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Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Malmsten Lundgren, V., Klingegård, M., Englund, C. & Larsson, S. (2019). External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?. In: Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker (Ed.), Meyer, Gereon; Beiker, Sven (Ed.), Road Vehicle Automation 5: . Paper presented at Road Vehicle Automation 5 (pp. 91-102). Paper presented at Road Vehicle Automation 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?
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2019 (English)In: Road Vehicle Automation 5 / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, 2019, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

How to ensure trust and societal acceptance of automated vehicles (AVs) is a widely-discussed topic today. While trust and acceptance could be influenced by a range of factors, one thing is sure: the ability of AVs to safely and smoothly interact with other road users will play a key role. Based on our experiences from a series of studies, this paper elaborates on issues that AVs may face in interactions with other road users and whether external vehicle interfaces could support these interactions. Our overall conclusion is that such interfaces may be beneficial in situations where negotiation is needed. However, these benefits, and potential drawbacks, need to be further explored to create a common language, or standard, for how AVs should communicate with other road users.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37616 (URN)
Conference
Road Vehicle Automation 5
Note

The Automated Vehicles Symposium 2017

Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)

Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A., Malmsten Lundgren, V., Andersson, J., Klingegård, M., Lagström, T., Sirkka, A., . . . Larsson, P. (2018). Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1336.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions.

Keywords
automated vehicle, communication, external interface, intent, interaction, negotiation, pedestrian
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35144 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01336 (DOI)30131737 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Strömberg, H., Pettersson, I., Andersson, J., Rydström, A., Dey, D., Klingegård, M. & Forlizzi, J. (2018). Designing for social experiences with and within autonomous vehicles – exploring methodological directions. Design Science, 4, Article ID e13.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for social experiences with and within autonomous vehicles – exploring methodological directions
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2018 (English)In: Design Science, Vol. 4, article id e13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The introduction of autonomous vehicles (autonomous vehicles) will reshape the many social interactions that are part of traffic today. In order for autonomous vehicles to become successfully integrated, the social interactions surrounding them need to be purposefully designed. To ensure success and save development efforts, design methods that explore social aspects in early design phases are needed to provide conceptual directions before committing to concrete solutions. This paper contributes an exploration of methods for addressing the social aspects of autonomous vehicles in three key areas: the vehicle as a social entity in traffic, co-experience within the vehicle and the user–vehicle relationship. The methods explored include Wizard of Oz, small-scale scenarios, design metaphors, enactment and peer-to-peer interviews. These were applied in a workshop setting with 18 participants from academia and industry. The methods provided interesting design seeds, however with differing effectiveness. The most promising methods enabled flexible idea exploration, but in a contextualized and concrete manner through tangible objects and enactment to stage future use situations. Further, combinations of methods that enable a shift between social perspectives were preferred. Wizard of Oz and small-scale scenarios were found fruitful as collaboration basis for multidisciplinary teams, by establishing a united understanding of the problem at hand.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34920 (URN)10.1017/dsj.2018.9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058015179 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-23 Created: 2018-08-23 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Thill, S., Riveiro, M., Lagerstedt, E., Lebram, M., Hemeren, P., Habibovic, A. & Klingegård, M. (2018). Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 56, 420-435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study
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2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a large-scale simulator study on driver adherence to recommendations given by driver support systems, specifically eco-driving support and navigation support. 123 participants took part in this study, and drove a vehicle simulator through a pre-defined environment for a duration of approximately 10 min. Depending on the experimental condition, participants were either given no eco-driving recommendations, or a system whose provided support was either basic (recommendations were given in the form of an icon displayed in a manner that simulates a heads-up display) or informative (the system additionally displayed a line of text justifying its recommendations). A navigation system that likewise provided either basic or informative support, depending on the condition, was also provided. Effects are measured in terms of estimated simulated fuel savings as well as engine braking/coasting behaviour and gear change efficiency. Results indicate improvements in all variables. In particular, participants who had the support of an eco-driving system spent a significantly higher proportion of the time coasting. Participants also changed gears at lower engine RPM when using an eco-driving support system, and significantly more so when the system provided justifications. Overall, the results support the notion that providing reasons why a support system puts forward a certain recommendation improves adherence to it over mere presentation of the recommendation. Finally, results indicate that participants’ driving style was less eco-friendly if the navigation system provided justifications but the eco-system did not. This may be due to participants considering the two systems as one whole rather than separate entities with individual merits. This has implications for how to design and evaluate a given driver support system since its effectiveness may depend on the performance of other systems in the vehicle.

Keywords
Driver behaviour, Driver recommendation systems, Eco-friendly behaviour, System awareness, Advanced driver assistance systems, Automobile drivers, Engines, Environmental protection, Fuel economy, Navigation systems, Eco-friendly, Experimental conditions, Heads-up display, Navigation support, Simulated fuels, Vehicle simulators, Simulators
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34096 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2018.05.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048505654 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten;

Available from: 2018-07-09 Created: 2018-07-09 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Dey, D., Habibovic, A., Klingegård, M., Lundgren, V. M., Andersson, J. & Schieben, A. (2018). Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications: . Paper presented at AutomotiveUI '18 Adjunct Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications Toronto, ON, Canada — September 23 - 25, 2018 (pp. 17-22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, 2018, p. 17-22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Methods and metrics for studying interactions between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity, such as pedestrians, cyclists and non-automated vehicles, are not established yet. This workshop focuses on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies that could potentially be used to study such interactions. The objective lies in determining the proper experimental design, sensitivity of metrics for measuring user behavior, ecological validity, generalizability of findings, extraction of insights regarding how findings can be translated into actionable requirements, and the alternatives for conducting longitudinal field studies. It will be of an interactive nature and involve hands-on activities. The workshop will consolidate existing knowledge, identify recurring issues, and explore the path towards resolving these issues. The outcome will be compiled into a paper to share this valuable knowledge with a broader research community.

Keywords
Automated driving, eHMI, external communication, interaction, metrics, research methodology
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36454 (URN)10.1145/3239092.3239095 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063127328 (Scopus ID)9781450359474 (ISBN)
Conference
AutomotiveUI '18 Adjunct Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications Toronto, ON, Canada — September 23 - 25, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Bout, M., Pernestål Brenden, A., Klingegård, M., Habibovic, A. & Böckle, M. P. (2017). A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles. In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings: . Paper presented at 9th ACM International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2017, 24 September 2017 through 27 September 2017 (pp. 62-66). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles
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2017 (English)In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 62-66Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automated driving systems will be severely challenged in the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is especially true for Shared Automated Vehicles (SAVs), as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver on-board. When an SAV will encounter a scenario it cannot handle, a remote human operator will need to intervene and help the vehicle and its passengers. In this study a user-centred design approach is used to study whether a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) interface can support such operators and provide them with additional spatial awareness. Two prototypes (an HMD and a computer display) are developed and evaluated using pre-recorded real-world scenarios. Twelve participants assessed three possible scenarios a remote operator may encounter. Among participants, the study found evidence of strong implicit spatial awareness when using an HMD interface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2017
Keywords
Automated Driving, HCI, HMD, Remote Operator, SAV, Spatial Awareness, Teleoperation, User Interface, Automation, Data visualization, Human computer interaction, Remote control, User interfaces, Vehicles, Automated driving systems, Automated vehicles, Computer display, Head mounted displays, Real-world scenario, Helmet mounted displays
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38058 (URN)10.1145/3131726.3131758 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034842564 (Scopus ID)9781450351515 (ISBN)
Conference
9th ACM International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2017, 24 September 2017 through 27 September 2017
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, S., Wedlin, J., Fransson, T., Olausson, E., Börjessonn, C., Klingegård, M. & Andersson, J. (2017). Demonstration och utvärdering av induktiv laddning.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration och utvärdering av induktiv laddning
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Demonstration and evaluation of inductive charging
Abstract [sv]

Trådlös, induktiv, laddning skulle kunna ge elbilar ytterligare en, och kanskeavgörande, fördel gentemot fossilbränsledrivna genom att användarna i principaldrig behöver åka någonstans för att ”tanka”. Istället laddas bilarna enkelt ochbekvämt trådlöst utan sladd när de står parkerade.Teknologin i sig är inte komplicerad men tillämpningen för fordon i verklighetenär fortfarande i sin linda. Det finns därför behov av att förstå såväl de praktiskasom tekniska svårigheterna hur verkliga användare utnyttjar och upplever den nyatekniken. Av denna anledning initierades WiCh-projektet 2012 efter en förstudiesom förutsättningslöst studerade lämpliga lösningar för bekväm laddning.Projektet har, i världens fortfarande största enskilda fältstudie avinduktionsladdning, utrustat 20 personbilar i kommunal och enskild verksamhetoch följt upp användningen under ett och ett halvt års tid. Resultaten av studienvisar att trådlös laddning kan vara attraktiv jämfört med laddning med sladd, ochatt ladd-beteendet sannolikt kommer att förändras med trådlös laddning.Utrustningen levererades av den enda leverantör som finns på den öppnamarknaden, amerikanska Evatran Group. För att få tillstånd till en fältstudie iSverige genomfördes ett antal tekniska prov vilka också gav viktig kunskap tilltestorganisationer och tillståndsgivande myndigheter.

Abstract [en]

Wireless, inductive, charging could give electric cars yet another, and perhapsfinal, advantage compared with fossil driven cars: that you in principle never haveto drive somewhere to re-fuel. Instead the cars are being charged wheneverparked.The technology itself is not complicated but the application for vehicles in realuse is still in an early phase. Therefore, there is a need to understand both thepractical and technical difficulties how real drivers use and perceive the newtechnology. Therefore, the WiCh-project was initiated after the completion of aprevious feasibility study that unconditionally studied appropriate solutions forconvenient charging.The project has, in what today still is the world’s largest single field trial ofinduction charging, equipped 20 passenger cars in municipality and private useand then studied the usage during a period of one and a half years. The resultsshow that wireless charging can be attractive compared to cable charging and thatthe charging behaviour most likely will change with wireless charging. Thecharging equipment was acquired from the only supplier available on the openmarket, Evatran Group from the U.S.A. To get approval for a field trial in Swedenseveral technical tests were undertaken, which also built important knowledge fortesting organisations and authorities.

Publisher
p. 39
Series
Energimyndighetens rapport
Keywords
Elfordon, Trådlös Laddning, Induktiv laddning, Användarstudier, Testbädd
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29616 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35866-1
Note

Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndighetens Demonstrationsprogram förelfordon och av projektparterna Vattenfall, Stockholm Stad (Miljöförvaltningen),Göteborg Stads Leasing, Lindholmen Science Park, Strålsäkerhetsmyndighetenoch RISE Viktoria

Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Malmsten Lundgren, V., Klingegård, M. & Englund, C. (2017). External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users. In: : . Paper presented at AVS2017, Automated Vehicle Symposium, 11-13 July, 2017, San Francisco, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33105 (URN)
Conference
AVS2017, Automated Vehicle Symposium, 11-13 July, 2017, San Francisco, USA
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Habibovic, A., Klingegård, M., Englund, C. & Malmsten-Lundgren, V. (2017). Hello Human, can you read my mind?. ERCIM News (109), 36-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hello Human, can you read my mind?
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2017 (English)In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 109, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29618 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Habibovic, A., Andersson, J., Klingegård, M., Malmsten-Lundgren, V. & Larsson, S. (2017). Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles
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2017 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With autonomous cars on the road, not only will occupants need to communicate with their cars: pedestrians and autonomous vehicles will need to understand each other too. This article examines the vehicle HMI for road users other than the driver and passengers. 

Series
Special report: Advances in automotive HMI
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33084 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1539-2006

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