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Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Jedvert, K., Idström, A., Köhnke, T. & Alkhagen, M. (2019). Cellulosic nonwovens produced via efficient solution blowing technique. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Article ID 48339.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellulosic nonwovens produced via efficient solution blowing technique
2019 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, article id 48339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The demand for nonwoven materials has increased during the last few years and is expected to increase further due to its use in a broad range of new application areas. Today, the majority of nonwovens are from petroleum-based resources but there is a desideratum to develop sustainable and competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, renewable nonwovens are produced by solution blowing of dissolved cellulose using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. Properties of cellulose solutions and process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, air pressure, and distance to collector, are evaluated in respect to spinnability and material structural properties. Nonwovens with fiber diameters mainly in the micrometer range were successfully produced and it was shown that high temperature or low flow rate resulted in thinner fibers. The produced materials were stiffer (higher effective stress and lower strain) compared to commercial polypropylene nonwoven. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Applied Polymer Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48339. © 2019 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2019
Keywords
cellulose, nonwovens, solution blowing, Polypropylenes, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetates, Cellulose solutions, Effective stress, Micrometer ranges, Non-wovens, Nonwoven materials, Process parameters, Renewable feedstocks, Nonwoven fabrics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39851 (URN)10.1002/app.48339 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070821248 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas, 942‐2015‐388; Funding text 1: The Swedish Research Council Formas (Grant No. 942‐2015‐388) is gratefully acknowledged for the financial support.

Available from: 2019-08-30 Created: 2019-08-30 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, J., Jedvert, K., Köhnke, T. & Theliander, H. (2019). Identifying breach mechanism during air-gap spinning of lignin–cellulose ionic-liquid solutions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Article ID 47800.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying breach mechanism during air-gap spinning of lignin–cellulose ionic-liquid solutions
2019 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, article id 47800Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To be able to produce highly oriented and strong fibers from polymer solutions, a high elongational rate during the fiber-forming process is necessary. In the air-gap spinning process, a high elongational rate is realized by employing a high draw ratio, the ratio between take-up and extrusion velocity. Air-gap spinning of lignin–cellulose ionic-liquid solutions renders fibers that are promising to use as carbon fiber precursors. To further improve their mechanical properties, the polymer orientation should be maximized. However, achieving high draw ratios is limited by spinning instabilities that occur at high elongational rates. The aim of this experimental study is to understand the link between solution properties and the critical draw ratio during air-gap spinning. A maximum critical draw ratio with respect to temperature is found. Two mechanisms that limit the critical draw ratio are proposed, cohesive breach and draw resonance, the latter identified from high-speed videos. The two mechanisms clearly correlate with different temperature regions. The results from this work are not only of value for future work within the studied system but also for the design of air-gap spinning processes in general. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 47800.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2019
Keywords
cellulose and other wood products, extrusion, fibers, manufacturing, viscosity and viscoelasticity, Air, Carbon fibers, Cellulose, High speed cameras, Ionic liquids, Lignin, Manufacture, Wood, Carbon fiber precursors, Extrusion velocity, High draw ratios, High-speed video, Solution property, Spinning process, Temperature regions, Viscosity and viscoelasticities, Spinning (fibers)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38493 (URN)10.1002/app.47800 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063743075 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, J., Jedvert, K., Hedlund, A., Köhnke, T. & Theliander, H. (2019). Mass transport and yield during spinning oflignin-cellulose carbon fiber precursors. Holzforschung, 73(5), 509-516
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mass transport and yield during spinning oflignin-cellulose carbon fiber precursors
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2019 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 73, no 5, p. 509-516Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin, a substance considered as a residue in biomass and ethanol production, has been identified as a renewable resource suitable for making inexpensive carbon fibers (CFs), which would widen the range of possible applications for light-weight CFs reinforced composites. Wet spinning of lignin-cellulose ionic liquid solutions is a promising method for producing lignin-based CFs precursors. However, wet-spinning solutions containing lignin pose technical challenges that have to be solved to enable industrialization. One of these issues is that a part of the lignin leaches into the coagulation liquid, which reduces yield and might complicate solvent recovery. In this work, the mass transport during coagulation is studied in depth using a model system and trends are confirmed with spinning trials. It was discovered that during coagulation, efflux of ionic liquid is not hindered by lignin concentration in solution and the formed cellulose network will enclose soluble lignin. Consequently, a high total concentration of lignin and cellulose in solution is advantageous to maximize yield. This work provides a fundamental understanding on mass transport during coagulation of lignin-cellulose solutions, crucial information when designing new solution-based fiber forming processes.

Keywords
biomass; carbon fiber; ionic liquids; lignin; wet spinning
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37686 (URN)10.1515/hf-2018-0246 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-07-01Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, J., Jedvert, K., Köhnke, T. & Theliander, T. (2018). Coagulation of dry-jet wet-spun lignin-based carbon fibre precursors. In: Proceedings of the 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp: . Paper presented at 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, Aveiro, June 26-29 (pp. 123-126).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coagulation of dry-jet wet-spun lignin-based carbon fibre precursors
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, 2018, p. 123-126Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34842 (URN)
Conference
15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, Aveiro, June 26-29
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, J., Jedvert, K., Köhnke, T. & Theliander, H. (2018). Dry-jet wet-spun lignin-based carbon fibre precursors. In: : . Paper presented at ACS National meeting, March 18-22, New Orleans, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dry-jet wet-spun lignin-based carbon fibre precursors
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34841 (URN)
Conference
ACS National meeting, March 18-22, New Orleans, USA
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, A., Bengtsson, J., Olsson, C., Sedin, M., Jedvert, K., Theliander, H. & Sjöholm, E. (2018). Improved yield of carbon fibres from cellulose and kraft lignin. Holzforschung, 72(12), 1007-1016
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved yield of carbon fibres from cellulose and kraft lignin
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2018 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 12, p. 1007-1016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To meet the demand for carbon-fibre-reinforced composites in lightweight applications, cost-efficient processing and new raw materials are sought for. Cellulose and kraft lignin are each interesting renewables for this purpose due to their high availability. The molecular order of cellulose is an excellent property, as is the high carbon content of lignin. By co-processing cellulose and lignin, the advantages of these macromolecules are synergistic for producing carbon fibre (CF) of commercial grade in high yields. CFs were prepared from precursor fibres (PFs) made from 70:30 blends of softwood kraft lignin (SW-KL) and cellulose by dry-jet wet spinning with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIm][OAc]) as a solvent. In focus was the impact of the molecular mass of lignin and the type of cellulose source on the CF yield and properties, while membrane-filtrated kraft lignin and cellulose from dissolving kraft pulp and fully bleached paper-grade SW-KP (kraft pulp) served as sources. Under the investigated conditions, the yield increased from around 22% for CF from neat cellulose to about 40% in the presence of lignin, irrespective of the type of SW-KL. The yield increment was also higher relative to the theoretical one for CF made from blends (69%) compared to those made from neat celluloses (48-51%). No difference in the mechanical properties of the produced CF was observed.

Keywords
1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc), carbon fibre (CF), cellulose, dissolving pulp, dry-jet wet-spun, fractionation, kraft pulp, LignoBoost lignin, molecular mass, softwood kraft lignin, Carbon fibers, Dissolution, Fiber reinforced materials, Fiber reinforced plastics, Ionic liquids, Softwoods, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetates, Carbon fibre reinforced composites, Dry jet-wet spinning, High carbon content, Lightweight application, Molecular ordering, Softwood kraft lignins, Lignin
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34571 (URN)10.1515/hf-2018-0028 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050958001 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Kostag, M., Jedvert, K., Achtel, C., Heinze, T. & El Seoud, O. A. (2018). Recent Advances in Solvents for the Dissolution, Shaping and Derivatization of Cellulose: Quaternary Ammonium Electrolytes and their Solutions in Water and Molecular Solvents.. Molecules, 23(3), Article ID E511.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent Advances in Solvents for the Dissolution, Shaping and Derivatization of Cellulose: Quaternary Ammonium Electrolytes and their Solutions in Water and Molecular Solvents.
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2018 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 3, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a sustained interest in developing solvents for physically dissolving cellulose, i.e., without covalent bond formation. The use of ionic liquids, ILs, has generated much interest because of their structural versatility that results in efficiency as cellulose solvents. Despite some limitations, imidazole-based ILs have received most of the scientific community's attention. The objective of the present review is to show the advantages of using quaternary ammonium electrolytes, QAEs, including salts of super bases, as solvents for cellulose dissolution, shaping, and derivatization, and as a result, increase the interest in further investigation of these important solvents. QAEs share with ILs structural versatility; many are liquids at room temperature or are soluble in water and molecular solvents (MSs), in particular dimethyl sulfoxide. In this review we first give a historical background on the use of QAEs in cellulose chemistry, and then discuss the common, relatively simple strategies for their synthesis. We discuss the mechanism of cellulose dissolution by QAEs, neat or as solutions in MSs and water, with emphasis on the relevance to cellulose dissolution efficiency of the charge and structure of the cation and. We then discuss the use of cellulose solutions in these solvents for its derivatization under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The products of interest are cellulose esters and ethers; our emphasis is on the role of solvent and possible side reactions. The final part is concerned with the use of cellulose dopes in these solvents for its shaping as fibers, a field with potential commercial application.

Keywords
biomass conversion, cellulose derivatization, cellulose dissolution mechanism, cellulose shaping, molecular solvents, quaternary ammonium electrolytes, super bases
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33394 (URN)10.3390/molecules23030511 (DOI)29495344 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042779798 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Achtel, C., Jedvert, K., Kostag, M., El Seoud, O. A. & Heinze, T. (2018). Surprising Insensitivity of Homogeneous Acetylation of Cellulose Dissolved in Triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium Chloride/Molecular Solvent on the Solvent Polarity. Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), 303(5)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surprising Insensitivity of Homogeneous Acetylation of Cellulose Dissolved in Triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium Chloride/Molecular Solvent on the Solvent Polarity
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2018 (English)In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 303, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The homogeneous acetylation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride in triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium chloride (N2228Cl)/molecular solvents (MSs) is investigated. The reaction with both acylating agents shows the expected increase of the degree of substitution (DS) on reaction temperature and time. Under comparable reaction conditions, however, DS is surprisingly little dependent on the MS employed, although the MSs differ in empirical polarity by 7 kcal mol−1 as calculated by use of solvatochromic probes. The empirical polarities of (MCC + N2228Cl + MS) differ only by 0.8 kcal mol−1. The formation a polar electrolyte sheath around cellulose chains presumably contributes to this “leveling-off” of the dependence DS on the polarity of the parent MS employed. N2228Cl recovery and recycling is feasible. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2018
Keywords
Acetylation; Cellulose; Chlorine compounds; Electrolytes; Recycling, Ammonium chloride; Cellulose acetates; Degree of substitution; Microcrystalline cellulose; Reaction conditions; Reaction temperature; Solvatochromic probes; Solvent polarity, Solvents, Acetylation; Ammonium Chloride; Cellulose; Chlorine Compounds; Electrolytes; Recycling
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34199 (URN)10.1002/mame.201800032 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046902251 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-16 Created: 2018-07-16 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Jedvert, K., Elschner, T. & Heinze, T. (2017). Adsorption Studies of Amino Cellulose on Cellulosics. Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), Article ID 1700022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adsorption Studies of Amino Cellulose on Cellulosics
2017 (English)In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, article id 1700022Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Adsorption of a typical example of a new class of amino cellulose, namely 6-deoxy-6-(2-aminoethyl)amino cellulose at different pH-values and in the presence of electrolytes, onto cellulose model substrates is studied with surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Unexpectedly, adsorption is consistently higher at a higher pH-value of 10, indicating that solubility and interactions between amine moieties and cellulose are more important than electrostatic interactions. The findings are highly relevant for the process to modify material surfaces with amino cellulose in water-based systems as a universal tool for changing the surface properties and chemistry. Potential applications for an antimicrobial all biobased material could be found, e.g., as medical textiles or in the biotechnology sector.

Keywords
6-deoxy-6-(2-aminoethyl)amino cellulose, Adsorption, PH-dependence, QCM-D, SPR
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29407 (URN)10.1002/mame.201700022 (DOI)2-s2.0-85017378802 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Jedvert, K. & Heinze, T. (2017). Cellulose modification and shaping – a review. Journal of polymer engineering, 37(9), 845-860
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellulose modification and shaping – a review
2017 (English)In: Journal of polymer engineering, ISSN 0334-6447, E-ISSN 2191-0340, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 845-860Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review aims to present cellulose as a versatile resource for the production of a variety of materials, other than pulp and paper. These products include fibers, nonwovens, films, composites, and novel derivatized materials. This article will briefly introduce the structure of cellulose and some common cellulose derivatives, as well as the formation of cellulosic materials in the micro- and nanoscale range. The challenge with dissolution of cellulose will be discussed and both derivatizing and nonderivatizing solvents for cellulose will be described. The focus of the article is the critical discussion of different shaping processes to obtain a variety of cellulose products, from commercially available viscose fibers to advanced and functionalized materials still at the research level.

Keywords
cellulose, cellulose derivatives, fibers, functional materials, solubility
National Category
Bio Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29406 (URN)10.1515/polyeng-2016-0272 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034047986 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2893-8554

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