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Sehati, P., Malmros, I., Karlsson, S. & Kovacs, P. (2019). Aesthetically pleasing PV modules for the Built Environment. Växjö
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetically pleasing PV modules for the Built Environment
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sustainable development of the built environment is in the vicinity with circular economy, green building technology and the integration of renewable energy harvesting devices. Solar energy is an enormous resource, in 90 minutes the sun irradiates energy in an amount that is equal to our entire planet’s annual energy need. PV modules is an increasing alternative to generate electricity which has reached grid parity with fossil energy in larger installations. However, fields of PV modules require space and in the built environment the space is scarce, therefore, building applied and building integrated PV has become increasingly interesting. As PV becomes an integrated part in the built environment the aesthetics becomes important, also for it to become accepted among architects. Today, there are many alternatives to make PV modules aesthetically pleasing and many companies develop this further in collaboration with building contractors and architects. In the current report we introduce color, light and PV modules and present a survey of how to make PV modules aesthetically pleasing with a special focus on modification of its color. We present some examples of aesthetically pleasing PV modules and Nordic companies that have been working with developing this. We also list companies that supply roof- as well as façade systems. Finally, we discuss the challenges and the cost implications for aesthetically pleasing PV modules in the built environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: , 2019. p. 24
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:08
Keywords
Aesthetics, Architecture, Colored glass, Coating, Cost, Customer need, PV module, PV installer, interviews, paint, solar cells
National Category
Materials Engineering Energy Systems Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37326 (URN)978-91-88907-30-1 (ISBN)
Projects
Competitive Industrialized Photovoltaic Roofing
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40180-1
Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Eder, G., Peharz, G., Trattnig, R., Bonomo, P., Saretta, E., Frontini, F., . . . Zanelli, A. (2019). Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the building sector, net-zero energy performance targets and reduction of CO2 emissions are the main drivers for building integrated photovoltaics. Recent market studies [10,18,19] show the history and perspective of the global market in the BIPV sector and calculate a global compound annual growth rate of ~ 40 % from 2009 up to 2020.

In Europe, the BIPV market is in a transition. The past decades of a slowly emerging BIPV market have been characterized by the original dominant value of BIPV: a building that communicates an image of sustainability and innovation. Payback time or "return on investment" have not been the major parameters in the decision process for applying BIPV. This is changing now. In most European countries, the new regulations on energy performance in buildings (derived from the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and the Directive on energy efficiency) have been translated in national regulations/laws, stating that all new (and freshly refurbished) buildings of the EU member states should be nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs) by 2020. Thus, the time for the regulations to become mandatory is very near. It is expected that the energy performance regulations are now taking over as the main driving factor for the BIPV market and that should have huge consequences in removing the difference between a conventional building component and a BIPV component both in aesthetical and construction terms. This has led to intensified research and development aiming to create BIPV products that come in a variety of colours and sizes, while at the same time being as close as possible to existing building components, to its requirements and how it is considered by the construction industry.

The given market overview of state-of-the-art coloured BIPV products clearly reveals that for all parts of a BIPV module (glass, polymers, PV-active layers), there are technical solutions available for colouring. Pilot projects utilizing coloured BIPV products have been built in numerous (mainly European) cities clearly demonstrating the maturity of these solutions.

The key aspect that has been slowing down the progress of implementation of these aesthetically appealing and technically sophisticated new products into a wider market are the costs. In this respect, a lot of effort has been made to improve and optimize the relationship between colour and efficiency/power generation of BIPV elements. The results of the past and on-going innovative research and intensified fundamental considerations are also summarized in this report.

Besides the colour perception of the coloured BIPV elements under solar irradiation which is essential for the acceptance of the exterior appearance of a building, also transparency and inside visual comfort of BIPV – windows and façade elements are essential for the users and inhabitants.

Series
International Energy Agency, Photovoltaic Power System Programme ; T15:07
Keywords
Coloured PV
National Category
Other Materials Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38336 (URN)
Projects
Competitive Industrialized Photovoltaic Roofing
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40180-1
Available from: 2019-04-22 Created: 2019-04-22 Last updated: 2019-07-31Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Wondraczek, L., Ali, S. & Jonson, B. (2019). Kinetics of chemical strengthening and trends in effective diffusion coefficients. In: : . Paper presented at 25th International Congress on Glass (ICG 2019).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of chemical strengthening and trends in effective diffusion coefficients
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alkali cation exchange has received significant attention with respect to introducing compressive stress in the glass surface, a process frequently called chemical strengthening. Besides mechanical properties may also other properties such as optical, electrical and chemical properties be modified using ion exchange of various monovalent ions. The mobility of monovalent ions varies and the relations of structural and effective diffusion coefficients may help to understand how to improve the ion exchange kinetics of soda lime silicates. We discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by their correlations to physico-chemical properties. The most significant correlations were found to be the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that electron localization and the rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

Keywords
ion exchange, glass, chemical strengthening, kinetics, bond dissociation energy, polarizability
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39046 (URN)
Conference
25th International Congress on Glass (ICG 2019)
Projects
Thinner and stronger glass for sustainable production and consumption
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00707Vinnova, 2013-04343EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, GROWTH 291795
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Kalinowski, M., Lang, M., Sehati, P., Järphag, T., Storm, O., . . . Häll, J. (2019). Korrosion av planglas inom byggbranschen kopplat till betong.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Korrosion av planglas inom byggbranschen kopplat till betong
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Ett förekommande problem under byggprocessen är betongrinning. Innebörden av betongrinning är att vatten varit i kontakt med färsk betong och därefter påverkat glasytor till fasader/balkonger/fönster. Påverkan på glaset kan vara fysisk och ibland även kemisk. Resultatet blir droppfläckar, rinnmärken och utfällningar som försämrar glasets ljusgenomsläpplighet och estetiska intryck. Så länge påverkan enbart är fysisk är denna skada relativt lätt att ta bort antingen med hjälp av mekanisk polering eller genom att torka glaset med utspädd syra. Ofta fortskrider dock processen till ett kemiskt angrepp på glaset, vilket är permanent och inte går att avlägsna helt med ovan nämnda metoder. Kemiska reaktioner har då skapat etsningar i glasytan som på sikt blir i storleksordningen mikrometer djupa.

I denna förstudie har vi försökt simulera betongrinningsangrepp dels under kontrollerade förhållanden i laboratoriemiljö och dels i utomhusmiljö. Försöksvariablerna var två olika betongvarianter samt glas med respektive utan ett på marknaden befintligt glasskyddande medel. Resultatet av försöken har analyserats genom okulär bedömning, mikroanalys med svepelektronmikroskop och energidispersiv röntgenspektroskopi samt yttopografimätningar med optisk profilometer. Testerna resulterade i utfällningar på glasytan innehållande ämnena svavel, kalium och kalcium, vilka bedöms härstamma från betongen. Efter inomhusförsöken, som pågick i fyra månader, gick utfällningarna att tvätta bort med saltsyralösning, och inga djupgående, permanenta korrosionsskador syntes på glaset. Utomhusförsöken utsträcktes till elva månader, varpå bestående skador kunde konstateras på glasytorna efter att utfällningarna tvättats bort. Djupet på skadorna uppmättes som mest till cirka en halv mikrometer. Varken sänkning av pH i betongen eller skyddsbehandling av glaset bidrog till att hindra uppkomst av fläckighet eller etsningar på glaset. I diskussioner med industrirepresentanter konstaterades att betongrinning är ett ganska vanligt problem, som är oberoende av geografi. Tidigare försök med behandling av både betong och glas varit verkningslösa. I majoriteten av fall handlar problemen om inglasade balkonger alternativt glasräcken i kombination med balkongplatta i betong. Det man vet fungerar är att använda en korrekt konstruktion som hindrar vattnet från att droppa ned på glaset. Regelbunden rengöring av glasen hjälper också och kommer förmodligen hamna som ett underhållskrav mot kunder.

Publisher
p. 60
Series
Smart Housing Småland
Keywords
betongrinning, avrinning, glas, betong, byggnader, balkongplattor, korrosion
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38662 (URN)
Projects
Smart Housing Småland
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-04218
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
Grund Bäck, L., Ali, S., Karlsson, S., Möncke, D., Kamitsos, E. I. & Jonson, B. (2019). Mixed alkali/alkaline earth-silicate glasses: Physical properties and structure by vibrational spectroscopy. Paper presented at This article also appears in: International Congress on Glass 2019 Collection. International Journal of Applied Glass Science, 10(3), 349-362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mixed alkali/alkaline earth-silicate glasses: Physical properties and structure by vibrational spectroscopy
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Applied Glass Science, ISSN 2041-1286, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 349-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we investigate the correlation of selected physical properties with structural changes in quaternary mixed modifier alkali/alkaline earth oxide silicate glass  systems,  focusing  either  on  the  mixed  alkali  effect  [(20−x)Na2O–xK2O– 10CaO–70SiO2 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20)] or on the mixed alkaline earth effect [20Na2O– (10−y)CaO–yBaO–70SiO2 (y = 0, 5, 10)]. A maximum microhardness and packing density, as well as a minimum glass transition temperature were observed for mixed alkali glasses. The mixed alkaline earth glasses do not exhibit any clear extrema in any  of  the  properties  studied.  The  hardness  and  glass  transition  temperature  de-creases, while the density and molar volume increases with increasing BaO content. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the Q3 group compared to the Q2 and Q4 groups as the high field strength ions Na+ or Ca2+ are substituted by their low field strength analogs K+  or Ba2+. In the mixed alkali series, the high field strength ion Na+, seems to push the low field strength ion K+ into lower energy sites when present simultaneously, while such an effect is not apparent for the mixed alkaline earth glasses, where the far IR spectra of mixed glasses are equivalent to the weighted averages of the pure glasses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 2019
Keywords
mixed modifier effect, silicate glass, glass transition temperature, hardness, Raman spectroscopy and IR
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38945 (URN)10.1111/ijag.13101 (DOI)
Conference
This article also appears in: International Congress on Glass 2019 Collection
Funder
Vinnova, 2013-04343EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 2013-04343; GROWTH
Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S. (2019). Möjligheter och begränsningar med färgade solceller. GLAS (2), 30-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Möjligheter och begränsningar med färgade solceller
2019 (Swedish)In: GLAS, no 2, p. 30-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Solceller har länge varit ett lovande alternativ förelproduktion men har hittills begränsats av kostnad och effektivitet. Förstörre installationer har man för några år sedan kunnat nå samma pris som fördet rörliga elpriset och sedan 2002 har solcellsinstallationerna fördubblats för varje år som gått.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Glasbranschföreningen, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38932 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40180-1
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-03Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, P., Bäck, L., Orman, R., Booth, J. & Karlsson, S. (2019). Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass. Thin Solid Films, 669, 487-493
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, p. 487-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the current paper we present a concept combining metal organic chemical vapor deposition with thermal strengthening process of flat glass. As the flat glass is heated to be thermally strengthened, which takes up to 20 minutes, there is an opportunity for performing a surface modification. We describe the application of transparent and amorphous Al2O3 thin films during the thermal strengthening process. Al2O3 was chosen due to the following desirable properties: increased surface mechanical properties and increased chemical durability, the latter has not been investigated in the current paper. The residual surface compressive stresses after performed strengthening of the coated glasses were quantified to be in the range of 80-110 MPa. The Al2O3 content in the surface was measured using the Surface Ablation Cell employed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and found to be at least doubled at the surface and having an increased Al2O3 content at least 0.5 mu m underneath the glass surface. During the surface reaction, sodium is migrating to the surface giving a hazy salt layer on the glass which can easily be washed off with water. The applied coatings are transparent and provide increased surface hardness and crack resistance at low indentation loads. At higher indentation loads the interaction volume is larger and displays the same effect on the surface mechanical properties as for thermally strengthened glass. The contact angle with water compared to annealed float glass is significantly increased from 5 degrees to 45 degrees due to the different surface chemistry and surface topography.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38710 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2018.11.028 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057159064 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S. (2019). The future development of cover glass for efficient harvesting of solar energy (INVITED). In: : . Paper presented at 25th International Congress on Glass (ICG 2019). The American Ceramic Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The future development of cover glass for efficient harvesting of solar energy (INVITED)
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glass as a cover material for solar energy harvesting constitutes a significant part of the cost. Furthermore, is glass an important component for efficient light capture and protection to the environment. Research and development of cover glass is needed to increase the service lifetime and to reduce the cost per watt peak. Recent research efforts have provided knowledge of which properties that needs to be optimized balancing efficiency, service lifetime and cost. Challenges with the development of cover glass for efficient harvesting of solar energy will be discussed. Some recent results related to optimization of the glass composition for enhancing properties for the purpose and the deposition of functional thin films will be presented. The failure modes for PV modules and how glass can improve the resistance to failure will be discussed. Developments of transparent and robust multifunctional coatings that provide anti-reflective and anti-soiling properties on the outer glass surface are desired. On the interior surface are anti-reflective and chemical barrier multifunctional coatings desirable to increase transmission and reducing potential induced degradation (PID). Replacing the conventional silver strings in PV modules with transparent conductive materials and back-reflecting backsheet materials are among the promising techniques for further maximizing the efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Ceramic Society, 2019
Keywords
solar energy, photovoltaics, thermal strengthening, efficiency, glass
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39045 (URN)
Conference
25th International Congress on Glass (ICG 2019)
Projects
Light Innovative Materials for Enhanced Solar Efficiency
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 38349-1Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00707
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Johansson, W., Peralta, A., Jonson, B., Anand, S., Österlund, L. & Karlsson, S. (2019). Transparent TiO2 and ZnO Thin Films on Glass for UV Protection of PV Modules. Frontiers in Materials, 6, Article ID 259.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transparent TiO2 and ZnO Thin Films on Glass for UV Protection of PV Modules
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 6, article id 259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Failure of PV modules frequently occurs as a result of degradation of their encapsulation material by destructive UV radiation. Both the life expectancy and efficiency of PV modules can be improved by reducing the transmittance of the destructive UV radiation through the cover glass without compromising the transmittance in the visible wavelength region. In addition, if the absorbed UV photons can be down-shifted to wavelengths that can be more efficiently converted to electrical energy, an additional increase of the PV efficiency could be achieved. In this study we have investigated transparent ZnO and TiO2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on soda lime silicate float glass as functional layers on PV cover glass. The optical bandgap, UV-cutoff, UV-Vis transmittance, reflectivity (total and diffuse) and photoluminescence have been determined. The ZnO coating shifted the optical bandgap to longer wavelengths, resulting in a reduction of the transmittance of destructive UV radiation by up to ~85%. Distinct photoluminescence peaks at 377 nm and at 640 nm were observed for one of the ZnO samples. The TiO2 coated glasses also showed an increased UV cutoff, which resulted in a reduction of transmittance of destructive UV radiation by up to 75%. However, no photoluminescence peaks could be observed from the TiO2 films with 325 nm excitation laser, which can be explained by the fact that only indirect interband transitions are accessible at this excitation wavelength. Deposition of both ZnO and TiO2 coatings resulted in a reduction of the transmitted light convertible by PV modules, by up to 12.3 and 21.8%, respectively. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of lifetime expectancy and efficiency of PV modules.

Keywords
float glass, thin films, UV protection, photovoltaics modules, cover glass, transparent intelligence, solar energy materials, photoluminescence
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40567 (URN)10.3389/fmats.2019.00259 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-18 Created: 2019-10-18 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Grund Bäck, L., Ali, S., Karlsson, S., Wondraczek, L. & Jonson, B. (2019). X-ray and UV–Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu (I) and Cu (II) coordination environments in mixed alkali-lime-silicate glasses. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X, 3, Article ID 100029.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-ray and UV–Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu (I) and Cu (II) coordination environments in mixed alkali-lime-silicate glasses
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X, ISSN 2590-1591, Vol. 3, article id 100029Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The local structures of Cu(I) and Cu(II) in (20-x)Na2O-xK2O-10CaO-70SiO2 glasses with a copper content of 0.4 mol% have been investigated by Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Complementary data for Cu(II) was derived using UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Indication for mainly linear two-fold coordination of the Cu+ ion was found by both EXAFS and XANES, but other coordination between Cu+ and O2– cannot be excluded. The Cu(I)-O bond lengths were found to be 1.79–1.83 ± 0.02 Å. EXAFS results showed that Cu(II) was mostly present in a Jahn-Teller distorted environment with oxygen, an octahedron with four shorter Cu(II)-O bonds and two longer in axial position. The equatorial bond lengths were found to be 1.89–1.91 ± 0.02 Å and the axial 2.20–2.24 ± 0.02 Å with no effect of the Jahn-Teller distortion of the octahedron when the glass composition was altered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Mixed alkali, Ligand Field Theory, UV-Vis-NIR, EXAFS, XANES, Jahn-Teller distortion, Silicate glass
National Category
Materials Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39341 (URN)10.1016/j.nocx.2019.100029 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova, 2013-04343EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, GROWTH 291795Vinnova, 2015-04809Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationThe Crafoord Foundation, 20180875
Available from: 2019-07-05 Created: 2019-07-05 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2160-6979

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