three real-world drone applications, and discuss a user study demonstrating the benefits of FlyZone compared to drone simulators. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2019
Keywords
Dependability, Drones, Localization, Testbeds, Aircraft detection, Antennas, Application programming interfaces (API), Mean square error, Safety engineering, Automatic monitoring, Environment influence, Localization technique, Root mean square errors, Visual localization, Worst-case latencies
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40163 (URN)10.1145/3307334.3326106 (DOI)9781450366618 (ISBN)
Conference
17th ACM International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, MobiSys 2019, 17 June 2019 through 21 June 2019
Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Maioli, A., Alizai, M. H., Mottola, L. & Siddiqui, J. H. (2019). On intermittence bugs in the battery-less internet of things (WIP paper). In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES): . Paper presented at 20th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED International Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, LCTES 2019, co-located with PLDI 2019, 23 June 2019 (pp. 203-207). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On intermittence bugs in the battery-less internet of things (WIP paper)
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES), Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 203-207Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The resource-constrained devices of the battery-less Internet of Things are powered off energy harvesting and compute intermittently, as energy is available. Forward progress of programs is ensured by creating persistent state. Mixed-volatile platforms are thus an asset, as they map slices of the address space onto non-volatile memory. However, these platforms also possibly introduce intermittence bugs, where intermittent and continuous executions differ. Our ongoing work on intermittence bugs includes (i) an analysis that demonstrates their presence in settings that current literature overlooks; (ii) the design of efficient testing techniques to check their presence in arbitrary code, which would be otherwise prohibitive given the sheer number of different executions to check; (iii) the implementation of an offline tool called ScEpTIC that implements these techniques. ScEpTIC finds the same bugs as a brute-force approach, but is six orders of magnitude faster. © 2019 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2019
Keywords
Intermittence bugs, Intermittent computing, Mixed-volatile systems, Transiently-powered computing, Digital storage, Electric batteries, Embedded systems, Energy harvesting, Internet of things, Program compilers, Space platforms, Testing, Brute-force approach, Non-volatile memory, Orders of magnitude, Resourceconstrained devices, Testing technique, Program debugging
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40161 (URN)10.1145/3316482.3326346 (DOI)s2.0-85070995506 (Scopus ID)9781450367240 (ISBN)
Conference
20th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED International Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, LCTES 2019, co-located with PLDI 2019, 23 June 2019
Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Izzo, F. A., Aspesi, L., Bellini, A., Pacchiarotti, C., Caimi, F., Persano, G., . . . Maffei, S. (2018). Demo abstract: 64Key - A mesh-based collaborative plaform. In: SenSys 2018 - Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems: . Paper presented at 16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, SENSYS 2018, 4 November 2018 through 7 November 2018 (pp. 422-423). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo abstract: 64Key - A mesh-based collaborative plaform
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2018 (English)In: SenSys 2018 - Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2018, p. 422-423Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present 64Key, a hardware/software platform that enables impromptu sensing, data sharing, collaborative working, and social networking among physically co-located users independently of their own hardware platform, operating system, network stack, and of the availability of Internet access. 64Key caters to those scenarios such as computer labs, large conferences, and emergency situations where the network infrastructure is limited in operation or simply not available, and peer-to-peer interactions are prevented or not possible. By plugging a 64Key device in one’s mobile device USB port, an independent network is created on the fly, which users access from their own device though a web-based interface. In addition to default apps such as chat, file sharing, and collaborative text editing, 64Key’s functionality may be extended through the run-time installation of third-party apps, available at a public app store. We demonstrate our proof-of-concept implementation of 64Key with multiple apps in a set of key scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2018
Keywords
Abstracting, Computer hardware, Distributed computer systems, Embedded systems, Multimedia systems, Collaborative working, Emergency situation, Hardware platform, Hardware/software, Network infrastructure, Peer-to-peer interaction, Proof of concept, Web-based interface, Peer to peer networks
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38616 (URN)10.1145/3274783.3275214 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061754039 (Scopus ID)9781450359528 (ISBN)
Conference
16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, SENSYS 2018, 4 November 2018 through 7 November 2018
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
Mottola, L. & Whitehouse, K. (2018). Fundamental concepts of reactive control for autonomous drones. Communications of the ACM, 61(10), 96-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundamental concepts of reactive control for autonomous drones
2018 (English)In: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 96-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autonomous drones represent a new breed of mobile computing system. Compared to smartphones and connected cars that only opportunistically sense or communicate, drones allow motion control to become part of the application logic. The efficiency of their movements is largely dictated by the low-level control enabling their autonomous operation based on high-level inputs. Existing implementations of such low-level control operate in a timetriggered fashion. In contrast, we conceive a notion of reactive control that allows drones to execute the low-level control logic only upon recognizing the need to, based on the influence of the environment onto the drone operation. As a result, reactive control can dynamically adapt the control rate. This brings fundamental benefits, including more accurate motion control, extended lifetime, and better quality of service in end-user applications. Based on 260+ hours of real-world experiments using three aerial drones, three different control logic, and three hardware platforms, we demonstrate, for example, up to 41% improvements in motion accuracy and up to 22% improvements in flight time.

Keywords
Aircraft control, Antennas, Computation theory, Computer circuits, Drones, Human computer interaction, Level control, Mobile computing, Motion control, Quality of service, Application logic, Autonomous operations, End-user applications, Fundamental concepts, Hardware platform, Low level control, Mobile computing systems, Real world experiment, Quality control
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35979 (URN)10.1145/3264417 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054526339 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Afanasov, M., Iavorskii, A. & Mottola, L. (2018). Programming Support for Time-sensitive Adaptation in Cyberphysical Systems. ACM SIGBED Review, 14(4), 27-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Programming Support for Time-sensitive Adaptation in Cyberphysical Systems
2018 (English)In: ACM SIGBED Review, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cyberphysical systems (CPS) integrate embedded sensors,actuators, and computing elements for controlling physicalprocesses. Due to the intimate interactions with thesurrounding environment, CPS software must continuouslyadapt to changing conditions. Enacting adaptation decisionsis often subject to strict time requirements to ensure controlstability, while CPS software must operate within the tightresource constraints that characterize CPS platforms. Developersare typically left without dedicated programmingsupport to cope with these aspects. This results in either toneglect functional or timing issues that may potentially ariseor to invest significant efforts to implement hand-crafted solutions.We provide programming constructs that allow developersto simplify the specification of adaptive processingand to rely on well-defined time semantics. Our evaluationshows that using these constructs simplifies implementationswhile reducing developers’ effort, at the price of a modestmemory and processing overhead.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34870 (URN)10.1145/3177803.3177808 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Afanasov, M., Mottola, L. & Ghezzi, C. (2018). Software Adaptation in Wireless Sensor Networks. ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, 12(4), 1-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Adaptation in Wireless Sensor Networks
2018 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present design concepts, programming constructs, and automatic verification techniques to support thedevelopment of adaptive Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software. WSNs operate at the interface betweenthe physical world and the computing machine, and are hence exposed to unpredictable environment dynamics.WSN software must adapt to these dynamics to maintain dependable and efficient operation. Whilesignificant literature exists on the necessary adaptation logic, developers are left without proper support inmaterializing such a logic in a running system. Our work fills this gap with three key contributions: i) designconcepts help developers organize the necessary adaptive functionality and understand their relations,ii) dedicated programming constructs simplify the implementations, iii) custom verification techniques allowdevelopers to check the correctness of their design before deployment. We implement dedicated toolsupport to tie the three contributions, facilitating their practical application. Our evaluation considers representativeWSN applications to analyze code metrics, synthetic simulations, and cycle-accurate emulationof popular WSN platforms. The results indicate that our work is effective in simplifying the developmentof adaptive WSN software; for example, implementations are provably easier to test and to maintain, therun-time overhead of our dedicated programming construct is negligible, and our verification techniquesreturn results in a matter of seconds.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34871 (URN)10.1145/3145453 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042523735 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Varshney, A., Soleiman, A., Mottola, L. & Voigt, T. (2017). Battery-free VisibleLight Sensing. In: Proceeding VLCS '17 Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems. Snowbird, Utah, USA — October 16 - 16, 2017: . Paper presented at VLCS '17 Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems. Snowbird, Utah, USA — October 16 - 16, 2017 (pp. 3-8).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-free VisibleLight Sensing
2017 (English)In: Proceeding VLCS '17 Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems. Snowbird, Utah, USA — October 16 - 16, 2017, 2017, p. 3-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the design of the first Visible Light Sensing (VLS) system that consumes only tens of μWs of power to sense and communicate. Unlike most existing VLS systems, we require no modification to the existing light infrastructure since we use unmodulated light as a sensing medium. We achieve this by designing a novel mechanism that uses solar cells to achieve a sub-μW power consumption for sensing. Further, we devise an ultra-low power transmission mechanism that backscatters sensor readings and avoids the processing and computational overhead of existing sensor systems. Our initial results show the ability to detect and transmit hand gestures or presence of people up to distances of 330m at a peak power of μWs. Further, we demonstrate that our system can operate in diverse light conditions (100 lx to 80 klx) where existing VLS designs fail due to saturation of the transimpedance amplifier (TIA).

National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32982 (URN)10.1145/3129881.3129890 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040088366 (Scopus ID)
Conference
VLCS '17 Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems. Snowbird, Utah, USA — October 16 - 16, 2017
Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Stefanizzi, M. L., Mottola, L., Mainetti, L. & Patrono, L. (2017). COIN: Opening the internet of things to people's mobile devices. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(2), 20-26, Article ID A1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>COIN: Opening the internet of things to people's mobile devices
2017 (English)In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 20-26, article id A1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People's interaction with IoT devices such as proximity beacons, body-worn sensors, and controllable light bulbs is often mediated through personal mobile devices. Current approaches usually make applications operate in separate silos, as the functionality of IoT devices is fixed by vendors and typically accessed only through low-level proprietary APIs. This limits the flexibility in designing applications and requires intense wireless interactions, which may impact energy consumption. COIN is a system architecture that breaks this separation by allowing developers to flexibly run a slice of a mobile app's logic onto IoT devices. Mobile apps can dynamically deploy arbitrary tasks implemented as loosely coupled components. The underlying runtime support takes care of the coordination across tasks and of their real-time scheduling. Our prototype indicates that COIN both enables increased flexibility and improves energy efficiency at the IoT device, compared to traditional architectures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Keywords
Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Incandescent lamps, Body-worn sensors, Increased flexibility, Loosely coupled, Personal mobile devices, Real - time scheduling, Runtime support, System architectures, Traditional architecture, Internet of things
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38648 (URN)10.1109/MCOM.2017.1600656CM (DOI)2-s2.0-85011575243 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Michel, M., Voigt, T., Tsiftes, N., Mottola, L. & Quoitin, B. (2016). Predictable MAC-level Performance in Low-power Wireless under Interference (9ed.). In: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks: . Paper presented at International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks (EWSN 2016), February 15-17, 2016, Graz, Austria (pp. 13-22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictable MAC-level Performance in Low-power Wireless under Interference
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, 2016, 9, p. 13-22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Predictable performance is key for many WSN applications. Recent efforts use models of the environment, the employed hardware, and protocols to predict network performance. Towards this end, we present an intentionally simple model of ContikiMAC, Contiki’s default MAC layer, targeting worst-case bounds for packet delivery rate and latency. Our experiments reveal problems in the performance of ContikiMAC, which make the protocol perform much worse than predicted, and hence prohibit predictable performance with the current ContikiMAC implementation. We show that the reason for this performance degradation is that ContikiMAC loses phase-lock. To solve this problem, we add fine-grained timing information into the acknowledgment packets. We show that this mechanism solves these problems and enables predictable performance with ContikiMAC even under high external interference.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24534 (URN)978-0-9949886-0-7 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks (EWSN 2016), February 15-17, 2016, Graz, Austria
Projects
RELYonITE-care@Home
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Baresi, L., Mottola, L. & Dustdar, S. (2015). Building Software for the Internet of Things (9ed.). IEEE Internet Computing, 19(2), 6-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building Software for the Internet of Things
2015 (English)In: IEEE Internet Computing, ISSN 1089-7801, E-ISSN 1941-0131, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 6-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The guest editors present a special issue on building software for the Internet of Things (IoT).

Keywords
Internet of Things, IoT, Internet of People, IoP, Future Internet, Internet/Web technologies, Web of Things, WoT, Big Data
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24500 (URN)10.1109/MIC.2015.31 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4560-9541

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