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Isaksson, S., Wahlund, L. & Lindahl, C. (2019). Tekniker för att mäta kvalitet på nöt- och lammkött efter slakt.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tekniker för att mäta kvalitet på nöt- och lammkött efter slakt
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Techniques and methods to measure beef and lamb meat quality – a review
Abstract [en]

This report reviews various measurement techniques and methods for assessing meat quality in lamb and beef after slaughter. It has mainly been based upon searches in databases of scientific literature, but also on discussions with industry people and colleagues.

The concept of meat quality is multifaceted and not easily defined. At the same time, most people who appreciate a good piece of meat would agree on that tough meat should be avoided. Hence, one property that has attained considerable attention in the literature is tenderness. Another characteristic that is usually emphasized as something positive is marbling, partly due to several studies that have indicated a relation between marbling and taste, juiciness and tenderness, all being properties that are important for a positive eating experience. Other features that attract attention are e.g. fatty acid composition, water retention ability, pH and colour.

The first attempts to find an objective method for tenderness measurement were based on mechanical methods. Essentially a spear-like object that was shot into the meat, while the resulting force was measured. For measurement of other parameters, such as pH, relatively traditional techniques were similarly used, based on more or less analogue technology. However, in recent decades there has been an increasing amount of studies using techniques that have benefited from the exponential development of digital and solid-state technologies. This development has e.g. led to easier ways to generate, measure and analyse electromagnetic, optical and acoustic signals.

A common approach in simpler measurement methods is trying to find an algorithm that is based on analysis of the frequency response of a signal that typically may be of electrical nature, ultrasound or light. Methods utilizing NIR have been particularly promising. One example of NIR equipment is NitFomTM, which is used for quality assessment of fat in pork meat. Methods based on measurement of electrical impedance have also, at least periodically, found establishment on the market.

There are also more advanced approaches, with the ambition to obtain spatial resolution of properties within the object under assessment. For measurements with three-dimensional resolution, primarily computer tomography imaging (CTI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are candidates, but also ultrasound. Hitachi-Aloka, makes ultrasonic equipment that can be used for scanning live animals, and another example of ultrasonic equipment is ECM EXAGO. MRI and CTI, however, are still too expensive, advanced and slow to be realistic alternatives for online measurement in the industry in the near future.

MRI and CTI are developments of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and X-ray. While also NMR seems to be a little too expensive for industrial applications, and primarily a lab tool, X-rays have been used in the meat industry since the 1970s, e.g. for measurement of fat content. One commercial product that early found establishment on the market is Anyl-Ray Oystar.

The development of the digital camera opened up for advanced image processing. There are several studies based on analysis of the kind of information that can be extracted from RGB images, so-called vision technology, but also on analysis of images that contain much more detailed spectral information, so-called hyper- or multispectral image analysis. However, analysis of the amount of information that is collected with the latter kind of technology requires large computation and data management capabilities. In this context, the continuing development towards more accessible computational power is highly valued.

While image processing based on RGB information has been successful in measuring more or less what is also perceived by human eye (in this context such parameters as marbling and colour), hyperspectral image analysis has shown potential to go one step further. In addition to visual properties, the technology has shown promising results in measuring such things as chemical composition (e.g. proportions of fat, protein and water), pH and tenderness. Much resources have been invested in development of functional systems for online classification of meat in the industry. The results have been promising, and companies have been started up for the purpose, but the definitive breakthrough has not yet taken place.

In conclusion, several attempts have been made to find objective measurement methods for assessing and potentially classifying meat quality. Many promising results have been reported in the literature. Yet it is difficult to make any recommendations on one single salvaging technique based upon these results. Possibly, the technology that is currently attracting the most attention and hopes is hyperspectral image analysis, especially if the intention is to find a technology, suitable for forming the basis for a classification system. In such a context, hyperspectral imaging is a technology that meets many positive criteria: it is contact-free, it has spatial resolution, it combines advantages of both vision and NIR. There are also several studies that show promising results, and there is still good hope that the technology will develop further in near-time (both in terms of price and performance), hand in hand with the trend in society towards increased digitalisation (i.e. development of artificial intelligence, better and cheaper sensors, increased access to computational power, connected devices, etc.).

Abstract [sv]

I arbetet att ta fram denna sammanställning av olika mättekniker och metoder för att bedöma kvalitet på lamm- och nötkött efter slakt, har vi främst baserat oss på sökningar i databaser över vetenskaplig litteratur. Utöver detta är den ett resultat av diskussioner med branschfolk och kollegor.

Begreppet köttkvalitet är mångfasetterat och inte så lätt att definiera. Samtidigt känner de flesta som uppskattar en god köttbit till att man gärna vill undvika ett segt kött, så en egenskap som ofta har fokuserats på i litteraturen är mörhet. En annan egenskap som brukar framhävas som positiv är marmorering, bland annat eftersom det finns studier som visar att köttets marmorering har ett samband med både smak, saftighet och mörhet, vilka är viktiga egenskaper för en positiv ätupplevelse. Fler egenskaper som rönt uppmärksamhet är bland annat fettsyresammansättning, vattenhållande förmåga, pH, och färg.

De första försöken att finna en objektiv metod för att mäta mörhet byggde på mekaniska mätmetoder, i stort sett ett spjutliknande föremål som sköts in i köttet, samtidigt som en kraft uppmättes. Mätning av andra parametrar, så som pH, byggde på liknande sätt på mer eller mindre traditionell analog teknik. De senaste decennierna har det dock tagit fart med studier på mätmetoder som gynnats av den exponentiella utvecklingen av digitala tekniker och halvledarteknik. Den utvecklingen har bland annat lett till enklare sätt att generera, mäta och analysera elektromagnetiska, optiska och akustiska signaler.

Vanligt angreppssätt i enklare mätmetoder är att försöka finna en algoritm som bygger på analys av frekvensresponsen vid mätningar av impedans, ultraljud eller ljus. Särskilt lovande bland den typen av mätmetodik har NIR varit. Exempel på NIR-utrustning är NitFomTM som används för kvalitetsbedömning av fett hos gris efter slakt. Även metoder baserade på mätning av elektrisk impedans har åtminstone periodvis funnit etablering på marknaden.

I andra änden finns mer avancerade angreppssätt, med försök att erhålla rumslig upplösning av mätobjektet. Vid mätning i 3D är det främst datortomografi och MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging – magnetisk resonansavbildning) som är aktuella, men även ultraljud. Som exempel på tillverkare av ultraljudsutrustning kan nämnas Hitachi-Aloka, som bland annat säljer utrustning för skanning av levande djur. Ett annat utrustningsexempel är ECM EXAGO. MRI och datortomografi framstår dock ännu som för dyra, avancerade och långsamma för att i närtid vara realistiska alternativ för online-mätning inom industrin.

MRI och datortomografi är egentligen utvecklingar av NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance – kärnmagnetisk resonans) och röntgen. Medan även NMR fortfarande verkar vara lite för kostsam för industriella tillämpningar, och främst ett labb-verktyg, så har röntgen däremot ända sedan 70-talet använts inom slaktindustrin, bland annat för att mäta fettinnehåll – exempel på kommersiell produkt är Anyl-Ray Oystar.

Utvecklingen av digitalkameran öppnade för avancerad bildbehandling. Det finns flera studier baserade på den typ av information som finns i vanliga RGB-bilder, s.k. vision-teknik, men även på information i form av avbildningar med mycket mer detaljerat spektralt innehåll, s.k. multi- eller hyperspektral bildanalys. Att analysera all information som samlas in med den senare typen av teknik kräver dock stora beräknings- och datahanteringsresurser, så där är utvecklingen mot alltmer lättillgänglig dator- och beräkningskraft välkommen.

Medan bildbehandling baserad på RGB-information har haft framgång att mäta sådant som uppfattas av mänskliga ögat, så som marmorering och färg, så har hyperspektral bildanalys visat på potential att nå ett steg längre. Utöver visuella egenskaper har tekniken givit lovande resultat att mäta sådant som kemisk sammansättning (andel fett, protein, vatten etc.), pH och mörhet. Mycket resurser har satsats på att ta fram fungerande system för klassificering av kött inom industrin, resultat har varit lovande, och företag startats för ändamålet, men ännu har inte det definitiva genombrottet skett.

Som framgår ovan så har det gjorts åtskilliga försök att finna objektiva mätmetoder för att bedöma, och potentiellt klassificera, köttkvalitet. Många lovande resultat har rapporterats i litteraturen, ändå är det svårt att enbart utgående från den landa i klara rekommendationer om en enda saliggörande teknik. Kanske är den teknik som just nu tilldrar sig mest uppmärksamhet och förhoppningar hyperspektral bildanalys, och särskilt om man tänker sig att tekniken ska utgöra grund för ett klassificeringssystem. Det är en teknik som uppfyller många positiva kriterier: den är beröringsfri, den har rumslig upplösning, den kombinerar fördelar hos både vision och NIR, det finns flera studier som visar på lovande resultat, och det finns fortfarande gott hopp om att tekniken kommer utvecklas i närtid både pris- och prestandamässigt hand i hand med digitaliseringstrenden (d.v.s. utvecklingen av artificiell intelligens, bättre och billigare sensorer, ökad tillgång till datorkraft etc.) i samhället.  

Publisher
p. 48
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:52
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38808 (URN)978-91-88907-80-6 (ISBN)
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-SkagerrakRegion Västra Götaland
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
Le-Bail, A., Curet, S., Havet, M., Jha, P., Jury, V., Rouaud, O., . . . Bernard, J. P. (2018). Freezewave; A new European project on freezing under microwaves irradiation. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018 (pp. 182-189).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freezewave; A new European project on freezing under microwaves irradiation
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2018 (English)In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 182-189Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

FREEZEWAVE project is an ERANET SUSFOOD project (May 2015 - Dec. 2018). It concerns the freezing of foods using a highly innovative technique combining freezing at slow rate with part time emission of microwaves (2450 MHz); this innovative concept has been investigated recently by ONIRIS and results showed that a 62% decrease of the average ice crystal size was acquired when samples were frozen under microwave irradiation compared to the control (Xanthakis et al., 2014, IFSET - study on pork meat). To improve the quality of frozen foods, fast freezing is usually recommended, resulting in a reduction of the ice crystals. However, a fast freezing increases the energy demand: low ambient temperature & high air velocity to enhance the rate of heat transfer are needed to achieve a fast freezing. FREEZEWAVE project aims at expanding & optimizing the concept to several foods (sauce, meat, vegetable & ready to eat meals) and also at designing industrial equipment. The novel concept concerns the freezing equipment sector thanks to a French SME partner (SAIREM) and the global frozen food sector. FREEZEWAVE will provide scientific knowledge and new scientific insights in food freezing. Project's outcomes may also be of interest for non-food applications such as biotechnology.

Keywords
Food quality, Freezing, Ice crystal size, Image analysis, Air, Chains, Grain size and shape, Heat transfer, Heating equipment, Ice, Ice control, IIR filters, Irradiation, Meats, Microwave irradiation, Quality control, Sustainable development, Food applications, Industrial equipment, Innovative techniques, Low ambient temperatures, Rate of heat transfer, Scientific knowledge, Thermal processing (foods)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34727 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2018.0025 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046246682 (Scopus ID)9782362150241 (ISBN)
Conference
5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018
Note

 Funding details: ANR-14-SUSF-0001; Funding details: 2015-08842;

Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B., Hamberg, L. & Isaksson, S. (2017). Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures. The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures
2017 (English)In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of particulate pumpable foods, designed and implemented at RISE Agrifood and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a particulate, viscous model food at high-temperature conditions at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the centre of the tube, and two cavities fed by TM120 modes that heat primarily in the tube periphery. In this paper, combined TM020 and TM120 tubular microwave heating is evaluated as an alternative to high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing for a high-concentrated particulate model product. Rapidness in heating of the product was evaluated after tubular microwave heating for different time-temperature conditions, corresponding to the required microbiological inactivation for a model product intended for storage at ambient conditions. Moreover, the effects on product quality of the microwave heated model soup were investigated in terms of texture, piece integrity and colour. Microstructural analysis was used to gain an understanding of the effects of heating at a microscopic scale. It was found that the microwave-assisted HTST system results in large process flexibility. Additionally, it offers advantages in product quality in terms of piece integrity and texture.

Keywords
continuous process, heat rapidness, high-concentration large particulates, high-temperature short-time (HTST), Microwave in-flow heating, microwave-assisted HTST system, particulate foods, preservation, pumpable foods, tubular heating, Food storage, Heating, Microwave heating, Microwave tubes, Microwaves, Quality control, Wood preservation, High temperature, Microwave assisted, Thermal processing (foods)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32817 (URN)10.1080/08327823.2017.1388942 (DOI)2-s2.0-85033664975 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, S., Sadot, M., Da Silva, A., Curet, S., Rouaud, O., Le-Bail, A., . . . Xanthakis, E. (2017). Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of foods during freezing and thawing. In: 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 18 September 2017 through 21 September 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of foods during freezing and thawing
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2017 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dielectric properties of a variety of foodstuffs were measured during freezing and thawing conditions, and are presented here as functions of temperature. Measurements were done with the Agilent 85070 high temperature dielectric probe. The differences in characteristics of the graphs resulting from cooling and thawing are discussed. A specific model accommodating the amount of frozen water in the food sample as a function of temperature is used and compared to experimental results. The mass fraction of each component is coupled to the dielectric properties of each fraction to evaluate the effective dielectric properties based on a two phases Maxwell-Wagner model considering ice as a dispersed fraction and food as a continuous fraction. The unknown dielectric properties of dry matter and an adjusting coefficient are used to optimize the fitting between experimental data and calculated data.

Keywords
Dielectric properties, Food, Freezing, Microwave, Thawing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38921 (URN)2-s2.0-85065890500 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 18 September 2017 through 21 September 2017
Note

 Funding details: Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR; Funding details: Foundation for Rural Education and Development, FRED, 2014-1925; Funding details: Foundation for Rural Education and Development, FRED, ANR-14-SUSF-0001; Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR; Funding text 1: This work received financial support from the Swedish Research Council FORMAS and the French National Research Agency (ANR) under the FREEZEWAVE project (SUSFOOD- ERANET, SE: 2014-1925, FR: ANR-14-SUSF-0001).

Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Raaholt, B., Isaksson, S., Hamberg, L., Fhager, A. & Hamnerius, Y. (2016). Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity. The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, 50(1), 43-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity
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2016 (English)In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 43-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of foods, designed and implemented at SP Food and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a homogeneous model food for high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions, at constant total input microwave power, at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the tube centre, and two TM120 mode cavities that heat primarily in the tube periphery. The temperature uniformity of the homogeneous model food after microwave heating is here evaluated in terms of spatial distribution, for different set-ups of input microwave power in each cavity and for different order of the placement of the cavities, while maintaining the total input microwave power. The microwave heating uniformity is evaluated, based on measured and calculated radial temperature profiles. Combined TM020 and TM120 heating was found to result in more uniform heating by means of spatial temperature uniformity over the tube cross section. Furthermore, appropriately selected microwave power distribution between the centre and periphery heating cavities results in a stable heating profile in the studied food, that differs only about 10 °C or less between highest and lowest average values directly after microwave heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
Microwave in-flow heating, continuous process, microwave tubular heating, pumpable food, microwave pasteurization, microwave-assisted HTST system, homogeneous foods
National Category
Other Physics Topics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Food Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31310 (URN)10.1080/08327823.2016.1157318 (DOI)2-s2.0-84977501056 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, L., Ahrné, L., Isaksson, S. & Lövenklev, M. (2015). A comparative study of infrared and microwave heating for microbial decontamination of paprika powder (ed.). Frontiers in Microbiology, 6, Article ID 1071.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of infrared and microwave heating for microbial decontamination of paprika powder
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, article id 1071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is currently a need in developing new decontamination technologies for spices due to limitations of existing technologies, mainly regarding their effects on spices’ sensory quality. In the search of new decontamination solutions, it is of interest to compare different technologies, to provide the industry with knowledge for taking decisions concerning appropriate decontamination technologies for spices. The present study compares infrared (IR) and microwave decontamination of naturally contaminated paprika powder after adjustment of water activity to 0.88. IR respectively microwave heating was applied to quickly heat up paprika powder to 98°C, after which the paprika sample was transferred to a conventional oven set at 98°C to keep the temperature constant during a holding time up to 20 min. In the present experimental set-up microwave treatment at 98°C for 20 min resulted in a reduction of 4.8 log units of the total number of mesophilic bacteria, while the IR treatment showed a 1 log unit lower reduction for the corresponding temperature and treatment time. Microwave and IR heating created different temperature profiles and moisture distribution within the paprika sample during the heating up part of the process, which is likely to have influenced the decontamination efficiency. The results of this study are used to discuss the difficulties in comparing two thermal technologies on equal conditions due to differences in their heating mechanisms

Keywords
infrared heating, microwave heating, microbial decontamination, paprika powder, quality
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6905 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2015.01071 (DOI)26483783 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946739526 (Scopus ID)30718 (Local ID)30718 (Archive number)30718 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2020-02-07Bibliographically approved
Erdogdu, S. B., Eliasson, L., Erdogdu, F., Isaksson, S. & Ahrné, L. (2015). Experimental determination of penetration depths of various spice commodities (black pepper seeds, paprika powder and oregano leaves) under infrared radiation (ed.). Journal of Food Engineering, 161, 75-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental determination of penetration depths of various spice commodities (black pepper seeds, paprika powder and oregano leaves) under infrared radiation
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 161, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During infrared processing, transmitted energy is attenuated exponentially with penetration distance, and its intensity is gradually lost while passing through absorbing or scattering media. Penetration depth is a complex function of chemical composition of a food product, its physico-chemical state and physical properties and wavelength spectrum of energy source. Knowing penetration depth leads to better designing commercial sterilization processes for food products like spices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine penetration depth of various spices (paprika powder, black pepper and oregano) as a function of water activity under infrared processing conditions. For this purpose, spice samples were prepared at various water activity (aw) levels, and heat flux measurements were carried out to determine the penetration depth. Penetration depth was determined to increase with increasing aw for black pepper seeds and paprika powder while there was no significant change for oregano leaves as a function of aw. Knowing penetration depth is important to design an effective infra-red processing system and an important issue for surface pasteurization processes since infrared radiation effects on microbial inactivation decrease with sample thickness

Keywords
Penetration thickness, Spice pasteurization, Infrared radiation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6857 (URN)10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.03.036 (DOI)2-s2.0-84927937635 (Scopus ID)28133 (Local ID)28133 (Archive number)28133 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Wäppling Raaholt, B., Holtz, E. & Isaksson, S. (2014). Application of Microwave Technology in Food Preservation and Processing. In: Suvendu Bhattacharya (Ed.), Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies: (pp. 437-469). Chicago: John Wiley & Sons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Microwave Technology in Food Preservation and Processing
2014 (English)In: Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies / [ed] Suvendu Bhattacharya, Chicago: John Wiley & Sons , 2014, p. 437-469Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chicago: John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
microwave, applications, baking, drying, pasteurisation, sterilisation, tempering, defrosting, puffing, volume expansion, RF, HF, high-frequency, radio-frequency, food
National Category
Engineering and Technology Food Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43269 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2020-01-16 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, L., Libander, P., Lövenklev, M., Isaksson, S. & Ahrné, L. (2014). Infrared Decontamination of Oregano: Effects on Bacillus cereus Spores, Water Activity, Color, and Volatile Compounds (ed.). Journal of Food Science, 79(12), E2447-E2455
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infrared Decontamination of Oregano: Effects on Bacillus cereus Spores, Water Activity, Color, and Volatile Compounds
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 79, no 12, p. E2447-E2455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Infrared (IR) heating, a novel technology for decontaminating oregano, was evaluated by investigating the reduction of inoculated Bacillus cereus spores and the effect on water activity (aw), color, and headspace volatile compounds after exposure to IR treatment. Conditioned oregano (aw 0.88) was IR-treated in a closed heating unit at 90 and 100 °C for holding times of 2 and 10 min, respectively. The most successful reduction in B. cereus spore numbers (5.6 log units) was achieved after a holding time of 10 min at 90 °C, while treatment at 100 °C for the same time resulted in a lower reduction efficiency (4.7 log units). The lower reduction at 100 °C was probably due to a reduced aw (aw 0.76) during IR treatment or possibly to the alteration or loss of volatile compounds possessing antimicrobial properties. The green color of oregano was only slightly affected, while the composition of volatile compounds was clearly altered by IR heating. However, two of the key aroma compounds, carvacrol and thymol, were only slightly affected, compared to the effect on the other studied compounds, indicating that the typical oregano aroma can likely be preserved. In conclusion, IR heating shows potential for the successful decontamination of oregano without severe alteration of its color or the key aroma compounds, carvacrol and thymol. Practical Application: This study investigated the potential of infrared heating as a technology for decontaminating oregano. The study outcome contributes to the development of new decontamination solutions to improve the sensory and microbial quality of herbs and spices.

Keywords
Food Engineering, Livsmedelsteknik
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-8933 (URN)10.1111/1750-3841.12694 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, S. (2002). Tubular microwave heating (ed.). Paper presented at . SIK Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik, Göteborg, Sverige
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tubular microwave heating
2002 (English)Report (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SIK Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik, Göteborg, Sverige, 2002
Series
SIK Rapport, ISSN 0436-2071 ; 701
Keywords
Food Engineering, Livsmedelsteknik
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-1588 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2149-4586

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