Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Lefebvre, L. P., Whiting, J., Nijikovsky, B., Brika, S. E., Fayazfar, H. & Lyckfeldt, O. (2020). Assessing the robustness of powder rheology and permeability measurements. Additive Manufacturing, 35, Article ID 101203.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the robustness of powder rheology and permeability measurements
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 35, article id 101203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Powder metallurgy processes rely on powder flowability. However, flowability is not an intrinsic property and depends on the measurement conditions. Standards have been developed to adjust measurement methods to various flow conditions but there is presently questions whether current methods are adapted to the specific requirements of powder bed additive manufacturing. Rheology has been used to assess powder flowability but there is still limited information available on the robustness of the method. This paper presents the flow characteristics measured in five laboratories with a powder rheometer. Attempts were made to understand the sources of intra and inter laboratory variations and find ways to reduce them. The variations do not seem to be associated with sampling or environmental conditions. Experimental setup, calibration and/or the modification of the powder during handling could be associated with the variations observed. However, additional tests would be required to confirm the sources and improve the repeatability of the measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2020
Keywords
Powder flowability, Repeatability, Reproducibility, Rheology, Round robin, Compressive strength, Powder metallurgy, Environmental conditions, Flow charac-teristics, Intrinsic property, Limited information, Measurement conditions, Measurement methods, Permeability measurements, Powder metallurgy process, Elasticity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45068 (URN)10.1016/j.addma.2020.101203 (DOI)2-s2.0-85085274960 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: University of Waterloo, UW; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of Shirley Mercier and Roger Pelletier for setting up the tests and the characterisation at the National Research Council Canada (NRC) and their support in the preparation of the test protocol. The authors would also like to thank Vladimir Brailovski from the École de technologie Supérieure (ETS), Ehsan Toyserkani from the University of Waterloo for their support of this work and Ed Garboczi and Shawn Moylan from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for suggestions in the manuscript.

Available from: 2020-07-01 Created: 2020-07-01 Last updated: 2021-06-11Bibliographically approved
Hatami, S., Ma, T., Vuoristo, T., Bertilsson, J. & Lyckfeldt, O. (2020). Fatigue Strength of 316 L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting. Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), 29, 3183-3194
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue Strength of 316 L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 29, p. 3183-3194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the fatigue strength of 316 L stainless steel manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) is evaluated. The effect of powder layer thickness and postmachining is investigated. Specimens were produced with 30 and 50 µm layer thickness and tested under high cycle fatigue in as-printed and postmachined conditions. Examination of the specimens reveals that in the as-printed condition, fatigue strength suffers from high roughness and surface tensile residual stresses as well as defects such as pores and lack of fusion voids. After machining, the fatigue strength was improved due to lower surface roughness, presence of compressive residual stresses, and removal of surface porosity. The results show that increasing the layer thickness (within the range tested) has a minor negative impact on fatigue strength; however, it has a major positive impact on the productivity of the SLM process. In addition, it is clear that the impact of postmachining on fatigue is far greater than that of the layer thickness. © 2020, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
additive manufacturing, fatigue strength, selective laser melting, stainless steel, Austenitic stainless steel, Melting, Residual stresses, Surface roughness, 316 L stainless steel, Compressive residual stress, High cycle fatigue, Layer thickness, Selective laser melting (SLM), Surface porosity, Tensile residual stress, Fatigue of materials
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45107 (URN)10.1007/s11665-020-04859-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85085684211 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 2015-03457; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. This work was supported by Sweden’s Innovation Agency [Grant Number: 2015-03457]. Ms. Anna Larsson and Mr. Heike Henrich from Höganäs AB are acknowledged for performing porosity and metallography analyses. 

Available from: 2020-06-26 Created: 2020-06-26 Last updated: 2022-01-03Bibliographically approved
Claesson, Å., Lyckfeldt, O., Lindqvist, J., Kardeby, V., Lejon, E., Ulfberg, P., . . . Hosseini, S. (2019). lntegrated Optical Fiber Sensors in Additive Manufactured Metal Components for Smart Manufacturing Applications. In: Smart Systems Integration; 13th International Conference and Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems: . Paper presented at Smart Systems Integration; 13th International Conference and Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>lntegrated Optical Fiber Sensors in Additive Manufactured Metal Components for Smart Manufacturing Applications
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Smart Systems Integration; 13th International Conference and Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work combines fiber optic sensors with additive manufacturing to enable integration of temperature and strain sensors in metal components. In this paper, we present a fiber optic sensor network integrated in press hardening tools to monitor the contact between the tool and the metal sheet during forming operation. The tools are manufactured through metal powder bed fusion using laser melting processes (PBF-SLM), after which the tools are prepared for sensor integration. A demonstrator press hardening tool with integrated fiber optic sensors was heated using an electric heat foil and the sensor measurements was compared to a thermal simulation model. The sensor technology is based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), integrated at several positions along the optical fiber. FBGs are in-fiber sensors that are multiplexed. lt is possible to place hundreds of FBG sensors along one single fiber, thus allowing for quasidistributed sensing of temperature or strain. The optical fiber itself can be less than 100 micrometer in diameter, allowing for sensing at several points in a minimally invasive way, when integrated in a tool or component.

Keywords
Smart Systems Integration; 13th International Conference and Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59997 (URN)
Conference
Smart Systems Integration; 13th International Conference and Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems
Available from: 2022-08-26 Created: 2022-08-26 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Gopaluni, A., Lyckfeldt, O. & Hatami, S. (2019). Powder Spreadability in Metal Additive Manufacturing. In: : . Paper presented at Alloys for Additive Manufacturing Symposium. 18-20 September 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powder Spreadability in Metal Additive Manufacturing
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Powder spreadability is a key factor for ensuring a robust manufacturing with metal powder bed fusion (PBF) technologies such as selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM). In these technologies, the powder melts upon the impact of the laser or electron beam and, subsequently solidifies and densifies as it cools. Therefore, being able to consistently spread even powder layers with a high packing density is essential for complete melting and densification without local variations. However, so far it has been difficult to predict the spreadability of a powder with traditional methods such as Hall flowmeter or by modern techniques such as powder rheology or dynamic avalanche analysis. In this study, the spreadability of several gas atomized tool steel powders with different particle size distribution (PSD) have been evaluated in a newly developed equipment which mimics the spreading technique and layer thickness control of a commercial SLM system. The powder packing density as a function of re-coater speed and layer thickness was determined under process-like conditions. Topographic variations of the powder layer were characterized by Confocal microscopy combined with Focus Variation. In general, the results show that independent of powder properties in terms of PSD or flow properties, the re-coater speed has the most significant impact on powder packing density. In this study, the speed was varied between 100-200 mm/s and the results show that higher packing density can be achieved at lower speeds. This finding was confirmed by the topographic examination of the layer. In addition, the tests clearly reveal that broader PSD improves the packing density whereas layer thickness in the range of 30 to 120 µm has a minor effect with only a slight increase in packing density with increased layer thickness. The newly developed test equipment with its features, testing procedures, powder spreading results and initial correlation to SLM trials will be presented. It is foreseen that with further development in terms of automatization and integration of topographic evaluation tools, this test equipment can serve as a powerful tool for standardization and prediction of powder performance in all metal PBF processes.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57518 (URN)
Conference
Alloys for Additive Manufacturing Symposium. 18-20 September 2019
Available from: 2022-01-03 Created: 2022-01-03 Last updated: 2022-01-03Bibliographically approved
Mellin, P., Lyckfeldt, O., Harlin, P., Brodin, H., Blom, H. & Strondl, A. (2016). Evaluating flowability of additive manufacturing powders, using the gustavsson flow meter. In: World PM 2016 Congress and Exhibition: . Paper presented at World Powder Metallurgy 2016 Congress and Exhibition, World PM 2016, 9 October 2016 through 13 October 2016. European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating flowability of additive manufacturing powders, using the gustavsson flow meter
Show others...
2016 (English)In: World PM 2016 Congress and Exhibition, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Gustavsson flow meter (including standard ISO-13517) is in this paper used to measure flow rate of fine AM powders. In the current paper, the results are compared to the Hall flow meter and a Freeman FT4 powder rheometer in terms of success of measuring these AM powders. The robustness is clearly superior to the Hall flow meter. Compared to using the rheometer, the Gustavsson flow meter is faster and simpler to use; however, other powder-aspects are evaluated since little correlation was found. All methods of characterizing the flowability could distinguish between (1) two alloys, and (2) if the alloys were new or used (in SLM), and (3) if they were dried or non-dried.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA), 2016
Keywords
3D printers, Compressive strength, Flow measurement, Flow rate, Powder metallurgy, Powders, Rheometers, Flowability, Powder rheometers, Flowmeters
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42251 (URN)2-s2.0-85035325109 (Scopus ID)9781899072484 (ISBN)
Conference
World Powder Metallurgy 2016 Congress and Exhibition, World PM 2016, 9 October 2016 through 13 October 2016
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2020-12-01Bibliographically approved
Yiming, Y., Lyckfeldt, O., Tricoire, A., Lundström, D. & Klement, U. (2016). Microstructure of plasma sprayed Al2O3-3wt%TiO2 coating using freeze granulated powder. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 4(7), 8-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure of plasma sprayed Al2O3-3wt%TiO2 coating using freeze granulated powder
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2327-6045, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is aiming at controlling the microstructure of plasma sprayed Al2O3-TiO2 composite coatings using freeze granulated powders. As sprayed and sintered Al2O3 + 3wt%TiO2 powders were air plasma sprayed with industry process parameters and compared with a commercial powder. The resulting coatings were investigated with respect to powder flowability, porosity and microstructure of the granules. The results showed that microstructure and melting fraction in the coatings could be tailored with the freeze granulation process and heat treatment conditions.

Keywords
Al2O3-TiO2, Freeze Granulation, Plasma Spray, Microstructure
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29148 (URN)10.4236/msce.2016.47002 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-22 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2020-08-03Bibliographically approved
Adolfsson, E., Lyckfeldt, O. & Johansson, E. (2016). Visible-Light Curable Ceramic Suspensions for Additive Manufacturing of Dense Ceramic Parts. In: : . Paper presented at 6th International Congress on Ceramics (ICC6), August 21-25, 2016, Dresden, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visible-Light Curable Ceramic Suspensions for Additive Manufacturing of Dense Ceramic Parts
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30218 (URN)
Conference
6th International Congress on Ceramics (ICC6), August 21-25, 2016, Dresden, Germany
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Strondl, A., Lyckfeldt, O., Brodin, H. & Ackelid, U. (2015). Characterization and Control of Powder Properties for Additive Manufacturing (ed.). JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, 67(3), 549-554
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and Control of Powder Properties for Additive Manufacturing
2015 (English)In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 549-554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Powder characterization and handling in powder metallurgy are important issues and the required powder properties will vary between different component manufacturing processes. By understanding and controlling these, the final material properties for different applications can be improved and become more reliable. In this study, the metal powders used in additive manufacturing (AM) in terms of electron beam melting and selective laser melting have been investigated regarding particle size and shape using dynamic image analysis. In parallel, powder flow characteristics have been evaluated with a powder rheometer. Correlations within the results have been found between particle shape and powder flow characteristics that could explain certain effects of the powder processing in the AM processes. The impact, however, in the processing performance as well as in ultimate material properties was found to be limited.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12790 (URN)10.1007/s11837-015-1304-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-84925494440 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Lyckfeldt, O. (2013). Powder rheology of steel powders for additive manufacturing (ed.). In: International Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2013: . Paper presented at International Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2013 (pp. 29-36). European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA), 77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powder rheology of steel powders for additive manufacturing
2013 (English)In: International Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2013, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2013, Vol. 77, p. 29-36Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The recent development of advanced rheometers for dry powders characterization has opened opportunities to accurately determine a variety of powder properties to be related to function in specific powder processes. In this study, steel powders aimed for additive manufacturing (AM) were exposed to various types of measurements such as basic flow ability, compressibility, aeration response and shear using a powder rheometer. The results showed that different batches of the same quality of stainless steel (316L) powders, with similar particle size distribution, vary significantly regarding the dry flow properties with critical impact on the function in AM. Differences in specific surface areas indicated variation in particle shape/roughness that could be correlated to rheometer data. Low compressibility, high aeration response and low shear resistance related to low degree of powder cohesivity was identified as favorable characteristics. Hence, powder rheology provides a powerful tool for powder quality control and to confirm processing performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA), 2013
Keywords
Dust and sludge recovery, Logistic perspective, Material efficiency, Process integration, Simulation and optimization, Steel production
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-13413 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.04.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-84924944095 (Scopus ID)9781899072408 (ISBN)
Conference
International Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2013
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2020-11-10Bibliographically approved
Orlenius, J., Lyckfeldt, O., Kasvayee, K. A. & Johander, P. (2012). Water based processing of LiFePO 4/C cathode material for Li-ion batteries utilizing freeze granulation (ed.). Journal of Power Sources, 213, 119-127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water based processing of LiFePO 4/C cathode material for Li-ion batteries utilizing freeze granulation
2012 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 213, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A water based solid state synthesis of LiFePO 4 has been conducted by utilizing freeze granulation. Various processing conditions were tested and achieved powder properties were characterized by density, XRD, specific surface area, carbon content, conductivity and SEM. Freeze granulation, a novel method for precursor preparation was shown to be an effective method to provide high degree of homogeneity prior to calcination and high ultimate yield of pure LiFePO 4. Cathodes were manufactured by water based as well as NMP system based tape casting. A commercial LiFePO 4/C powder was also characterized and used to manufacture cathodes as comparison in this study. Charge cycling tests showed promising results with high capacity and long term stability, well in the range of what the commercial powder provided. Post-milling of calcined powder prior to paste preparation for tape casting tended, however, to retard the capacity owing to disturbed carbon distribution and loss of conductivity of the LiFePO 4/C. In comparison with the solvent system for cathode manufacturing, the water based system gave similar cell performance, illustrating the possibility to apply a more environmentally sustainable processing of Li-battery cells.

Keywords
Aqueous processing, Freeze granulation, Li-ion batteries, LiFePO 4, Synthesis
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-13343 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.04.037 (DOI)2-s2.0-84860822265 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2022-08-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6859-6830

Search in DiVA

Show all publications