Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 206) Show all publications
Huang, C., De Grahl, J., Nessvi, K., Lönnermark, A. & Persson, H. (2019). Explosion characteristics of biomass dust: comparisonbetween experimental test results and literature data. In: : . Paper presented at Ninth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (pp. 366-375).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explosion characteristics of biomass dust: comparisonbetween experimental test results and literature data
Show others...
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The design of explosion mitigation strategies e.g. vent design is mainly based on dust explosioncharacteristics such as the maximum explosion pressure XÇïÓ and the deflagration index n! of dustcloud, which are defined in various standards.The wood dust explosion characteristics can be directly obtained by performing standard tests, and testresults are also available in the literature. However, the parameters for one type of dust may varysubstantially in the literature. For example, the n! value for one wood dust is 11.4 times higher thananother wood dust in Gestis-Dust-Ex database. The reason for such large variation in explosionparameters is due to factors such as material properties, particle size distribution, particle shape, moisturecontent, turbulence level during tests and so on.The objectives of this paper are (i) to carry out dust explosion tests for XÇïÓ and n! for two wood dustswith well-described material parameters such as particle size distribution and moisture content accordingto European standards, (ii) to perform statistical analysis of wood dust explosion characteristics includingXÇïÓ and n! in the literature, (iii) to identify the effects of dust material parameters such as particle sizeand moisture contents on XÇïÓ and n! and (iv) to highlight the variation in XÇïÓ and n! and theimportance of obtaining knowledge about these properties of an individual dust, e.g. via dust explosiontests.

Keywords
biomass, wood dust, explosion, explosion overpressure, deflagration index
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38809 (URN)10.18720/spbpu/2/k19-69 (DOI)9785742264965 (ISBN)
Conference
Ninth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-05-17
Lönnermark, A., Persson, H., Hedenstedt, A., Jones, F., Davidsson, K., Johansson, I. & Boström, S. (2019). Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete. Malmö: Avfall sverige
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete
Show others...
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Avfall sverige, 2019. p. 40
Series
Avfall Sverige, ISSN 1103-4092 ; Rapport 2019:16
Keywords
Rekommendationer; avfall; lagring; rutiner; avfallsanläggningar; brandsäkerhet; släckvatten
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39950 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Yao, Y., Li, Y. Z., Lönnermark, A., Ingason, H. & Cheng, X. (2019). Study of tunnel fires during construction using a model scale tunnel. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 89, 50-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of tunnel fires during construction using a model scale tunnel
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 89, p. 50-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper presents a study on the characteristics of tunnel fires during construction. A model-scale tunnel was built and fire tests were conducted. The tunnel consists of an inclined access tunnel and a horizontal main tunnel. The main tunnel has two dead ends (excavation faces) and the only opening is from one side of the access tunnel. Propane gas burner and the fibre board soaked with the heptane were used as fuels. The flame characteristics, O 2 and CO volume fraction and gas temperature were measured and recorded. Two typical characteristics of self-extinguishment and smoke spread were found in the tunnel fires during construction. Results indicate that when a fire occurs in the horizontal main tunnel, the critical equivalence ratio for the occurrence of self-extinguishment is within 0.28–1.38 for the propane gas burner and 1.11–3.6 for the fibre board soaked with heptane. The difference is related to the burning behavior of the different fuels used. The fire location in the horizontal tunnel also has a significant influence on the fire development. A well-ventilated fire at the center of the horizontal tunnel becomes under-ventilated due to vitiation when it is located at the closed end of the horizontal tunnel. Besides, when a fire occurs at the closed end of the horizontal main tunnel, the stratification of smoke is destroyed after hitting the closed end, and then the smoke seems to spread over the entire cross section of the tunnel. The smoke spread velocity is found to be proportional to the ventilation rate. However, when a fire occurs at the closed end of the inclined access tunnel (lower end), the fire does not self-extinguish, even when the ventilation rate is 0 m 3 /s. The corresponding smoke spread velocity is higher than that in the horizontal main tunnel. The outcomes of this study provide new experimental information that contributes to improve the understanding of characteristics of tunnel fires during construction and can help firefighters to make better decisions during the rescue processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Equivalence ratio, Self-extinguishment, Smoke spread, Tunnel during construction, Tunnel fire, Under-ventilated, Fires, Gas burners, Heptane, Open access, Propane, Smoke, Ventilation, Equivalence ratios, Smoke spreads, Tunnel fires, Tunnels
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38351 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2019.03.017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063487886 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: China Scholarship Council; Funding details: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap; Funding details: RISE; Funding text 1: This work was financially supported by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) and the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) which are gratefully acknowledged. Thanks to the advisory group consisting of numerous representatives from industry and authorities for valuable comments and support. Thanks also to Jonatan Gehandler for the support and our technicians for technical assistance in carrying out the tests. Besides, the authors would also like to acknowledge China Scholarship Council for providing Yongzheng Yao with the opportunity to study at Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE).

Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-07 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A. (2018). Brandsäker energilagring - Sammanställning av risker och forskningsbehov.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brandsäker energilagring - Sammanställning av risker och forskningsbehov
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Fire safety of energy storage systems - Summary of risks and research needs
Abstract [en]

There is a large interest in the possibilities in storing produced energy that is not needed at that particular moment or to store energy when the cost for production of electricity is low. For this reason, different types of energy storage systems are used. With a fast development of new technologies and new forms of application for energy storage systems, it is important to also study the existing and potential risks with these types of systems.

This prestudy describes the field, its risks and needs for research. It focuses on risks associated with fire, including explosions and when relevant the production of toxic gases. Although the main focus of the prestudy is different types of energy storage systems, the report contains information also on risks associated with storage of solid biofuels and waste. This means that the report contains information on risks and needs for research for batteries, hydrogen, biogas, liquified gases, biofuels and waste.

Publisher
p. 42
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:42
Keywords
energy storage system, fuel, energy carrier, fire safety, biofuel, waste
National Category
Energy Systems Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36322 (URN)978-91-88695-81-9 (ISBN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 701-171
Note

Detta arbete har utförts inom förstudien Brandsäker energilagring.

Available from: 2018-11-15 Created: 2018-11-15 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A., Persson, H., Trella, F., Blomqvist, P., Boström, S. & Bergérus Rensvik, Å. (2018). Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen. Malmö
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen
Show others...
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: , 2018. p. 89
Series
Avfall Sverige, ISSN 1103-4092 ; 2018:09
Keywords
avfall; lagring; brandsäkerhet; släckvatten; rekommendationer;
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39949 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Sedlmayer, I., Arshadi, M., Haslinger, W., Hofbauer, H., Larsson, I., Lönnermark, A., . . . Bauer-Emhofer, W. (2018). Determination of off-gassing and self-heating potential of wood pellets – Method comparison and correlation analysis. Fuel, 234, 894-903
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of off-gassing and self-heating potential of wood pellets – Method comparison and correlation analysis
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 234, p. 894-903Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several methods for identifying the phenomena of self-heating and off-gassing during production, transportation and storage of wood pellets have been developed in recent years. Research focused on the exploration of the underlying mechanisms, influencing factors or the quantification of self-heating or off-gassing tendencies. The present study aims at identifying a clear correlation between self-heating and off-gassing. Thus, different methods for determining self-heating and off-gassing potentials of wood pellets are compared. Therefore, eleven wood pellet batches from the European market were analyzed. For this investigation, three methods for the determination of self-heating, like isothermal calorimetry, oxi-press and thermogravimetric analysis, and four methods for off-gassing, like volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions measurements, gas phase analysis of stored pellets in a closed container by offline and by glass flask method and determination of fatty and resin acids content, were performed. Results were ranked according to the self-heating and off-gassing tendency providing a common overview of the analyzed pellets batches. Relations between different methods were investigated by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the results revealed an equal suitability of offline and glass flask methods to predict off-gassing tendency and indicated a very significant correlation with isothermal calorimetry for the identification of self-heating tendency. The thermogravimetric analysis as well as the fatty and resin acids determination proved to be insufficient for the exclusive assessment of self-heating and off-gassing tendency, respectively.

Keywords
Carbon monoxide, Emission, Laboratory methods, Self-ignition, Storage
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34788 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2018.07.117 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050894355 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 20569-4, Energimyndigheten; Funding details: 42002-1, Energimyndigheten; Funding details: 287026, EC, European Commission

Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A. & Ingason, H. (Eds.). (2018). Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Borås, Sweden, March 14-16, 2018. Paper presented at Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS 2018). Borås, Sweden: RISE Research Institutes of sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Borås, Sweden, March 14-16, 2018
2018 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report includes the Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Borås, Sweden, 14-16th of March, 2018. The Proceedings include 41 papers given by session speakers and 16 extended abstracts presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 12 different sessions. Among them are Fire Safety Engineering: Cases & Incidents, Fire Safety Engineering: The Aims, Fire Detection, Explosions, Risk Analysis, Fire Safety Engineering: Case studies, Ventilation, Fire Safety Engineering: State of the Art, Fire Dynamics, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems (FFFS) and Evacuation and Human Behavior.

Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total six) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Hans Brun, the Swedish Defence University, Dr Iain Bowman, Mott MacDonald, Canada, Dr Ying Zhen Li, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Dr Johan Lundin, WSP, Sweden, Allan Skovlund, Greater Copenhagen Fire Department, Denmark and Prof David Purser, Hartford Environmental Research, UK. We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås, Sweden: RISE Research Institutes of sweden, 2018. p. 708
Keywords
tunnel; fire safety engineering; fire research; detection; explosion; risk analysis; ventilation; fire fighting systems; fire dynamics; evacuation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39948 (URN)978-91-88695-48-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS 2018)
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Anderson, J., Sjöström, J., Lönnermark, A., Persson, H. & Larsson, I. (2017). Assessment of Self-Heating in Wood Pellets by FE Modelling. In: : . Paper presented at 12th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science. Lund Sweden.June 12–16, 2017. (pp. 14). Lund, Article ID 340.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Self-Heating in Wood Pellets by FE Modelling
Show others...
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The self-heating process in a laboratory scale experiment has been modelled using the Comsol Multiphysics software. In the simulations the gas flow and air movement in the volume and heat diffusion in the bulk were taken into account however only one reaction in the pellets bulk is considered. The input data is found from measurements of the reaction chemistry and the heat transfer properties. It is found that all relevant physics is needed in order to obtain reasonable predictions in particular the heat transfer between the bulk and the gas is important but also condensation and evaporation of moisture.   

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: , 2017
Keywords
heat transfer; fluid dynamics; CFD; modeling; self-heating
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33323 (URN)
Conference
12th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science. Lund Sweden.June 12–16, 2017.
Note

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grand agreement n°287026.

Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-02-27 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A. & Lange, D. (2017). Cascading effects during incidents: CascEff. In: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016. Paper presented at 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016, 25 September 2016 through 29 September 2016 (pp. 18). , Article ID 181029.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cascading effects during incidents: CascEff
2017 (English)In: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016, 2017, p. 18-, article id 181029Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern socio-technical systems are increasingly characterised by high degrees of interdependencies. Whereas these interdependencies generally make systems more efficient under normal operations, they contribute to cascading effects in times of crises. Therefore, challenges for emergency preparedness and response are growing significantly. An escalating incident in such an environment can lead to severe cascading effects and quickly become extremely difficult for emergency services to handle. The more complex the environment where an incident is evolving, the more vulnerable the system, the greater the risk for escalation and cascading effects. In such instances the incident management needs to be as efficient as possible and build on up to date decision support information. New strategies, structures and methodologies are, therefore, needed to meet these new challenges, including cross border cooperation in conducting operations and providing or receiving support across borders.

Keywords
Decision support systems, Reliability, Reliability theory, Safety engineering, Cascading effects, Cross-border, Decision supports, Emergency preparedness and response, Incident Management, Normal operations, Sociotechnical systems, Emergency services
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31087 (URN)10.1201/9781315374987-17 (DOI)2-s2.0-85016192271 (Scopus ID)9781138029972 (ISBN)
Conference
26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016, 25 September 2016 through 29 September 2016
Note

Conference code: 181029; Export Date: 23 August 2017; Conference Paper

Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Larsson, I., Lönnermark, A., Blomqvist, P., Persson, H. & Bohlén, H. (2017). Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets. Fire and Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

For the risk for spontaneous combustion in storage of biomass pellets to be assessed, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating. There are traditional methods that are used to determine self-heating characteristics of fuels, eg, basket heating tests. The results from basket heating tests indirectly give the reactivity from a series of tests at high temperatures. This paper presents a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate at typical bulk storage temperatures. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used, eg, by storage security managers to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby for safer storage. A large number of tests have been performed to develop the test procedure presented. Different parameters, such as temperature, type of the test sample (powder/crushed or pellets), mass of test sample, and preheating time, have been varied. Furthermore, gas concentrations in the sample ampoule have been measured before and after some tests to study the oxygen consumption and the formation of CO and CO2. Three different types of pellets with different characteristics were tested to assess the variation in behaviour. Based on these tests, a screening test procedure is presented with a test temperature of 60°C, a sample size of 4 g, a 15-minute preheating period at the test temperature, and 24-hour test duration.

Keywords
Isothermal calorimetry, Pellets, Reactivity, Screening test, Self-heating, Wood pellets, Biomass, Calorimeters, Calorimetry, Carbon dioxide, Fuel storage, Fuels, Heating, Isotherms, Network security, Ore pellets, Pelletizing, Preheating, Reactivity (nuclear), Risk assessment, Screening, Spontaneous combustion, Technology transfer, Direct measurement, Gas concentration, Oxygen consumption, Screening tests, Test temperatures, Wood pellet, Testing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31124 (URN)10.1002/fam.2427 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019933108 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6758-6067

Search in DiVA

Show all publications
v. 2.35.7