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Flemström, D., Gustafsson, T. & Kobetski, A. (2018). A Case Study of Interactive Development of Passive Tests. In: : . Paper presented at Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering and Testing, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 2018 (RET’2018) (pp. 13-20).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study of Interactive Development of Passive Tests
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Testing in the active sense is the most common way to performverification and validation of systems, but testing in the passivesense has one compelling property: independence. Independencefrom test stimuli and other passive tests opens up for parallel testingand off-line analysis. However, the tests can be difficult to developsince the complete testable state must be expressed using someformalism. We argue that a carefully chosen language togetherwith an interactive work flow, providing immediate feedback, canenable testers to approach passive testing. We have conducted a casestudy in the automotive domain, interviewing experienced testers.The testers have been introduced to, and had hands-on practicewith a tool. The tool is based on Easy Approach to RequirementsSyntax (EARS) and provides an interactive work flow for developingand evaluating test results. The case study shows that i) the testersbelieve passive testing is useful for many of their tests, ii) they seebenefits in parallelism and off-line analysis, iii) the interactive workflow is necessary for writing the testable state expression, but iv)when the testable state becomes too complex, then the proposedlanguage is a limitation. However, the language contributes toconcise tests, resembling executable requirements.

Keywords
passive testing, case study, content analysis, test language, test tool
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34877 (URN)10.1145/3195538.3195544 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051171350 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering and Testing, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 2018 (RET’2018)
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Flemström, D., Enoiu, E., Azal, W., Sundmark, D., Gustafsson, T. & Kobetski, A. (2018). From natural language requirements to passive test cases using guarded assertions. In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018: . Paper presented at 18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 16 July 2018 through 20 July 2018 (pp. 470-481).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From natural language requirements to passive test cases using guarded assertions
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 2018, p. 470-481Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In large-scale embedded system development, requirements are often expressed in natural language. Translating these requirements to executable test cases, while keeping the test cases and requirements aligned, is a challenging task. While such a transformation typically requires extensive domain knowledge, we show that a systematic process in combination with passive testing would facilitate the translation as well as linking the requirements to tests. Passive testing approaches observe the behavior of the system and test their correctness without interfering with the normal behavior. We use a specific approach to passive testing: guarded assertions (G/A). This paper presents a method for transforming system requirements expressed in natural language into G/As. We further present a proof of concept evaluation, performed at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, in which we show how the process would be used, together with practical advice of the reasoning behind the translation steps.

Keywords
Computer software selection and evaluation, Embedded systems, Natural language processing systems, Software reliability, Bombardier Transportation, Domain knowledge, Large scale embedded systems, Natural language requirements, Natural languages, Proof of concept, System requirements, Systematic process, Translation (languages)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35663 (URN)10.1109/QRS.2018.00060 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052319900 (Scopus ID)9781538677575 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 16 July 2018 through 20 July 2018
Note

 Funding details: 20130258; Funding details: 20160139; Funding details: Knowledge Foundation; Funding details: FFI, Fellowships Fund Incorporated; Funding details: VINNOVA; Funding details: 737494, ECSEL, Electronic Components and Systems for European Leadership; Funding details: MegaM@Rt2, ECSEL, Electronic Components and Systems for European Leadership; Funding text: ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by The Knowledge Foundation (KKS) through the projects 20160139 (TESTMINE) and 20130258 (Volvo Chair), by VINNOVA within the FFI program (SAGA) and from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No. 737494 (MegaM@Rt2).

Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2018-11-07Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. & Kobetski, A. (2018). Towards a risk analysis method for systems-of-systems based on systems thinking. In: : . Paper presented at 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon) (pp. 1-8).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a risk analysis method for systems-of-systems based on systems thinking
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The characteristics of systems-of-systems (SoS) present fundamental challenges regarding properties such as safety, security, reliability, and robustness. This is due to the SoS nature where a collection of independent systems cooperate to fulfil certain high-level objectives. Risk analysis is thus an important activity in SoS engineering. This paper presents a risk analysis method which extends the existing STAMP safety analysis method that is based on systems thinking. Our extensions are aimed at coping with other risks than safety, and the usage is tailored to SoS. The method aims at deriving requirements on the constituent systems that will reduce the emergent risks on the SoS as a whole. The method has been applied to a case study of vehicle platooning.

Keywords
risk analysis, systems analysis, systems engineering, systems-of-systems, SoS engineering, constituent systems, STAMP safety analysis, systems thinking, SoS risk analysis, systems-theoretic accident model and processes, Safety, Modeling, Software, Security, Risk management, platooning
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34330 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2018.8369501 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048869954 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)
Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Flemström, D., Gustafsson, T. & Kobetski, A. (2017). SAGA Toolbox: Interactive Testing of Guarded Assertions. In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017: . Paper presented at 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, 13 March 2017 through 17 March 2017 (pp. 516-523).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SAGA Toolbox: Interactive Testing of Guarded Assertions
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, 2017, p. 516-523Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the SAGA toolbox. It centers around development of tests, and analysis of test results, on Guarded Assertions (GA) format. Such a test defines when to test, and what to expect in such a state. The SAGA toolbox lets the user describe the test, and at the same time get immediate feedback on the test result based on a trace from the System Under Test (SUT). The feedback is visual using plots of the trace. This enables the test engineer to play around with the data and use an agile development method, since the data is already there. Moreover, the SAGA toolbox also enables the test engineer to change test stimuli plots to study the effect they have on a test. It can later generate computer programs that can feed these test stimuli to the SUT. This enables an interactive feedback loop, where immediate feedback on changes to the test, or to the test stimuli, indicate whether the test is correct and it passed or failed.

Keywords
Guarded assertions, Interactive testing tool, Test sequence generation, Verification, Agile development methods, Immediate feedbacks, Interactive feedback, System under test, Test engineers, Test sequence generations, Testing tools, Software testing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30921 (URN)10.1109/ICST.2017.59 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020696155 (Scopus ID)9781509060313 (ISBN)
Conference
10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, 13 March 2017 through 17 March 2017
Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Kobetski, A. & Axelsson, J. (2017). Towards safe and secure systems of systems: Challenges and opportunities. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing: . Paper presented at 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC 2017, 4 April 2017 through 6 April 2017 (pp. 1803-1806).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards safe and secure systems of systems: Challenges and opportunities
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2017, p. 1803-1806Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While systems of systems (SoS) are starting to reach the market, it is not entirely evident how to analyze safety, and on a high level also security, of such systems. In fact, specific characteristics of SoS, such as independence, changing constitution, evolutionary development, and emergent behavior, provide certain challenges to the safety analysis. In this paper, such challenges are summarized and a systems theoretic safety analysis method, abbreviated as STAMP, is evaluated on an automotive SoS application example. In conclusion, STAMP seems well positioned to serve as a base for a future method for safety and, to a certain degree, security analysis of SoS, although some work remains to be done. The advantages and limitations of the STAMP approach when dealing with SoS are discussed.

Keywords
Automotive, Platooning, Safety, Security, Systems of systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30968 (URN)10.1145/3019612.3028252 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020862422 (Scopus ID)9781450344869 (ISBN)
Conference
32nd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC 2017, 4 April 2017 through 6 April 2017
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Flemström, D., Gustafsson, T., Kobetski, A. & Sundmark, D. (2016). A Research Roadmap for Test Design in Automated Integration Testing of Vehicular Systems (9ed.). In: FASSI 2016: The Second International Conference on Fundamentals and Advances in Software Systems Integration. Paper presented at Second International Conference on Fundamentals and Advances in Software Systems Integration (FASSI 2016), July 24-28, 2016, Nice, France (pp. 18-23). International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Research Roadmap for Test Design in Automated Integration Testing of Vehicular Systems
2016 (English)In: FASSI 2016: The Second International Conference on Fundamentals and Advances in Software Systems Integration, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2016, 9, p. 18-23Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An increasing share of the innovations emerging in the vehicular industry are implemented in software. Consequently, vehicular electrical systems are becoming more and more complex with an increasing number of functions, computational nodes and complex sensors, e.g., cameras and radars. The introduction of autonomous functional components, such as advanced driver assistance systems, highlight the foreseeable complexity of different parts of the system interacting with each other and with the human driver. It is of utmost importance that the testing effort can scale with this increasing complexity. In this paper, we review the challenges that we are facing in integration testing of complex embedded vehicular systems. Further, based on these challenges we outline a set of research directions for semi-automated or automated test design and execution in integration testing of vehicular systems. While the discussion is exemplified with our hands-on experience of the automotive industry, much of the concepts can be generalised to a broader setting of complex embedded systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2016 Edition: 9
Keywords
Software Testing, Automotive Systems, Embedded Systems, Integration Testing
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24557 (URN)9781612084978 (ISBN)
Conference
Second International Conference on Fundamentals and Advances in Software Systems Integration (FASSI 2016), July 24-28, 2016, Nice, France
Projects
SAGA
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Pelliccione, P., Kobetski, A., Larsson, T., Aramrattana, M., Aderum, T., Ågren, S. M., . . . Thorsen, A. (2016). Architecting cars as constituents of a system of systems. In: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Software-intensive Systems-of-Systems at 10th European Conference on Software Architecture: . Paper presented at 10th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA 2016), November 28 - December 2, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark. ACM, Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecting cars as constituents of a system of systems
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Software-intensive Systems-of-Systems at 10th European Conference on Software Architecture, ACM , 2016, article id 5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future transportation systems will be a heterogeneous mix of items with varying connectivity and interoperability. A mix of new technologies and legacy systems will co-exist to realize a variety of scenarios involving not only connected cars but also road infrastructures, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. Future transportation systems can be seen as a System of Systems (SoS), where each constituent system - one of the units that compose an SoS - can act as a standalone system, but the cooperation among the constituent systems enables new emerging and promising scenarios. In this paper we investigate how to architect cars so that they can be constituents of future transportation systems. This work is realized in the context of two Swedish projects coordinated by Volvo Cars and involving some universities and research centers in Sweden and many suppliers of the OEM, including Autoliv, Arccore, Combitech, Cybercom, Knowit, Prevas, ÅF-Technology, Semcom, and Qamcom.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM, 2016
Series
SiSoS@ECSA ’16
Keywords
automotive, software architecture, systems of systems
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33618 (URN)10.1145/3175731.3175733 (DOI)9781450363990 (ISBN)
Conference
10th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA 2016), November 28 - December 2, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, T., Skoglund, M., Kobetski, A. & Sundmark, D. (2015). Automotive System Testing by Independent Guarded Assertions (10ed.). In: 2015 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW): . Paper presented at 8th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW 2015), April 13-17, 2015, Graz, Austria. , Article ID 7107474.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automotive System Testing by Independent Guarded Assertions
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), 2015, 10, article id 7107474Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Testing is a key activity in industry to verify and validate products before they reach end customers. In hardwarein- the-loop system-level verification of automotive systems, testing is often performed using sequential execution of test scripts, each containing a mix of stimuli and assertions. In this paper, we propose and study an alternative approach for automated system-level testing automotive systems. In our approach, assertion-only test scripts and one (or several) stimulionly script(s), execute concurrently on the test driver. By separating the stimuli from the assertions, with each assertion independently determining when the system under test shall be verified, we seek to achieve three things: 1) tests that better represent real-world handling of the product, 2) reduced test execution time, and 3) increased defect detection. In addition to describing our proposed approach in detail, we provide experimental results from an industrial case study evaluating the approach in an automotive system test environment.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24474 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2015.7107474 (DOI)978-1-4799-1885-0 (ISBN)
Conference
8th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW 2015), April 13-17, 2015, Graz, Austria
Projects
PINT
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Rodriguez-Navas, G., Kobetski, A., Sundmark, D. & Gustafsson, T. (2015). Offline Analysis of Independent Guarded Assertions in Automotive Integration Testing (7ed.). In: 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS 2015), August 24-26, 2015, New York, US.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offline Analysis of Independent Guarded Assertions in Automotive Integration Testing
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, 2015, 7Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The size and complexity of software in automotive systems have increased steadily over the last decades. Modern vehicles typically contain numerous electrical control units (ECUs), and more and more features require real-time interaction between several dedicated ECUs (e.g., gearbox, brake and engine control units) in order to perform their tasks. Since system safety and reliability must not be adversely affected by this increase in complexity, proper quality assurance is a must. Such quality assurance is often performed by testing the system in different levels of integration throughout the development process. However, the growth of complexity of the system under test aslo affects the testing, making it laborious, difficult and costly. This paper presents a novel method for efficient offline analysis of traces, which has been especially tailored for integration testing of automotive systems. The method exploits the recently defined concept of independent guarded assertion in order to formally describe the events that are relevant for the analysis as well as the expected behavior in those events. The offline analysis is implemented using a standard commercial model checker and has shown good performance in the conducted experiments.

Keywords
automotive, integration testing, model-based testing, model checking, trace analysis
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24473 (URN)10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.251 (DOI)978-1-4799-8937-9 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS 2015), August 24-26, 2015, New York, US
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. & Kobetski, A. (2014). Architectural Concepts for Federated Embedded Systems (13ed.). In: : . Paper presented at Second International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural Concepts for Federated Embedded Systems
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Federated embedded systems (FES) is an approach for systems-of-systems engineering in the domain of cyber-physical systems. It is based on the idea to allow dynamic addition of plug-in software in the embedded system of a product, and through communication between the plug-ins in different products, it becomes possible to build services on the level of a federation of products. In this paper, architectural concerns for FES are elicited, and are used as rationale for a number of decisions in the architecture of products that are enabled for FES, as well as in the application architecture of a federation. A concrete implementation of a FES from the automotive domain is also described, as a validation of the architectural concepts presented.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24363 (URN)10.1145/2642803.2647716 (DOI)2-s2.0-84907415182 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Second International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems
Projects
FRESTAEcoFES
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2801-8037

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