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Larsson, J., Johansson, F., Ivars, D., Johnson, E., Flansbjer, M. & Williams Portal, N. (2023). A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Derivation of quality assurance parameters and geometric reproducibility. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Derivation of quality assurance parameters and geometric reproducibility
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Since each rock joint is unique by nature, the utilization of replicas in direct shear testing is required to carry out experimental parameter studies. However, information about the ability of the replicas to simulate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint and their dispersion in direct shear testing is lacking. With the aim to facilitate generation of high-quality direct shear test data from replicas, a novel component in the testing procedure is introduced by presenting two parameters for geometric quality assurance. The parameters are derived from surface comparisons of three-dimensional (3D) scanning data of the rock joint and its replicas. The first parameter, σmf, captures morphological deviations between the replica and the rock joint surfaces. σmf is derived as the standard deviation of the deviations between the coordinate points of the replica and the rock joint. Four sources of errors introduced in the replica manufacturing process employed in this study could be identified. These errors could be minimized, yielding replicas with σmf ≤ 0.06 mm. The second parameter is a vector, VHp100, which describes deviations with respect to the shear direction. It is the projection of the 100 mm long normal vector of the best-fit plane of the replica joint surface to the corresponding plane of the rock joint. |VHp100| was found to be less than or equal to 0.36 mm in this study. Application of these two geometric quality assurance parameters demonstrates that it is possible to manufacture replicas with high geometric similarity to the rock joint. In a subsequent paper (part 2), σmf and VHp100 are incorporated in a novel quality assurance method, in which the parameters shall be evaluated prior to direct shear testing. Replicas having parameter values below established thresholds shall have a known and narrow dispersion and imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2023
Keywords
Geometric quality assurance, Geometric reproducibility, Replicas, Rock joint, Surface comparisons, Three-dimensional (3D) scanning
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63984 (URN)10.1016/j.jrmge.2022.12.011 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147379920 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Larsson, J, RISE, Sweden; email: jorgen.larsson@ri.se; Funding details: BeFo 391; Funding details: Nuclear Waste Management Organization, NWMO; Funding text 1: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial contribution received from BeFo Rock Engineering Research Foundation (Grant proposal BeFo 391); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) , Toronto, Canada and Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. ( SKB ), Solna, Sweden. The authors also would like to acknowledge Jörgen Spetz at the Department of Measurement Technology at Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) for performing the scanning.

Available from: 2023-02-16 Created: 2023-02-16 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Johansson, F., Ivars, D. M., Johnson, E., Flansbjer, M. & Williams Portal, N. (2023). A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing : Part 2: Validation and mechanical replicability. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing : Part 2: Validation and mechanical replicability
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Each rock joint is unique by nature which means that utilization of replicas in direct shear tests is required in experimental parameter studies. However, a method to acquire knowledge about the ability of the replicas to imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint and their dispersion in direct shear testing is lacking. In this study, a novel method is presented for geometric quality assurance of replicas. The aim is to facilitate generation of high-quality direct shear testing data as a prerequisite for reliable subsequent analyses of the results. In Part 1 of this study, two quality assurance parameters, σmf and VHp100, are derived and their usefulness for evaluation of geometric deviations, i.e. geometric reproducibility, is shown. In Part 2, the parameters are validated by showing a correlation between the parameters and the shear mechanical behavior, which qualifies the parameters for usage in the quality assurance method. Unique results from direct shear tests presenting comparisons between replicas and the rock joint show that replicas fulfilling proposed threshold values of σmf < 0.06 mm and < 0.2 mm have a narrow dispersion and imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint in all aspects apart from having a slightly lower peak shear strength. The wear in these replicas, which have similar morphology as the rock joint, is in the same areas as in the rock joint. The wear is slightly larger in the rock joint and therefore the discrepancy in peak shear strength derives from differences in material properties, possibly from differences in toughness. It is shown by application of the suggested method that the quality assured replicas manufactured following the process employed in this study phenomenologically capture the shear strength characteristics, which makes them useful in parameter studies.

Keywords
Three-dimensional (3D) scanning, Contact area measurements, Direct shear testing, Geometric quality assurance, Mechanical replicability, Replicas, Rock joint
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64280 (URN)10.1016/j.jrmge.2022.12.012 (DOI)
Note

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial contribution received from BeFo Rock Engineering Research Foundation (Grant proposal BeFo 391); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Canada and Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Solna, Sweden. 

Available from: 2023-03-30 Created: 2023-03-30 Last updated: 2023-07-03Bibliographically approved
Jacobsson, L., Flansbjer, M. & Larsson, J. (2023). Direct shear tests on large natural and artificially induced rock fractures in a new laboratory equipment. In: Schubert, W. & Kluckner, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the ISRM 15th International Congress on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium: Challenges in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. Paper presented at ISRM 15th International Congress on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium, Salzburg, Austria, October 9-14, 2023 (pp. 2709-2714). Salzburg: Austrian Society for Geomechanics, Article ID 1827.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct shear tests on large natural and artificially induced rock fractures in a new laboratory equipment
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the ISRM 15th International Congress on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium: Challenges in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering / [ed] Schubert, W. & Kluckner, A., Salzburg: Austrian Society for Geomechanics , 2023, p. 2709-2714, article id 1827Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A direct shear equipment for testing rock fractures up to 400×600 mm size, and up to 5 MN force in both normal and shear loading directions, was developed. Normal loading and direct shear tests under constant normal stiffness (CNS) and constant normal load (CNL) conditions were conducted on 300×500 mm specimens, one planar steel joint and two natural and two tensile induced rock fractures. Design targets, e.g. system to maintain undisturbed fractures up to testing and high system stiffnesses to achieve well-controlled shear tests, were verified by the experiments. A new optical system for local deformation measurements was used to accurately determine fracture displacements besides conventional non-local deformation measurements. The determined normal stiffnesses were similar previous results from the literature on smaller fractures, whereas the shear stiffness data are novel. The results provide a new insight into processes at the onset of fracture slip.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Salzburg: Austrian Society for Geomechanics, 2023
Keywords
Rock fractures, large scale direct shear equipment, local optical deformation measurements, CNL, CNS, fracture stiffness
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67541 (URN)
Conference
ISRM 15th International Congress on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium, Salzburg, Austria, October 9-14, 2023
Funder
Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB
Note

Funding of this work: SKB Svensk Kärnbränslehantering,  

NWMO Nuclear Waste Management Co https://www.nwmo.ca/ , 

BeFo Stiftelsen Bergteknisk Forskning https://www.befoonline.org/

Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2023-10-17Bibliographically approved
Zou, L., Ivars, D., Larsson, J., Selroos, J.-O. & Cvetkovic, V. (2022). Impact of shear displacement on advective transport in a laboratory-scale fracture. Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment, 31, Article ID 100278.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of shear displacement on advective transport in a laboratory-scale fracture
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2022 (English)In: Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment, ISSN 2352-3808, Vol. 31, article id 100278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of shear displacement under different mechanical boundary conditions on fluid flow and advective transport in a single fracture at the laboratory scale is demonstrated in the present study. The shear-induced changes of fracture aperture structures are determined by using the measured normal displacements and digitalized fracture surfaces from laboratory shear tests. Five shear tests on concrete replicas of the same fracture under different mechanical boundary conditions, including constant normal loading (CNL) and constant normal stiffness (CNS), are conducted to analyse the influence of mechanical boundary conditions on the shear-flow-transport processes. Fluid flow in the fracture with different shear displacements are simulated by solving the Reynolds equation. The Lagrangian particle tracking method is applied to model the advective transport in the fracture after shearing. The results generally show that the shear displacements and the normal loading conditions can significantly affect flow patterns and advective travel time distributions in the fracture. For mated fractures, the flow and transport will be enhanced by the increasing shear displacement because of shear dilation. For cases with the same shear displacement, the median advective travel time increases with the increasing boundary normal stiffness. The median advective travel time under the CNS boundary condition is generally longer than that under the CNL boundary condition. The results from this study can help to improve our understanding of stress-dependent solute transport processes in natural rock fractures. © 2021 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Advective transport, Constant normal loading, Constant normal stiffness, Direct shear test, Fluid flow, Rock fracture
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56943 (URN)10.1016/j.gete.2021.100278 (DOI)2-s2.0-85117937234 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering, SKB; Funding text 1: The tests have been carried out at the Department of Applied Mechanics at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. LZ would like to acknowledge the funding provided by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) and helpful discussions with Dr. Martin Stigsson and Dr. Patrick Bruines. The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their helpful comments.

Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Ríos-Bayona, F., Johansson, F., Larsson, J. & Mas-Ivars, D. (2022). Peak Shear Strength of Natural, Unfilled Rock Joints in the Field Based on Data from Drill Cores – A Conceptual Study Based on Large Laboratory Shear Tests. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 55(8), 5083-5106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peak Shear Strength of Natural, Unfilled Rock Joints in the Field Based on Data from Drill Cores – A Conceptual Study Based on Large Laboratory Shear Tests
2022 (English)In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 5083-5106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Significant uncertainties remain regarding the field assessment of the peak shear strength of rock joints. These uncertainties mainly originate from the lack of a verified methodology that would permit prediction of rock joints’ peak shear strength accounting for their surface area, while using information available from smaller samples. This paper investigates a methodology that uses objective observations of the 3D roughness and joint aperture from drill cores to predict the peak shear strength of large natural, unfilled rock joints in the field. The presented methodology has been tested in the laboratory on two natural, unfilled rock joint samples of granite. The joint surface area of the tested samples was of approximately 500 × 300 mm. In this study, the drill cores utilised to predict the peak shear strength of the rock joint samples are simulated based on a subdivision of their digitised surfaces obtained through high-resolution laser scanning. The peak shear strength of the tested samples based on the digitised surfaces of the simulated drill cores is predicted by applying a peak shear strength criterion that accounts for 3D roughness, matedness, and specimen size. The results of the performed analysis and laboratory experiments show that data from the simulated drill cores contain the necessary information to predict the peak shear strength of the tested rock joint samples. The main benefit of this approach is that it may enable the prediction of the peak shear strength in the field under conditions of difficult access.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59310 (URN)10.1007/s00603-022-02913-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85131323319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-07 Created: 2022-06-07 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J. (2021). Experimental investigation of the system normal stiffness of a 5 MN direct shear test setup and the compensation of it in CNS direct shear tests. Paper presented at Mechanics and Rock Engineering, from Theory to Practice 20-25 September 2021, Turin, Italy. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, 833, Article ID 012011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation of the system normal stiffness of a 5 MN direct shear test setup and the compensation of it in CNS direct shear tests
2021 (English)In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315, Vol. 833, article id 012011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Experiments at constant normal stiffness (CNS) are normally carried out to understand underground shear processes of rock joints. However, in many test setups the available space around the joint is limited implying it is not possible to measure the dilatancy directly over the joint. Therefore, the displacement transducers must be in locations where the risk is that additional displacements originating from deficiencies in the test system will be measured causing too low normal loads to be applied. Herein, this issue is investigated in a new 5 MN direct shear test setup. The system normal stiffness was found to be about 11 300 kN/mm derived from normal loading up to 4.5 MN using a steel specimen. The direct shear testing performance under the CNS configuration was evaluated using the steel specimen, which had a joint with a known angle of inclination. The normal load error at 3.9 MN (28 MPa) was 11%, but by application of the effective normal stiffness approach using the system normal stiffness as input the error basically could be eliminated. The results demonstrate the robustness of the setup designed for joint areas up to 400 × 600 mm with normal and shear loads up to 5 MN.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing, 2021
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56641 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/833/1/012011 (DOI)
Conference
Mechanics and Rock Engineering, from Theory to Practice 20-25 September 2021, Turin, Italy
Available from: 2021-09-22 Created: 2021-09-22 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J. (2021). Quality aspects in direct shear testing of rock joints. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality aspects in direct shear testing of rock joints
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The stability of rock masses is influenced by the occurrence of rock joints. Therefore, the shear strength of rock joints must be considered in dimensioning of underground constructions. One way to predict the shear strength is through usage of failure criteria, which are validated from results of direct shear tests under controlled laboratory conditions. Consequently, the quality of the results from the tests are crucial to the accuracy with which the criteria will be able to predict the shear strength. Since rock joints are unique by nature usage of replicas (man-made copies of rock joints) is of importance in parameter studies. The overall objective of this work is to facilitate the development of improved criteria for predictions of the shear strength of rock joints. To support this objective, two sources of uncertainty have been investigated, namely the geometry of replicas and the influence of the normal stiffness of test systems. Two quality assurance parameters for evaluation of geometrical differences between replicas and rock joints based on scanning data have been derived. The first parameter describes the morphological deviations. The second parameter describes the deviations in orientation with respect to the shear plane. The effective normal stiffness approach, which compensates for the influence of the normal stiffness of the test system in direct shear testing, has been developed, validated, and applied. With help of the quality assurance parameters it is demonstrated that it is possible to reproduce replicas within narrow tolerances. Application of the effective normal stiffness approach basically eliminates the normal load error. In all, the results support generation of improved quality of test data and consequently, the development of shear strength criteria with improved accuracy will also be facilitated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2021
Series
KTH Licentiate Thesis in Civil and Architectural Engineering
Keywords
rock joints, geometrical quality assurance, replicas, direct shear testing, normal stiffness.
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53005 (URN)978-91-7873-872-4 (ISBN)
Note

Academic Dissertation which, with due permission of the KTH Royal Institute of  Technology, is submitted for public defence for the Degree of Licentiate of Engineering on Wednesday the 9th June 2021, at 9:00 a.m. in M108, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm.

Paper A: Larsson J, Flansbjer M, Portal N W, Johnson E, Johansson F, and Mas Ivars D. (2020) Geometrical Quality Assurance of Rock Joint Replicas in Shear Tests – Introductory Analysis. Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2020, physical event not held. https://onepetro.org/ISRMEUROCK/proceedings-abstract/EUROCK20/All-EUROCK20/ISRM-EUROCK-2020-101/451187  In Diva: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51987 

Paper B: Larsson J, Johansson F, Mas Ivars D, Johnson E, Flansbjer M and Portal N W. (2021) Rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Extraction of geometrical quality assurance parameters. To be submitted to Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering  In DiVA: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53111 

Paper C: Larsson J and Flansbjer M. (2020) An Approach to Compensate for the Influence of the System Normal Stiffness in CNS Direct Shear Tests. Rock Mechancis and Rock Engineering 53, 2185–2199 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-020-02051-0  In DiVA: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44085  

Paper D: Larsson J. (2021) Experimental investigation of the system normal stiffness of a 5 MN direct shear test setup and the compensation of it in CNS direct shear tests. Submitted to ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2021  In DiVA: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53112 

Available from: 2021-05-18 Created: 2021-05-17 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J. & Flansbjer, M. (2020). An Approach to Compensate for the Influence of the System Normal Stiffness in CNS Direct Shear Tests. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 53, 2185-2199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Approach to Compensate for the Influence of the System Normal Stiffness in CNS Direct Shear Tests
2020 (English)In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 53, p. 2185-2199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Applying accurate normal load to a specimen in direct shear tests under constant normal stiffness (CNS) is of importance for the quality of the resulting data, which in turn influences the conclusions. However, deficiencies in the test system give rise to a normal stiffness, here designated as system normal stiffness, which results in deviations between the intended and actual applied normal loads. Aiming to reduce these deviations, this paper presents the effective normal stiffness approach applicable to closed-loop control systems. Validation through direct shear tests indicates a clear influence of the system normal stiffness on the applied normal load (13% for the test system used in this work). The ability of the approach to compensate for this influence is confirmed herein. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the differences between the measured and the nominal normal displacements are established by the normal load increment divided by the system normal stiffness. This further demonstrates the existence of the system normal stiffness. To employ the effective normal stiffness approach, the intended normal stiffness (user defined) and the system normal stiffness must be known. The latter is determined from a calibration curve based on normal loading tests using a stiff test dummy. Finally, a procedure is presented to estimate errors originating from the application of an approximate representation of the system normal stiffness. The approach is shown to effectively reduce the deviations between intended normal loads and the actual applied normal loads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Calibration, CNS, Dilatancy, Direct shear test, Normal load, Stiffness test system, Closed loop control systems, Testing, Calibration curves, Constant normal stiffness, Normal displacement, Normal loads, Normal stiffness, Stiffness tests, Stiffness
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44085 (URN)10.1007/s00603-020-02051-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85079467556 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: BeFo 391; Funding details: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering, SKB; Funding details: Nuclear Waste Management Organization, NWMO; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. The authors would like to acknowledge the research funding granted by BeFo Rock Engineering Research Foundation (grant proposal BeFo 391) and SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Solna, Sweden. The authors would also like to thank Adjunct Professor Diego Mas Ivars at SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co; Associate Professor Fredrik Johansson at KTH Royal Institute of Technology; and Adjunct Professor Erland Johnson at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB for their valuable contribution to this work.

Available from: 2020-02-26 Created: 2020-02-26 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Flansbjer, M., Williams Portal, N., Johnson, E., Johansson, F. & Mas Ivars, D. (2020). Geometrical Quality Assurance of Rock Joint Replicas in Shear Tests – Introductory Analysis. In: : . Paper presented at ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2020, physical event not held, June 2020.. , Article ID ISRM-EUROCK-2020-101.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geometrical Quality Assurance of Rock Joint Replicas in Shear Tests – Introductory Analysis
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2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The presence of joints in rock masses influences the structural integrity of geotechnical structures. A critical failure mode is shearing, thus making the shearing process of importance to understand. Historically, studies have been mainly executed on the basis of laboratory experiments, since full-scale in situ tests are seldom performed due to technical and economic considerations. Since each rock joint is unique by nature, the utilization of replicas is applied to carry out controlled experimental parameter studies. However, the manufacturing process of replicas introduces many sources of uncertainty. Therefore, in this work the influence of geometrical variations in replicas on the shear strength characteristics is evaluated, mutually as well as in relation to the mother rock specimen of the replicas. The joint surfaces were 3D scanned and the contact area of the joint was measured using pressure sensitive film before direct shear tests. Deviations in morphology were evaluated by surface comparisons between the joint surfaces of the mother rock and replicas. The initial matching of the joints was evaluated by calibrating the scanning data with respect to the contact area measurements. It could be visualized that geometrical deviations were caused by rock fragments coming off during mould production, positioning of the moulds and pores resulting from replica casting. These factors were found to influence the shear strength characteristics of the replicas. The influence of the deviations originating from morphology on the joint matching is demonstrated. In summary, it is shown that replicas with similar shear strength characteristics as rock can be manufactured, but even small deviations affect the characteristics, in particular the peak strength. Therefore, parameters relevant for geometrical quality assurance should be identified along with required value ranges. Selected introductory results on quantified parameters for geometrical quality assurance are presented, serving as a basis for continued work.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51987 (URN)978-82-8208-072-9 (ISBN)
Conference
ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2020, physical event not held, June 2020.
Available from: 2021-01-20 Created: 2021-01-20 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J. (2015). Hårdgjorda ytor och dagvattenhantering samverkar i framtidens städer (ed.). Tidningen Utemiljö (4), i-v
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hårdgjorda ytor och dagvattenhantering samverkar i framtidens städer
2015 (Swedish)In: Tidningen Utemiljö, no 4, p. i-vArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-8224 (URN)24021 (Local ID)24021 (Archive number)24021 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4551-5644

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