Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Larsson, F., Bertilsson, S., Furlani, M., Albinsson, I. & Mellander, B.-E. (2018). Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing. Journal of Power Sources, 373, 220-231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 03787753, Vol. 373, p. 220-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commercial 6.8 Ah lithium-ion cells with different ageing/status have been abused by external heating in an oven. Prior to the abuse test, selected cells were aged either by C/2 cycling up to 300 cycles or stored at 60 °C. Gas emissions were measured by FTIR and three separate vents were identified, two well before the thermal runaway while the third occurred simultaneously with the thermal runaway releasing heavy smoke and gas. Emissions of toxic carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) were detected in the third vent, regardless if there was a fire or not. All abused cells went into thermal runaway and emitted smoke and gas, the working cells also released flames as well as sparks. The dead cells were however less reactive but still underwent thermal runaway. For about half of the working cells, for all levels of cycle ageing, ignition of the accumulated battery released gases occurred about 15 s after the thermal runaway resulting in a gas explosion. The thermal runaway temperature, about 190 °C, varied somewhat for the different cell ageing/status where a weak local minimum was found for cells cycled between 100 and 200 times.

Keywords
Gas explosion, Lithium-ion, Safety, Gas emission, Ageing, Thermal runaway
National Category
Physical Sciences Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32903 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.10.085 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034633253 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Arvidson, M., Evegren, F., Jandali, M., Larsson, F. & Rosengren, M. (2018). Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea
Show others...
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

Publisher
p. 49
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:77
Keywords
lithium-ion batteries, ships, battery room, fire-fighting
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36683 (URN)978-91-88907-27-1 (ISBN)
Note

The Lion Fire @ Sea project was funded by the Swedish Maritime Administration (Sjöfartsverket) and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2017). Are electric vehicles safer than combustion engine vehicles?. In: Björn Sandén, Pontus Wallgren (Ed.), Systems Perspectives on Electromobility 2017: (pp. 34-48). Gothenburg: Chalmers University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are electric vehicles safer than combustion engine vehicles?
2017 (English)In: Systems Perspectives on Electromobility 2017 / [ed] Björn Sandén, Pontus Wallgren, Gothenburg: Chalmers University of Technology , 2017, p. 34-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gothenburg: Chalmers University of Technology, 2017
National Category
Physical Sciences Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32902 (URN)978-91-88041-07-4 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Note

Version 3.1

Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F. & Mellander, B.-E. (2017). Lithium-ion Batteries used in Electrified Vehicles – General Risk Assessment and Construction Guidelines from a Fire and Gas Release Perspective. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium-ion Batteries used in Electrified Vehicles – General Risk Assessment and Construction Guidelines from a Fire and Gas Release Perspective
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents a general and broad risk assessment and construction guidelines for lithium-ion battery systems used in electrified vehicles, from the perspectives of fire and gas release. General types of Li-ion battery systems and electrified vehicles, ranging from light to heavy-duty vehicles, are included. The findings in the report are based on results obtained in the project “Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – develop knowledge, design and requirements to secure a broad introduction of electrified vehicles”, conducted between the years 2012-2017 and lead by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. The guidelines focus on both how to design the battery system and on how to integrate and place the battery in the vehicle in order to increase the safety in terms or fire and gas release.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2017. p. 25
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2017:41
National Category
Energy Engineering Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31320 (URN)
Projects
Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – develop knowledge, design and requirements to secure a broad introduction of electrified vehicles
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Bertilsson, S., Larsson, F., Furlani, M., Albinsson, I. & Mellander, B. E. (2017). Lithium-ion battery electrolyte emissions analyzed by coupled thermogravimetric/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Power Sources, 365, 446-455
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium-ion battery electrolyte emissions analyzed by coupled thermogravimetric/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 365, p. 446-455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the last few years the use of Li-ion batteries has increased rapidly, powering small as well as large applications, from electronic devices to power storage facilities. The Li-ion battery has, however, several safety issues regarding occasional overheating and subsequent thermal runaway. During such episodes, gas emissions from the electrolyte are of special concern because of their toxicity, flammability and the risk for gas explosion. In this work, the emissions from heated typical electrolyte components as well as from commonly used electrolytes are characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and FT-IR coupled with thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, when heating up to 650 °C. The study includes the solvents EC, PC, DEC, DMC and EA in various single, binary and ternary mixtures with and without the LiPF6 salt, a commercially available electrolyte, (LP71), containing EC, DEC, DMC and LiPF6 as well as extracted electrolyte from a commercial 6.8 Ah Li-ion cell. Upon thermal heating, emissions of organic compounds and of the toxic decomposition products hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoryl fluoride (POF3) were detected. The electrolyte and its components have also been extensively analyzed by means of infrared spectroscopy for identification purposes.

Keywords
Electrolyte, Hydrogen fluoride, Lithium-ion, Organic carbonates, Phosphoryl fluoride, TG/FT-IR
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32416 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.082 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029156776 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Carl Tryggers Stiftelse för Vetenskaplig Forskning;

Funding details: Energimyndigheten

Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Rytinki, A., Ahmed, I., Albinsson, I. & Mellander, B.-E. (2017). Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down. Batteries, 3(1), 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of Overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

Keywords
abuse, air supply, metal–air, overcurrent, overdischarge, primary battery, safety, suffocation, zinc (Zn)–air
National Category
Physical Sciences Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32899 (URN)10.3390/batteries3010001 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Wikman, J., Arvidson, M., Larsson, F. & Willstrand, O. (2017). Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea
Show others...
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2017. p. 58
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2017:34
Keywords
lithium-ion battery, sea, propulsion, fire, safety, detection, extinguishment
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Infrastructure Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30020 (URN)
Projects
Säker och kostnadseffektiv introduktion av batteridrift på fartyg
Funder
Region Västra Götaland, RUN 2016-01980
Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2017). Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires. Scientific Reports, 7(1), Article ID 10018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires
2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 10018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

National Category
Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32898 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-09784-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85028603271 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P., Blomqvist, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2016). Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire. In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016: . Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles (FIVE 2016), October 4-6, 2016, Baltimore, US (pp. 253-256).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire
2016 (English)In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, p. 253-256Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28301 (URN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles (FIVE 2016), October 4-6, 2016, Baltimore, US
Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Andersson, P. & Mellander, B.-E. (2016). Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests. Batteries, 2(9), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests
2016 (English)In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Safety issues concerning the use of large lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electrified vehicles are discussed based on the abuse test results of Li-ion cells together with safety devices for cells. The presented abuse tests are: overcharge, short circuit, propane fire test and external heating test (oven). It was found that in a fire, cells with higher state of charge (SOC) gave a higher heat release rate (HRR), while the total heat release (THR) had a lower correlation with SOC. One fire test resulted in a hazardous projectile from a cylindrical cell. In the fire tests, toxic gas emissions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured for 100%, 50% and 0% SOC.

Keywords
lithium-ion (Li-ion), battery, electrified vehicle, safety, thermal runaway, fire, hydrogen fluoride, toxic gases, abuse test
National Category
Physical Sciences Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32904 (URN)10.3390/batteries2020009 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35755-1
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5364-449x

Search in DiVA

Show all publications
v. 2.35.7