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Löfström, CharlottaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6492-1245
Publications (10 of 50) Show all publications
Ottosson, J., Dryselius, R., Egervärn, M., Jacobsson, K., Svanström, Å., Forsman, M., . . . Mogren, L. (2019). Bevattningsvatten: kunskapsunderlag.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bevattningsvatten: kunskapsunderlag
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Livsmedel från växtriket kan i vissa fall sprida mikrobiologisk smitta. Bär, bladgrönt och groddarmedför en särskild risk. Det beror på att de ofta äts råa eller efter minimal tillredning. Vi värmer deminte innan vi äter dem.Om livsmedlen är kontaminerade är det med stor sannolikhet orsakat av bevattningen. Vattnet kan havarit påverkat av avföring. Det kan också bero på spillning från vilda djur. Även naturgödsel kanförorena produkterna vid stänk från jord.Syftet med detta projekt var att se över kvaliteten på vatten för bevattning i Sverige. Vi ville koppladet till mikrobiologiska risker och utifrån det ta fram underlag till nationella råd och riktlinjer. Måletär ”en säkrare produktion av ätfärdiga bär och grönsaker som bättre förebygger sjukdomsutbrott”.Det visade sig att kvaliteten på vattnet generellt sett var god hos odlarna i projektet. Det samma gällergrödor. I vatten hittade vi enstaka sjukdomsframkallande mikroorganismer och ESBL-bildande E. coli.Dessa hittade vi dock endast i ytvatten som var mer förorenade av avföring och spillning. Men endastett fåtal prov på gröda visade på högre fekal förorening. Majoriteten av dessa kom från en och sammaodlare, som bevattnade med vatten från en damm. Vi hittade inga patogener på grödor. Däremot var ettprov på vitkål positivt för ESBL-bildande E. coli.Vi gjorde en kvantitativ riskvärdering av Shigatoxinproducerande E. coli (STEC) från isbergssallat.Den visade att även en liten förorening orsakad av avföring och utan påvisade STEC-bakterier ibevattningsvattnet kan utgöra en risk för mag-och tarminfektion. Riskvärderingen kan användas somunderlag för att föreslå mikrobiologiska kriterier, till exempel på vattenkvalitet. Vi behöver dockbeakta osäkerheterna med värderingen. De viktigaste osäkerheterna var utsöndringen av ochpatogeniciteten hos STEC från infekterade nötkreatur. Hur mycket av dessa fastnar på den bevattnadegrödan? Hur stor är sannolikheten att infekteras vid låga doser (enstaka STEC-bakterier)? Och hur storär risken av stänk från jord?Det finns olika åtgärder att ta till för att minska sannolikheten för utbrott och sjukdomsfall. Dessa är 1.Kriterier för vattenkvalitet. 2: Rening av vatten som inte uppnår dessa kriterier. 3. Införa enuppehållstid mellan sista bevattning och skörd. 4. Dessutom kan konsumenterna skölja produkternainnan de konsumerar dem. Det är också viktigt att se till att hålla utrustningen ren, exempelvis rör ochmunstycken. På så vis undviks föroreningar och tillväxt av bakterier.

Om ytvatten måste användas för bevattning under de sista två veckorna innan skörd bör ettprovtagningsprogram utformas. Proven bör då visa på låg fekal förorening samt avsaknad avSalmonella. I bästa fall bör ytvatten renas före bevattning. Detta kan göras till exempel med hjälp avfotokatalys, UV-ljus eller filtrering. De sista två dagarna före skörd bör dock endast vatten avdricksvattenkvalitet användas.I en framtid med sjunkande grundvattennivåer, torrare somrar och blötare vintrar finns ett behov av attsamla in vatten för bevattning. Det bör göras under höstregn och vårfloder, samt vintertid. Vattnet fårsedan lagras i magasin. Vatten från bevattningsmagasin kan behöva renas innan det används förbevattning beroende på hur skyddat magasinet är från föroreningar.

Abstract [en]

Vegetable products such as berries, leafy greens and sprouts pose a particular risk of transmittinginfectious diseases since they are eaten raw. Irrigation using faecally contaminated water is the mostlikely source of infectious agents but wild animal faeces and manure can also contaminate the productsfrom soil. The purpose of this project was to provide an overview of irrigation water quality inSweden, link it to microbiological risks and, based on this information, develop data for nationalguidelines with the aim of safe production of edible berries and vegetables that better prevent diseaseoutbreaks.The quality of both water and crops was generally good at the farms included in the project. Pathogensand ESBL-producing E. coli were occasionally found in water. However, these were only isolatedfrom surface water samples that were more polluted with respect to faecal indicators. Only a few cropsamples showed higher faecal contamination. The majority of these samples were from one farmerusing pond water for irrigation. No pathogens were detected on the crops. However, one cabbagesample tested positive for ESBL-producing E. coli.A quantitative risk assessment of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from iceberg lettuce showedthat even low faecal contamination and the absence of detected pathogens in irrigation water can stillpose a risk of gastrointestinal infection. This risk assessment can provide the basis for microbiologicalcriteria, for example, with regard to water quality. However, the uncertainties associated with the riskassessment need to be taken into account. The main uncertainties were 1: the excretion andpathogenicity of STEC from infected cattle, 2: the proportion of these that adhere to the irrigated crop,3: the likelihood of being infected at low doses (single STEC bacterium) and 4: the importance of soilcontamination.Various measures that can reduce the likelihood of foodborne outbreaks and disease cases are 1:criteria for water quality, 2: purification of water not achieving these criteria, 3: residence timebetween irrigation and harvest and 4: consumers rinsing the produce. It is also important for farmers tokeep equipment such as pipes and nozzles clean to avoid contamination and bacterial growth.

If surface water is used for irrigation (for example, in the absence of a safe groundwater supply),during the two weeks prior to harvest, a sampling programme should be implemented to ensure lowfaecal contamination and the absence of Salmonella. However, only water of drinking water qualityshould be used two days prior to harvest. It would be preferable for surface water to undergopurification before irrigation. This can be achieved, for example, by photocatalysis, UV light orfiltration.In a future with decreasing groundwater levels, drier summers and rainier winters, there is a need tocollect water for irrigation during the autumn rains, spring floods and wintertime to be stored inreservoirs for later use. Water from reservoirs may need purification before being used for irrigation,depending on how protected the reservoir is from contamination.

Publisher
p. 62
Series
LIVSMEDELSVERKETS SAMARBETSRAPPORT, ISSN 1104-7089 ; S 2019 nr 02
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40215 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Leekitcharoenphon, P., Srensen, G., Löfström, C., Battisti, A., Szabo, I., Wasyl, D., . . . Hendriksen, R. S. (2019). Cross-Border Transmission of Salmonella Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf in European Pigs and Wild Boar: Infection, Genetics, and Evolution. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, Article ID 00179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Border Transmission of Salmonella Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf in European Pigs and Wild Boar: Infection, Genetics, and Evolution
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 00179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Choleraesuis is a swine adapted serovar. S. Choleraesuis variant Kunzendorf are responsible for the majority of outbreaks among pigs. S. Choleraesuis is rare in Europe, although there have been serious outbreaks in pigs including two outbreaks in Denmark in 1999-2000 and 2012-2013. Here, we elucidate the epidemiology, possible transmission routes and sources, and clonality of European S. Choleraesuis isolates including the Danish outbreak isolates. A total of 102 S. Choleraesuis isolates from different European countries and the United States of America, covering available isolates from the last two decades were selected for whole genome sequencing. We applied a temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct a temporal and spatial phylogenetic tree. MLST type, resistance genes, plasmid replicons and accessory genes were identified using bioinformatics tools. Fifty-eight isolates including 11 out of 12 strains from wild boars were pan-susceptible. The remaining isolates carried multiple resistance genes. Eleven different plasmid replicons in eight plasmids were determined among the isolates. Accessory genes were associated to the identified resistance genes and plasmids. The European S. Choleraesuis was estimated to have emerged in 1837 (95% credible interval, 1733 - 1983) with the mutation rate of 1.02 SNPs/genome/year. The isolates were clustered according to countries and neighbour countries. There were transmission events between strains from the USA and European countries. Wild boar and pig isolates were genetically linked suggesting cross-border transmission and transmission due to a wildlife reservoir. The phylogenetic tree shows that multiple introductions were responsible for the outbreak of 2012-2013 in Denmark, and suggests that poorly disinfected vehicles crossing the border into Denmark were potentially the source of the outbreak. Low levels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) differences (0-4 SNPs) can be observed between clonal strains isolated from different organs of the same animal. Proper disinfection of livestock vehicles and improved quality control of livestock feed are recommended to prevent future spread of S. Choleraesuis or other more serious infectious diseases such as African swine fever (ASF) into the European pig production system.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37728 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2019.00179 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065875572 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-06 Created: 2019-02-06 Last updated: 2019-08-02Bibliographically approved
Mateva, G., Pedersen, K., Sørensen, G., Asseva, G., Daskalov, H., Petrov, P., . . . Löfström, C. (2018). Use of multiple-locusvariable-numberof tandem repeatsanalysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonellaenterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates fromhuman, food, and veterinary sources. MicrobiologyOpen, 7(1), Article ID e00528.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of multiple-locusvariable-numberof tandem repeatsanalysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonellaenterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates fromhuman, food, and veterinary sources
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2018 (English)In: MicrobiologyOpen, ISSN 2045-8827, E-ISSN 2045-8827, Vol. 7, no 1, article id e00528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common zoonotic pathogen in Bulgaria. To allow efficient outbreak investigations and surveillance in the food chain, accurate and discriminatory methods for typing are needed. This study evaluated the use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and compared results with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinations for 100 S. Typhimurium strains isolated in Bulgaria during 2008–2012 (50 veterinary/ food and 50 human isolates). Results showed that isolates were divided into 80 and 34 groups using MLVA and AMR, respectively. Simpson’s index of diversity was determined to 0.994 ± 0.003 and 0.945 ± 0.012. The most frequently encountered MLVA profiles were 3-11-9-NA-211 (n = 5); 3-12-9-NA-211 (n = 3); 3-12-11-21-311 (n = 3); 3-17-10-NA-311 (n = 3); 2-20-9-7-212 (n = 3); and 2-23-NA-NA-111 (n = 3). No clustering of isolates related to susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobials, source of isolation, or year of isolation was observed. Some MLVA types were found in both human and veterinary/food isolates, indicating a possible route of transmission. A majority (83%) of the isolates were found to be resistant against at least one antimicrobial and 44% against ≥4 antimicrobials. Further studies are needed to verify MLVA usefulness over a longer period of time and with more isolates, including outbreak strains.

Keywords
antimicrobial resistance, laboratory surveillance, MLVA, public health, Salmonella genetic
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31195 (URN)10.1002/mbo3.528 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042273394 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-24 Created: 2017-08-24 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Fachmann, M. S., Löfström, C., Hoorfar, J., Hansen, F., Christensen, J., Mansdal, S. & Josefsen, M. H. (2017). Detection of Salmonella in meat in less than 5 hours by a low-cost and non-complex sample preparation method.. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 83(5), Article ID e03151-16.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of Salmonella in meat in less than 5 hours by a low-cost and non-complex sample preparation method.
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2017 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 83, no 5, article id e03151-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Salmonella is recognised as one of the most important foodborne bacteria, and has a wide health and socioeconomical impact worldwide. Fresh pork meat is one of the main sources of Salmonella and efficient and fast methods for detection are therefore necessary. Current methods for Salmonella detection in fresh meat usually include >16 h of culture enrichment, in few cases < 12 h, thus requiring at least two working shifts. Here, we report a rapid (< 5 h) and high throughput method, for screening of Salmonella in samples from fresh pork meat, consisting of a 3-h enrichment in standard buffered peptone water, and a real-time PCR compatible sample preparation method, based on filtration, centrifugation, and enzymatic digestion, followed by fast cycling real-time PCR detection. The method was validated in an un-paired, comparative study against the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL) reference culture method 187. Pork meat samples (n=140) were either artificially contaminated with Salmonella at levels: 0, 1-10 and 10-100 CFU/25 g, or naturally contaminated. Cohen's Kappa for degree of agreement between the rapid method and the reference was 0.64 and the relative accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the rapid method were 81.4, 95.1 and 97.9 %, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD50) was 8.8 CFU/25 g for the rapid method and 7.7 CFU/25 g for the reference method. Implementation of this method will enable faster release of Salmonella low risk meat, providing savings for meat producers, and help contribute to improved food safety.

IMPORTANCE: While the cost of analysis and hands-on time of the presented rapid method were comparable to reference culture methods, the fast product release by this method can provide the meat industry with a competitive advantage. Not only will the abattoirs save costs for work hours and cold storage; consumers as well as retailers will also benefit from fresher meat with a longer shelf life. Furthermore, the presented sample preparation might be adjusted for application in detection of other pathogenic bacteria in different sample types.

National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28015 (URN)10.1128/AEM.03151-16 (DOI)27986726 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85013498114 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Hjelmsø, M. H., Hellmér, M., Fernandez-Cassi, X., Timoneda, N., Lukjancenko, O., Seidel, M., . . . Schultz, A. C. (2017). Evaluation of Methods for the Concentration and Extraction of Viruses from Sewage in the Context of Metagenomic Sequencing.. PLoS ONE, 12(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Methods for the Concentration and Extraction of Viruses from Sewage in the Context of Metagenomic Sequencing.
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Viral sewage metagenomics is a novel field of study used for surveillance, epidemiological studies, and evaluation of waste water treatment efficiency. In raw sewage human waste is mixed with household, industrial and drainage water, and virus particles are, therefore, only found in low concentrations. This necessitates a step of sample concentration to allow for sensitive virus detection. Additionally, viruses harbor a large diversity of both surface and genome structures, which makes universal viral genomic extraction difficult. Current studies have tackled these challenges in many different ways employing a wide range of viral concentration and extraction procedures. However, there is limited knowledge of the efficacy and inherent biases associated with these methods in respect to viral sewage metagenomics, hampering the development of this field. By the use of next generation sequencing this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of four commonly applied viral concentrations techniques (precipitation with polyethylene glycol, organic flocculation with skim milk, monolithic adsorption filtration and glass wool filtration) and extraction methods (Nucleospin RNA XS, QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit, NucliSENS® miniMAG®, or PowerViral® Environmental RNA/DNA Isolation Kit) to determine the viriome in a sewage sample. We found a significant influence of concentration and extraction protocols on the detected viriome. The viral richness was largest in samples extracted with QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit or PowerViral® Environmental RNA/DNA Isolation Kit. Highest viral specificity were found in samples concentrated by precipitation with polyethylene glycol or extracted with Nucleospin RNA XS. Detection of viral pathogens depended on the method used. These results contribute to the understanding of method associated biases, within the field of viral sewage metagenomics, making evaluation of the current literature easier and helping with the design of future studies.

National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28019 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0170199 (DOI)28099518 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85009960878 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Mogren, L., Löfström, C. & Alsanius, B. (2017). Håll bevattningsrören rena. Alnarp: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Håll bevattningsrören rena
2017 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, pages
Alnarp: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, 2017
Series
LTV-fakultetens faktablad (BIB14970973) ; 2017:35
National Category
Horticulture Food Science Pathobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32851 (URN)
Projects
Kontaminering av ätfärdiga vegetabilier med förorenat bevattningsvatten - riskbaserade riktlinjer och konsensus i övervakningen
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Löfström, C. (2017). Pre-PCR processing strategies for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food and environmental samples. In: : . Paper presented at GoFood 2017,Second edition of the Global Food Safety and Technology Forum, Lund and Copenhagen, May 31-June 2 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-PCR processing strategies for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food and environmental samples
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29995 (URN)
Conference
GoFood 2017,Second edition of the Global Food Safety and Technology Forum, Lund and Copenhagen, May 31-June 2 2017
Projects
Snabbare och effektivare analysmetoder för förbättrad risk och kvalitetshantering i livsmedelskedjan
Funder
VINNOVA, 2015-04327Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Alsanius, B. & Löfström, C. (2017). Vattenrening för ökad hygien vid odling av frilandsgrönsaker och bär. Alnarp: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vattenrening för ökad hygien vid odling av frilandsgrönsaker och bär
2017 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Under senare år har ett flertal utbrottmed magsjuka kopplats till konsumtionav grönsaker, frukt och bär. Sjukdomsframkallandebakterier och virus, såsomnorovirus, Salmonella, toxinproducerandeE. coli, Campylobacter och Listeria. kanspridas från bevattningsvatten via grö-dan till människor och orsaka sjukdom.Smittat bevattningsvatten kan därförförorena frilandsproducerade grönsakeroch bär. Det är alltås viktigt att hakontroll på bevattningsvattnets kvalitet.Dessutom är det viktigt att känna tillvilken typ av kultur som vattnet skaanvändas till, eftersom risken för vidaresmitta till människor varierar mellanolika typer av kulturer. T.ex. är det störrerisk att använda kontaminerat vatten tillkulturer som äts råa utan uppvärmninghos livsmedelsproducenten eller konsument,eftersom det då inte finns nå-gon möjlighet att avdöda de oönskademikroorganismerna i ett efterföljandesteg. Genom rätt hantering och adekvatbehandling av bevattningsvattnetkan dess hygieniska kvalitet förbättras.Ibland finns det möjlighet för odlarenatt byta vattenkälla, men då detta inte ärpraktiskt möjligt kan det kontamineradevattnet renas innan bevattning. I dettafaktablad beskrivs två grundläggandetekniker för rening av bevattningsvattenvid frilandsproduktion, nämligen fotokemi(fotokatalys, UV) och filtrering(mekanisk filtrering, långsamfiltrering).Dessa används för att minska risken försmittspridning med bevattningsvattnet.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Alnarp: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, 2017
Series
LTV-fakultetens faktablad (BIB14970973) ; 2017:33
Keywords
hygien, vattenrening, frilandsgrönsaker, bär
National Category
Horticulture Food Science Pathobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32848 (URN)
Projects
Kontaminering av ätfärdiga vegetabilier med förorenat bevattningsvatten - riskbaserade riktlinjer och konsensus i övervakningen
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Hintzmann, A.-S., Sørensen, G., Löfström, C. & Baggesen, D. L. (2017). Whole genome sequencing data confirm transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in the Danish poultry production chain. In: : . Paper presented at Ecology meets Epidemiology,22-23 March, 2017, at Linnaeus University in Kalmar, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whole genome sequencing data confirm transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in the Danish poultry production chain
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29215 (URN)
Conference
Ecology meets Epidemiology,22-23 March, 2017, at Linnaeus University in Kalmar, Sweden
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
de Knegt, L. V., Pires, S. M., Löfström, C., Sörensen, G., Pedersen, K., Torpdahl, M., . . . Hald, T. (2016). Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark. Risk Analysis, 36(3), 571-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark
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2016 (English)In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 571-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude that loci schemes STTR5/STTR10/STTR3 for S. Typhimurium and SE9/SE5/SE2/SE1/SE3 for S. Enteritidis can be used in microbial subtyping-based source attribution models. Based on the results, we discuss that an adjustment of the discriminatory level of the subtyping method applied often will be required to fit the purpose of the study and the available data. The issues discussed are also considered highly relevant when applying, e.g., extended multi-locus sequence typing or next-generation sequencing techniques.

Keywords
Bayesian inference, MLVA, Salmonella, Source attribution, Surveillance
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-27576 (URN)10.1111/risa.12483 (DOI)2-s2.0-84962593071 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6492-1245

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