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He, K., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Shi, L. & Cheng, X. (2024). Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 144, Article ID 105550.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation
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2024 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, article id 105550Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is an important parameter for tunnel safety. The present study analyzed the characteristics of the maximum excess ceiling gas temperature driven by double fire sources in a naturally ventilated tunnel. A series of small-scale tunnel fire experiments were carried out with different fire separation distances and heat release rates. Theoretical analysis based on the equivalent virtual origin was also performed. The results showed that there exists only one peak gas temperature when the two fire plumes are merged before reaching the ceiling, while two peak gas temperatures can be observed when the two fire plumes are completely separated. The maximum excess gas temperature below the tunnel ceiling gradually decreases with an increasing fire separation distance in the plume merging region (S < Scp). When the fire separation distance increases further (S > Scp), the effect of the fire separation distance on the maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is very limited. Furthermore, a model using an equivalent fire source was proposed to predict the maximum excess gas temperature below the ceiling, considering different plume merging states. The present study contributes to the understanding of the maximum excess gas temperature characteristics of the smoke flow driven by double fires with an equal heat release rate in naturally ventilated tunnels. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Ceilings; Fires; Gases; Merging; Smoke; Thermal plumes; Ventilation; Double fire source; Fire separation; Gas temperature; Heat release; Maximum excess gas temperature; Natural ventilation; Separation distances; Temperature profiles; Tunnel fires; Ventilated tunnels; Gas temperature
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68815 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2023.105550 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180417123 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Brandforsk
Note

This work was financially supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2022YFC3005201 ), the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC), the Swedish Fire Research Board (BRANDFORSK), Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (No. CX2320007001 ), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grants (No. WK2320000048 and No. WK2320000056 ) and USTC Tang Scholar, which are greatly acknowledged.

Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Quant, M., Pramanik, R., Olofsson, A., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Andersson, P. (2023). Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

Publisher
p. 79
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:42
Keywords
Electric vehicle, fire safety, enclosed space, parking garage, vehicle fire, field experience, hazard identification
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Other Chemical Engineering Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64248 (URN)978-91-89757-90-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
He, K., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H. & Cheng, X. (2023). Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 133, Article ID 104967.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation
2023 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, article id 104967Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Civil Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64962 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2022.104967 (DOI)
Note

This project was financially supported by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC), and the Swedish Fire Research Board (BRANDFORSK), which are greatly acknowledged. 

Highlights:•Fire spread in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation was studied.•A simplified temperature model for tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed.•Criterion for fire spread to two nearby vehicles in tunnel was investigated.•Critical fire spread distance in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was discussed.

 

 

Available from: 2023-06-09 Created: 2023-06-09 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Guo, Q., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Yan, Z. & Zhu, H. (2023). Numerical study on thermally driven smoke flow characteristics in long tunnels under natural ventilation. International journal of thermal sciences, 192, Article ID 108379.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical study on thermally driven smoke flow characteristics in long tunnels under natural ventilation
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2023 (English)In: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, E-ISSN 1778-4166, Vol. 192, article id 108379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper focuses on the flow structures and mass flow rates of thermally driven smoke flows induced by fires in long transportation tunnels under natural ventilation. The important influencing factors including heat release rate (HRR), tunnel width and height, are taken into consideration. The mechanism of the smoke flow movement is explored. The results show that for a fire in a long naturally ventilated transportation tunnel, there exists a critical point which is dependent on HRR and tunnel geometry. This critical point is defined as the location where the smoke layer thickness and the outgoing mass flow rate increase towards it and decrease after it. Further, it is found that the critical point moves farther away from the fire source in a wider or higher tunnel, while it lies closer to the fire source for a higher HRR. A correlation is proposed to estimate the location of the critical point. The outgoing mass flow rates along the tunnel are calculated using the two-layer flow model and well-mixed flow model of thermally driven flows, and the results indicate that these models produce satisfactory predictions of the mass flow rates if the vertical temperature profile is known. © 2023 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Masson s.r.l., 2023
Keywords
Critical point, Long tunnel, Mass flow rate, Smoke flow structure, Tunnel fire, Flow rate, Flow structure, Mass transfer, Smoke, Ventilation, Heat release, Long tunnels, Mass-flow rate, Natural ventilation, Release rate, Smoke flows, Thermally driven, Tunnel fires, Fires
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64422 (URN)10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2023.108379 (DOI)2-s2.0-85154579409 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Y.Z. Li; Fire and Safety, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Box 857, SE-501 15, Sweden; email: yingzhen.li@ri.se;  The author(s) would like to acknowledge the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) for the financial support. This work was also financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 52208408 ), Key Laboratory of Large Structure Health Monitoring and Control in Hebei Province ( KLLSHMC2101 ) and Taiyuan University of Science and Technology ( 20232014 ) in China.

Available from: 2023-05-11 Created: 2023-05-11 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Li, Y. Z., Lönnermark, A., Gehandler, J. & Ingason, H. (Eds.). (2023). Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. Paper presented at Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This publication includes the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Stavanger, Norway, April 26-28, 2023. The Proceedings include 45 papers and 16 posters. The papers were presented in 16 different sessions, i.e., Keynote sessions, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Safety, Risk Management & Explosion, Digitization, Explosion, Poster Corner, Ventilation 1&2, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Tenability and Evacuation, Emergency Management, Evacuation, Safety Management, Fire Dynamics and Resistance. Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Ove Njå (University of Stavanger, Norway), Vladimir Molkov (Ulster University, UK), Ulf Lundström (Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden), Mirjam Nelisse (TNO, The Netherlands), and Gunnar Jenssen (SINTEF, Norway). We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

Publisher
p. 680
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67532 (URN)978-91-89757-89-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 26-28, 2023
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-11-29Bibliographically approved
Zhao, S., Yang, H., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H. & Liu, F. (2023). Theoretical and numerical study on smoke descent during tunnel fires under natural ventilation condition. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 142, Article ID 105414.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical and numerical study on smoke descent during tunnel fires under natural ventilation condition
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2023 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 142, article id 105414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The smoke stratification and the smoke descent along a tunnel are of the utmost importance for personnel evacuation. The paper investigates the smoke descent along a tunnel during a naturally ventilated tunnel fire. A theoretical model is developed to predict the smoke depth below the ceiling along the tunnel. A series of numerical simulations of full-scale tunnel fires are conducted to compare with the developed model, and some coefficients such as the entrainment coefficient are determined from the simulation results. The concepts of critical moment and critical distance are proposed to characterize the smoke descent along the tunnel. The results show that as the smoke spreads longitudinally, the smoke depth below the tunnel ceiling continuously increases. The temperature decay along the tunnel due to heat losses and air entrainment at the smoke layer interface is considered as the main parameter for the smoke descent. After the vitiated air returns back to the fire source, the smoke stratification in the entire tunnel will be significantly reduced. The smoke layer depth along the tunnel based on the temperature distribution is relatively stable in the process of smoke development, which is not sensitive to the HRR, but influenced by the tunnel width, and this method could only be used before the critical moment. The outcomes of this study could provide references for a better understanding of smoke movement in naturally ventilated tunnels and provide technical guidelines for fire safety designers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Air entrainment; Fires; Ventilation; Condition; Critical moment; Natural ventilation; Personnel evacuations; Smoke descent; Smoke layer; Smoke stratification; Stratification; Tunnel fires; Ventilated tunnels; Smoke
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67456 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2023.105414 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171775524 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) for the financial support. Thanks to Qinghua Guo for the valuable discussions and technical assistance during his stay at RISE. Shengzhong Zhao and Haoran Yang were also financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 52208115 ), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2020QE279 ) and Plan of Guidance and Cultivation for Young Innovative Talents of Shandong Province.

Available from: 2023-10-06 Created: 2023-10-06 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Ingason, H., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Jiang, L. (2022). Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel. Fire safety journal, 129, Article ID 103567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel
2022 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, article id 103567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Activation, Automatic sprinkler, Model scale, Tunnel fire, Tunnel velocity, Chemical activation, Fires, Flammability testing, Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Thermocouples, Activation temperatures, Fire tests, Performance, Road tunnel, Sprinkler activation, Tunnel fires, Water density, Hose
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58999 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103567 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127092273 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering, SKB; Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding text 1: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundstr?m at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.; Funding text 2: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) . The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundström at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Guo, Q., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Yan, Z. & Zhu, H. (2022). Study on spilled liquid from a continuous leakage in sloped tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 120, Article ID 104290.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study on spilled liquid from a continuous leakage in sloped tunnels
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2022 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 120, article id 104290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study focuses on the behaviors of spilled liquid from a continuously leaked tank in sloped tunnels. Spillage width and area, which impact the potential heat release rates in case of fire, are investigated under different tunnel slopes and leakage flow rates by numerical simulations using interFoam based on the VOF method in the OpenFOAM toolbox following the validation. The simulation results show that the spillage width initially decreases rapidly and then slowly as the tunnel slope increases. Other parameters, including road surface roughness, physical properties of liquid and leakage source height, are also considered. Empirical models for predicting the spillage width and area are established considering both tunnel slope and leakage flow rate. The results may provide guidance for tunnel safety design and drainage system design affiliated with a tank leakage inside a tunnel. © 2021 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Spillage area, Spillage width, Spilled liquid, Tunnel fire, Tunnel slope, Numerical methods, Surface roughness, Tanks (containers), Tunnels, Heat release, Leakage flow rate, Release rate, Slope flow, Tunnel fires, VOF method, Liquids
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57499 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2021.104290 (DOI)2-s2.0-85121100263 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Tianjin Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Emergency Management, TFRI of MEM, 2021SJ09; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) in Sweden and the Fundamental Research Funds from Tianjin Fire Research Institute of MEM (2021SJ09) in China.

Available from: 2021-12-30 Created: 2021-12-30 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Liu, Y., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H. & Liu, F. (2021). Control of thermal-driven smoke flow at stairways in a subway platform fire. International journal of thermal sciences, 165, Article ID 106937.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control of thermal-driven smoke flow at stairways in a subway platform fire
2021 (English)In: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, E-ISSN 1778-4166, Vol. 165, article id 106937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To manage thermal-driven smoke from fires in a subway station, a mechanical ventilation system is usually installed. Such a system normally consists of an air supply system and a smoke exhaust system. In case of a platform fire, the ventilation systems will be activated to control the smoke and to provide better environmental conditions for personnel evacuation. This paper conducted a theoretical analysis and a series of CFD simulations to study the critical velocity (minimum air velocity) at the stairways for preventing smoke propagating from the platform to the upper floor through the stairways in case of a platform fire. Correlations for critical velocities are established for two typical types of stairways (i.e., with and without side slabs). It is found that the critical velocity is well correlated with the heat release rate by a 1/3 power law function for both types of stairways, but it varies with the height of the smoke curtain at the stairway by a 1.375 and a 2.55 power law function for stairways with and without side slabs, respectively. The results may serve as a useful reference for smoke control in subway platform fires.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Masson s.r.l., 2021
Keywords
Critical velocity, Smoke barriers, Stairway, Subway station, Thermal-driven smoke, Air, Air conditioning, Computational fluid dynamics, Fires, Smoke abatement, Subway stations, Velocity, Ventilation, Ventilation exhausts, Air-supply system, Critical velocities, Mechanical ventilation system, Power-law functions, Smoke barrier, Smoke exhaust systems, Smoke flows, Thermal driven, Ventilation systems, Smoke
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52636 (URN)10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2021.106937 (DOI)2-s2.0-85102966083 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: China Scholarship Council, CSC; Funding text 1: The present work was financially supported by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC), which is greatly acknowledged. The first author would also like to thank China Scholarship Council for providing the opportunity to study at RISE.

Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
He, K., Cheng, X., Li, Y. Z., Ingason, H., Shi, Z., Yang, H. & Zhang, H. (2021). Experimental study on flame characteristics of double fires in a naturally ventilated tunnel: Flame merging, flame tilt angle and flame height. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 114, Article ID 103912.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study on flame characteristics of double fires in a naturally ventilated tunnel: Flame merging, flame tilt angle and flame height
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2021 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 114, article id 103912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of fire tests was carried out to investigate the diffusion flame characteristics of double fires generated from separated burners in a naturally ventilated tunnel, considering different heat release rates and fire separation distances. The results show that the flame tilt angle, as well as the horizontal projected flame length, first increases with fire separation distance and then remains constant, but the vertical flame length first decreases and then remains constant, which is different from two fires in free spaces where flames do not tilt when the separation distance is relatively long. This difference is caused by the non-dimensional fire induced air flow velocity in the tunnel, which is mainly related to the tunnel cross-section dimensions and burner radius. Three regions can be identified, i.e. flame vertical merging, plume vertical merging and non-merging with flame tilted. The critical flame merging separation distance, estimated by the flame merging probability, is greater than that of two fires in an open environment due to the fire-induced air flows. The merging flame height is lower than that of a single fire with a same heat release rate. A correlation was proposed to estimate flame height of two fires in a tunnel by the modified non-dimensional heat release rate using an air entrainment perimeter as the characteristic length. This work enhances the understanding of diffusion flame behaviors of double fires in naturally ventilated tunnels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Double fires, Flame length, Flame merging, Flame tilt angle, Tunnel fire safety
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53133 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2021.103912 (DOI)2-s2.0-85105869698 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CX2320007001; Funding details: University of Science and Technology of China, USTC; Funding details: National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC, 51776192; Funding details: Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, WK2320000048; Funding text 1: This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51776192), Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (No. CX2320007001), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant (No. WK2320000048 ) and USTC Tang Scholar. Acknowledgement also to Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) at RISE for the support.

Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
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