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Kreuger, P., Steinert, R., Görnerup, O. & Gillblad, D. (2018). Distributed dynamic load balancing with applications in radio access networks. International Journal of Network Management, 28(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed dynamic load balancing with applications in radio access networks
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Network Management, ISSN 1055-7148, E-ISSN 1099-1190, Vol. 28, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managing and balancing load in distributed systems remains a challenging problem in resource management, especially in networked systems where scalability concerns favour distributed and dynamic approaches. Distributed methods can also integrate well with centralised control paradigms if they provide high-level usage statistics and control interfaces for supporting and deploying centralised policy decisions. We present a general method to compute target values for an arbitrary metric on the local system state and show that autonomous rebalancing actions based on the target values can be used to reliably and robustly improve the balance for metrics based on probabilistic risk estimates. To balance the trade-off between balancing efficiency and cost, we introduce 2 methods of deriving rebalancing actuations from the computed targets that depend on parameters that directly affects the trade-off. This enables policy level control of the distributed mechanism based on collected metric statistics from network elements. Evaluation results based on cellular radio access network simulations indicate that load balancing based on probabilistic overload risk metrics provides more robust balancing solutions with fewer handovers compared to a baseline setting based on average load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Self-organising heterogeneous networks; Distributed dynamic load balancing; Methods/control theories; Network Management/Wireless & mobile networks
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32825 (URN)10.1002/nem.2014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85036539033 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT15-0075EU, Horizon 2020, 671639
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Corcoran, D., Andimeh, L., Ermedahl, A., Kreuger, P. & Schulte, C. (2017). Data driven selection of DRX for energy efficient 5G RAN. In: : . Paper presented at 2017 13th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM). 26-30 Nov. 2017. Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data driven selection of DRX for energy efficient 5G RAN
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The number of connected mobile devices is increasing rapidly with more than 10 billion expected by 2022. Their total aggregate energy consumption poses a significant concern to society. The current 3gpp (3rd Generation Partnership Project) LTE/LTE-Advanced standard incorporates an energy saving technique called discontinuous reception (DRX). It is expected that 5G will use an evolved variant of this scheme. In general, the single selection of DRX parameters per device is non trivial. This paper describes how to improve energy efficiency of mobile devices by selecting DRX based on the traffic profile per device. Our particular approach uses a two phase data-driven strategy which tunes the selection of DRX parameters based on a smart fast energy model. The first phase involves the off-line selection of viable DRX combinations for a particular traffic mix. The second phase involves an on-line selection of DRX from this viable list. The method attempts to guarantee that latency is not worse than a chosen threshold. Alternatively, longer battery life for a device can be traded against increased latency. We built a lab prototype of the system to verify that the technique works and scales on a real LTE system. We also designed a sophisticated traffic generator based on actual user data traces. Complementary method verification has been made by exhaustive off-line simulations on recorded LTE network data. Our approach shows significant device energy savings, which has the aggregated potential over billions of devices to make a real contribution to green, energy efficient networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo: IEEE conference proceedings, 2017
Keywords
Software architecture, 5G mobile communication, Adaptive systems, Energy efficiency, Green computing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33288 (URN)10.23919/CNSM.2017.8255972 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046680815 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2017 13th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM). 26-30 Nov. 2017. Tokyo, Japan
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Kreuger, P., Görnerup, O., Gillblad, D., Lundborg, T., Corcoran, D. & Ermedahl, A. (2015). Autonomous load balancing of heterogeneous networks (11ed.). In: 2015 IEEE 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring): . Paper presented at 81st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring 2015), May 11-14, 2015, Glasgow, UK. , Article ID 7145712.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autonomous load balancing of heterogeneous networks
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2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015, 11, article id 7145712Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a method for load balancing heterogeneous networks by dynamically assigning values to the LTE cell range expansion (CRE) parameter. The method records hand-over events online and adapts flexibly to changes in terminal traffic and mobility by maintaining statistical estimators that are used to support autonomous assignment decisions. The proposed approach has low overhead and is highly scalable due to a modularised and completely distributed design that exploits self- organisation based on local inter-cell interactions. An advanced simulator that incorporates terminal traffic patterns and mobility models with a radio access network simulator has been developed to validate and evaluate the method.

Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1550-2252
Keywords
autonomous network management, self-organising heterogenous networks, distributed algorithms, statistical modelling
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24457 (URN)10.1109/VTCSpring.2015.7145712 (DOI)978-1-4799-8088-8 (ISBN)
Conference
81st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring 2015), May 11-14, 2015, Glasgow, UK
Projects
HetNet
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Kreuger, P., Gillblad, D., Görnerup, O., Corcoran, D., Lundborg, T. & Ermedahl, A. (2015). Methods, Nodes and system for enabling redistribution of cell load (13ed.). .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods, Nodes and system for enabling redistribution of cell load
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2015 (English)Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Patent for distributed load balancing mechanism for LTE, developed by SICS in collaboration with Ericsson DURA

Publisher
p. 49
Keywords
load balancing, cell range expansion, autonomous radio access management, distributed algorithms, LTE
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24526 (URN)
Projects
HetNet
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Nemeth, F., Steinert, R., Kreuger, P. & Sköldström, P. (2015). Roles of DevOps tools in an automated, dynamic service creation architecture (11ed.). In: 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM): . Paper presented at 14th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2015), May 11-15, 2015, Ottawa, Canada (pp. 1153-1154). , Article ID 7140455.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roles of DevOps tools in an automated, dynamic service creation architecture
2015 (English)In: 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM), 2015, 11, p. 1153-1154, article id 7140455Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Functions Virtualization facilitate, with their advanced pro- grammability features, the design of automated dynamic service creation platforms. Applying DevOps principles to service design can further reduce service creation times and support continuous operation. Monitoring, troubleshooting, and other DevOps tools can have different roles within virtualised networks, depending on virtualization level, type of instantiation, and user intent. We have implemented and integrated four key DevOps tools that are useful in their own right, but showcase also an integrated scenario, where they form the basis for a more complete and realistic DevOps toolkit. The current set of tools include a message bus, a rudimentary configuration tool, a probabilistic congestion detector, and a watchpoint mechanism. The demo also presents potential roles and use-cases for the tools.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24504 (URN)10.1109/INM.2015.7140455 (DOI)978-1-4799-8241-7 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2015), May 11-15, 2015, Ottawa, Canada
Projects
UNIFY
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Kreuger, P. & Steinert, R. (2015). Scalable in-network rate monitoring (6ed.). In: 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM): . Paper presented at 14th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2015), May 11-15, 2015, Ottawa, Canada (pp. 866-869). , Article ID 7140396.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scalable in-network rate monitoring
2015 (English)In: 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM), 2015, 6, p. 866-869, article id 7140396Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a highly scalable statistical method for modelling the monitored traffic rate in a network node and suggest a simple method for detecting increased risk of congestion at different monitoring time scales. The approach is based on parameter estimation of a lognormal distribution using the method of moments. The proposed method is computation- ally efficient and requires only two counters for updating the parameter estimates between consecutive inspections. Evaluation using a naive congestion detector with a success rate of over 98% indicates that our model can be used to detect episodes of high congestion risk at 0.3 s using estimates captured at 5 m intervals.

Keywords
probabilistic management, performance monitoring, statistical traffic analysis, link utilization modelling, congestion detection, in-network rate monitoring
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24458 (URN)10.1109/INM.2015.7140396 (DOI)978-1-4799-8241-7 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2015), May 11-15, 2015, Ottawa, Canada
Projects
Unify
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
John, W., Meirosu, C., Pechenot, B., Sköldström, P., Kreuger, P. & Steinert, R. (2015). Scalable Software Defined Monitoring for Service Provider DevOps (11ed.). In: 2015 Fourth European Workshop on Software Defined Networks: . Paper presented at 4th European Workshop on Software Defined Networks (EWSDN 2015), September 30 - October 2, 2015, Bilbao, Spain (pp. 61-66). , Article ID 7313617.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scalable Software Defined Monitoring for Service Provider DevOps
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2015 (English)In: 2015 Fourth European Workshop on Software Defined Networks, 2015, 11, p. 61-66, article id 7313617Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Technology trends such as Cloud, SDN, and NFV are transforming the telecommunications business, promising higher service flexibility and faster deployment times. They also allow for increased programmability of the infrastructure layers. We propose to split selected monitoring control functionality onto node-local control planes, thereby taking advantage of processing capabilities on programmable nodes. Our software defined monitoring approach provides telecom operators with a way to handle the trade off between high-granular monitoring information versus network and computation loads at central control and management layers. To illustrate the concept, a link rate monitoring function is implemented using node-local control plane components. Furthermore, we introduce a messaging bus for simple and flexible communication between monitoring function components as well as control and management systems. We investigate scalability gains with a numerical analysis, demonstrating that our approach would generate thousand fold less monitoring traffic while providing similar information granularity as a naive SNMP implementation or an Open Flow approach.

Keywords
management, monitoring, NFV, scalability, SDN
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24015 (URN)10.1109/EWSDN.2015.62 (DOI)978-1-5090-0180-4 (ISBN)
Conference
4th European Workshop on Software Defined Networks (EWSDN 2015), September 30 - October 2, 2015, Bilbao, Spain
Projects
UNIFY
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Görnerup, O., Kreuger, P. & Gillblad, D. (2013). Autonomous Accident Monitoring Using Cellular Network Data (8ed.). In: : . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autonomous Accident Monitoring Using Cellular Network Data
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mobile communication networks constitute large-scale sensor networks that generate huge amounts of data that can be refined into collective mobility patterns. In this paper we propose a method for using these patterns to autonomously monitor and detect accidents and other critical events. The approach is to identify a measure that is approximately time-invariant on short time-scales under regular conditions, estimate the short and long-term dynamics of this measure using Bayesian inference, and identify sudden shifts in mobility patterns by monitoring the divergence between the short and long-term estimates. By estimating long-term dynamics, the method is also able to adapt to long-term trends in data. As a proof-of-concept, we apply this approach in a vehicular traffic scenario, where we demonstrate that the method can detect traffic accidents and distinguish these from regular events, such as traffic congestions.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24157 (URN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM)
Projects
Monitoring and robust operation of cellular networks
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Kreuger, P., Gillblad, D. & Arvidsson, Å. (2013). zCap: a zero configuration adaptive paging and mobility management mechanism (7ed.). International Journal of Network Management, 235-258
Open this publication in new window or tab >>zCap: a zero configuration adaptive paging and mobility management mechanism
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Network Management, ISSN 1055-7148, E-ISSN 1099-1190, p. 235-258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, cellular networks rely on fixed collections of cells (tracking areas) for user equipment localisation. Locating users within these areas involves broadcast search (paging), which consumes radio bandwidth but reduces the user equipment signalling required for mobility management. Tracking areas are today manually configured, hard to adapt to local mobility and influence the load on several key resources in the network. We propose a decentralised and self-adaptive approach to mobility management based on a probabilistic model of local mobility. By estimating the parameters of this model from observations of user mobility collected online, we obtain a dynamic model from which we construct local neighbourhoods of cells where we are most likely to locate user equipment. We propose to replace the static tracking areas of current systems with neighbourhoods local to each cell. The model is also used to derive a multi-phase paging scheme, where the division of neighbourhood cells into consecutive phases balances response times and paging cost. The complete mechanism requires no manual tracking area configuration and performs localisation efficiently in terms of signalling and response times. Detailed simulations show that significant potential gains in localisation effi- ciency are possible while eliminating manual configuration of mobility management parameters. Variants of the proposal can be implemented within current (LTE) standards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2013 Edition: 7
Keywords
Network management, Wireless & mobile networks, Configuration & performance management, Autonomic and self management, Distributed management, Probabilistic methods, Machine learning, Self-configuration, Mobility tracking & statistics, Paging procedures
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24219 (URN)
Projects
mocnet
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Kreuger, P., Gillblad, D. & Arvidsson, Å. (2012). Zero configuration adaptive paging (zCap) (14ed.). In: IEEE 76th Veh. Technol. Conf.: . Paper presented at IEEE 76th Veh. Technol. Conf.. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Zero configuration adaptive paging (zCap)
2012 (English)In: IEEE 76th Veh. Technol. Conf., IEEE , 2012, 14Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today, cellular networks rely on fixed collections of cells (tracking areas) for handset localisation. This management parameter is manually configured and maintained and is not regularly adapted to changes in use patterns. We present a decentralised approach to localisation, based on a self-adaptive probabilistic mobility model. Estimates of model parameters are built from observations of mobility patterns collected on- line using a distributed algorithm. Based on these estimates, dynamic local neighbourhoods of cells are formed and maintained by the mobility management entities of the network. These neighbourhoods replace the static tracking areas used in current implementations by using the tracking area list facility of LTE. The model is also used to derive a multi phase paging scheme, where the division of cells into consecutive phases is optimal with respect to a set balance between response times and paging cost. The approach requires no manual tracking area configuration, and performs localisation efficiently in terms of number of location updates, page messages per localisation request and response times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012 Edition: 14
Keywords
Mobility Management, WIreless networks, Probabilistic network management, Statistical methods, Optimisation, Distributed algorithms
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24055 (URN)
Conference
IEEE 76th Veh. Technol. Conf.
Projects
MocNetCNS NetMan
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9331-0352

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